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Goran Schmidt & Marija Omazić

,
University of Osijek
Time metaphors in English and Croatian. A corpus-based
case study
1. Introduction
Since the publication of the theory of conceptual metaphor (Lakoff &
Johnson 1980), many researchers have devoted themselves to exploring various
aspects of metaphor, such as poetic metaphor (Lakof & Johnson 1989), bodily
basis of metaphor (Kövecses 2000), cultural and cross-linguistic aspects of
metaphor (Kövecses 2004), or translational aspects of metaphor (Schäffner
2004). The majority of these studies rely on a procedure where the researcher
carefully reads through the corpus, extracting all the metaphors he or she comes
across, i.e. the procedure of manual searching. However, corpus 1-based
methods have over past fifteen years established themselves as a major
empirical paradigm in linguistics. The research on metaphor is somewhat
lagging behind with respect to this development, but recently, a number of
scholars have made attempts to remedy the situation (see Stefanowitch 2006a).
One of the great resource books on the corpus-based methods in metaphor (and
metonymy) research is the recently published collection of essays entitled
Corpus-Based Approaches to Metaphor and Metonymy, edited by Anatol
Stefanowitsch and Stefan Th. Gries (Stefanowitsch & Gries 2006).
Corpus-based approaches to metaphor have many comparative advantages
over manual searching, and a few problems. One of the major problem is that
of identifying and extracting the relevant data from the corpus. This is not an
easy task because conceptual mappings are not linked to particular word forms.
Stefanowitch (2006a) suggests several strategies for searching the corpus, such
as searching for SD (source domain) vocabulary, searching for TD (target
domain) vocabulary, searching for SD + TD vocabulary, searching for 'markers
of metaphor' („metaphorically speaking“, „so to speak“ etc.), as well as
searching of annotated corpora. In any case, the results of a corpus-based
approach are exhaustive and systematic, in contrast to the introspective and
opportunistic nature of manual searching. Using corpus-based methods makes
it possible to investigate the linguistic nature of metaphor. The richness of data
can lead to reanalysis (e.g. ARGUMENT IS WAR in Stefanowitsch (2006a) is
1

Corpus is here meant in the sense of a large electronic database, searchable by a
computer.

called metaphorical pattern analysis (MPA) allows us to systematically characterize the TD TIME in English and Croatian. 2. metaphorical patterns establish specific paradigmatic relations betwen TD lexical items and SD items that would be expected in their place in a non-metaphorical use (He shot down all of my arguments/planes/missiles. we set out to do a contrastive case study of TIME metaphors in English and Croatian. Second. LUST. which is impossible to do based only on introspection. Analysis With the use of electronic corpora we will extract the metaphorical expressions.) shows that this potential drawback is outweighed by the advantages this method offers: First. there is the use of corpus data with the view to uncover cross-linguistic and diachronic differences across speech communities. With these comparative advantages of the corpus-based methods in mind. as well as make generalizations concerning the importance of the conceptual metaphors underlying these patterns. we get not only the general mappings (DISCUSSION IS WAR). and the frequencies that we get as results of studies make it possible to assess the systematicity of conceptual mappings. since many metaphorical expressions do not contain TD lexical items. which we will analyze for metaphorical patterns. This procedure. MPA will capture only a subset of metaphorical expressions.reanalysed as ANTAGONIST COMMUNICATION IS PHYSICAL CONFLICT) or to distinguishing between different degrees of metaphoricity. The nature of corpus data is inherently quantitative. but also more specific ones ( ARGUMENTS ARE MISSILES). Thus. the details of which can be found in the following chapters. but Stefanowitch (ibid. since it is often difficult to determine which precise TD we are dealing with (e. whose frequency of occurence will be calculated. . MPA allows us to quantify the importance of any given metaphorical pattern for particular lexical items. A metaphorical pattern is a metaphorical expression containing both SD and TD lexemes. Metaphorical patterns are also more explicit than metaphorical expressions not containing the TD lexemes. ADORATION?). Obviously. such as this (Stefanowitsch 2006b). specific relation: argument ≈ plane/missile). Is the target domain love or is it DESIRE.g. and to compare the two systems. Among other advantages over manual searching. and as such it is a perfect basis for TD oriented studies. The metaphorical patterns will then be grouped into general mappings. He is slowly gaining ground with her.

as well as do a cross-linguistic comparison of TD TIME in the two languages. wealth of ideas is more common than wealth of money).) to the results arrived at by Kövecses. metaphorical pattern analysis provides us with a standard of comparison for cross-linguistic research.). specific relations: anger ≈ liquid. We followed the four-step methodology proposed by Stefanowitsch (2006b): 1) Choose a lexical item – TD and extract a sample of its occurences in the corpus. ???sunlight elucidated the room). It will allow us to systematically characterize the target domain TIME in the two languages. In the next two subchapters we will explicitate the mechanics of the analysis and the results for each of the languages individually. there may be more than two domains involved in a metaphorical pattern (Her eyes were filled with anger. Finally.) shows that MPA is far more efficient than the introspective method by comparing the results of his case studies on the domain of BASIC EMOTIONS (anger. TD2 eyes. eye ≈ container). Here we took just the lexem 'time' which we consider as representative of the whole domain. metaphorical patterns may have different degrees of conventionality – there are cases. 2. TD1 anger.1 Time metaphors in English For an English corpus we used the BNC (British National Corpus). The relative frequency of source and target domain items in a coherent set of metaphorical patterns may be used to assess the degree to which the metaphorical mapping underlying them can be regarded as productive. The investigation of metaphorical patterns that simultaneously instantiate two mappings could uncover the principles determining their combinability. i. joy etc.e. which is otherwise difficult to establish.g. as well as to compare the TIME metaphor systems in the two languages. and in very conventionalized cases. as proposed by Stefanowitsch (ibid. it may be almost impossible to insert a source domain item into the pattern (elucidate your remarks vs. Stefanowitsch (ibid. where a TD item is much more likely to occur than SD items (e. Fourth. we used corpora taken to be representative of English and Croatian languages on the whole. The BNC search extracted 154480 solutions for the . The present analysis seeks to uncover general conceptual mappings for the TD TIME in English and Croatian. Instead of using translation equivalents as tertium comparationis.Third. who used the introspective method for the same purpose. as a candidate for a truly conceptual metaphor.

g..) time (of) (the round brackets indicate that there is an optional element... in no time.. X place themselves in time (here X stands for a subject. in ten years time). In the first column there are the identified metaphorical patterns. Metaphorical patterns manifesting TIME metaphors identified via metaphorical pattern analysis TIME IS N A BOUNDED SPACE/CONTAINER in time. in the time of. in all that time. in (. . Young children have a very real need to place themselves in time) etc. about (. N signifies the raw frequency of a particular conceptual mapping..g. in [. over [. time be extended.) time. 3) Quantify the frequency of occurrence of metaphorical mappings. For example.4 % of the sample). a (. This part is the tedious one because of all hits containing the lexical item 'time' you have to single out just the metaphorical uses and then group them according to the underlying conceptual metaphor.] short space of time. in [. but we had to limit the number of hits because it would take too much time to go through more solutions. e. e. though... from that 2 This is of course a very small sample. In this manual post-editing you have to rely on your judgment when it comes to the question of which metaphorical pattern represents which conceptual mapping.. by [the/this/.] time.) long time.) time (of)... and there is no other way but to do it manually. e. there were 312 metaphorical uses (= 62. in (. in [. by carefully reading all the solutions. X place themselves in time. By selecting a larger sample we would get more mappings.2 2) Identify all metaphorical patterns that the search word is part of and group them into general mappings.). Then we took 500 random hits (= 0.] time (the square brackets indicate that there are one or more words in between..323 % of all solutions) as a sample. .lexeme 'time'. full time 27 SPACE OF A CERTAIN LENGTH 14 length of time.. We feel..] time..g.] time A POINT IN SPACE 127 at [a /one/the/that/this.] time.. under the general conceptual mapping TIME IS A BOUNDED SPACE/CONTAINER you can find metaphorical patterns such as in time... grouped under general conceptual mappings.. in our sample there are 27 metaphorical patterns manifesting the general conceptual mapping TIME IS A BOUNDED SPACE/CONTAINER. a short time.. within [. Table 1a.. that the results are indicative. etc. in less time.] time.. This result clearly shows that the word 'time' is more often used metaphorically than literally. On the right side. The results of the analysis are shown in Table 1a below. but the underlying conceptual metaphors would probably be the same. For example.. In the sample.

X leave [.] time [.. have (got) (the) time. passage of time.. time run out.. time saver..... X's spare time.] time MONEY 11 spend [.) time.. Y take (up) (X) [.] SOMETHING HAVING CONTROL OVER US 1 time permit. less time.... improve with time A CIRCLE 1 circles of time OUR OPPONENT IN A RACE (<..time on. X want [. the immensity of [.. [.. X's gifts of time .. time pass. X pass [. a lot of the time. there be [. time lags 3 FUTURE IS FORWARD 1 X look forward to the next time TIME IS VERTICAL 1 .] time..]. time constraints.. allow time. X find time.. time warp SOMETHING THAT CAN BE POSSESSED 22 his/our/their/X's time. plenty of time.. X devote (.) time.. time pressure. time scale AN OBJECT 3 big time. SOMETHING WE CAN CONTROL 1 time controller A STRUCTURED THING 1 X structure X's time A MOVING/ FLYING OBJECT time fly 1 SOMETHING MOVING TOWARDS US (coming to us. X run out of time.. X get the time. X need (.... the time taken. time push.. all (the/this) time. half (the) time SOMETHING THAT CAN BE QUANTIFIED 30 amount of time.] time A LIMITED RESOURCE 39 waste (. need for [. from time to time. some time. (X) give (Y) (...] time....] time [..) time (.) time. X take time. passing us) time come.] time. X allot time for.] time 9 SOMETHING MOVING ALONG A ROUTE 1 course of time SOMETHING MOVING AND BRINGING CHANGES 2 changes with time.. be time enough..] time profitably A THING FOR WHICH THERE IS A NEED 11 the requisite time..) to.] to the time [... the time allocated.] be a valuable commodity..] time.] time. X come to an end of time A SUBSTANCE 1 the time contained in an event A WHOLE THAT CAN BE DIVIDED INTO PARTS 3 fraction of time.LIFE IS A RACE) race against time. from the time [.... most of the time. spend [. use X's [.

e. TIME IS SPACE is by far the most frequent abstract level mapping in the sample (53. which covers . Table 1b. and TIME IS SOMETHING MOVING. This is shown in Table 1b. TIME IS A SUBSTANCE. namely TIME IS SPACE. The main metaphorical mappings with the target domain TIME TIME IS SPACE TIME IS A POINT IN SPACE 40.74% You will notice that the total percentage is less than 100.84% TIME IS A SUBSTANCE TIME IS A WHOLE THAT CAN BE DIVIDED INTO PARTS TIME IS SOMETHING THAT CAN BE QUANTIFIED TIME IS AN OBJECT TIME IS SOMETHING THAT CAN BE POSSESSED TIME IS MONEY TIME IS A LIMITED RESOURCE TIME IS A THING FOR WHICH THERE IS A NEED 39. TIME IS SOMETHING HAVING CONTROL OVER US.g.84% of all identified metaphorical expressions).42% TIME IS SOMETHING MOVING TIME IS A MOVING/ FLYING OBJECT TIME IS SOMETHING MOVING TOWARDS US TIME IS SOMETHING MOVING ALONG A ROUTE TIME IS SOMETHING MOVING AND BRINGING CHANGES 4. and the reason is that some of the mappings found in the sample could not be grouped under any of these three abstract-level mappings. we were able to abstract a little more and to group all these mappings into three abstract level mappings.7% ! TIME IS SPACE OF A CERTAIN LENGTH TIME IS A BOUNDED SPACE/CONTAINER 53.48% TOTAL 97. particularly the specific mapping TIME IS A POINT IN SPACE.high time 2 A FRUIT time seem/be ripe TOTAL 312 After sorting the metaphorical patterns under general conceptual mappings and calculating their frequency of occurence.

among others)3. It merely indicates that the numbers may not be representative. we must not take this as evidence that the method we are using is wrong. e. we also looked for the inflected forms 3 Although Stefanowitch (2006b) gives fairly strong evidence that metaphorical patterns (patterns containing both TD and SD vocabulary) are indeed representative of the whole TD. This in turn allows us to think of time as a possession. This only works in one direction. We chose the lexical item 'vrijeme' as the representative of the domain.e. called space-time in terms of Einstein's relativity theory. This is very important because people feel that they are given a certain.g. which comes as a big surprise. 39.42%. which is understandable since space is one of the most basic concepts in human life. since that particular abstract level mapping is very-well elaborated on in literature (Lakof & Johnson 1980. we can move through space in various directions. . let us present the results of the paralel analysis for Croatian. limited. 4) Compare the results for the two languages. 2. so there is really no need to conceptualize it via another concrete concept.48%. amount of time that's all theirs to spend as they wish. i. something we can own. They are thousands of examples where we talk of time as something moving without actually mentioning the word 'time': Christmas is approaching.. we need to think of it as if it were a substance. We followed the same four-step methodology as we did for English. who knows what the future will bring etc. we can see it.40.7% of all metaphorical expressions with TD TIME. but we still get indicative dana on all the general mappings that characterize the TD under investigation. it may be possible that people intuitively use space to conceptualize time. that's all behind us now. In order to measure time. If space and time are just two sides of the same coin. Nevertheless.2 Time metaphors in Crotian Here we used the HNK (Hrvatski nacionalni korpus) to extract the data. and we are able to experience it direclty. This result does not come as a surprise because in the world of science it is well known that time and space are interrelated concepts. Kövecses 2004. we look forward to the future. TIME IS A SUBSTANCE takes the second place with a bit smaller percentage. Before we go on to this last step as proposed by Stefanowitsch (2006b). Since Croatian nouns are inflected. so much that they are considered to be one entity. need or lack. people do not use time to conceptualize space. something solid. TIME IS SOMETHING MOVING covers only 4. we can measure it easily etc. in more complex domains such as TIME that may not be the case. 1.

1 % of the sample. 154480 for English). vrijeme (. skraćeno radno vrijeme. There were 99228 solutions. dugo/duže/dulje/najduže vrijeme. genitive.. the Croatian sample even after discarding the 'noise' turned out to be more representative than the English sample (0.) proći... iz (. which was discarded because we decided to look only for singular in English and Croatian) the number of hits was reduced to 475 hits (=> 0. vrijeme odmicati NEŠTO ŠTO SE KREĆE ODREĐENOM BRZINOM (SOMETHING MOVING AT A CERTAIN SPEED) usporeno vrijeme N 109 25 5 26 3 15 1 .] vremena.. We took 500 random hits (= 0.4 %) . or vocative plural.. izvan [....5 % of all solutions) as a sample.47% vs. 2.] vremena. accusative. and the form 'vremena' can also be nominative. na (ne)određeno/neko vrijeme. unutar [.'vremena' (genitive). In any case.) vrijeme. Since for Croatian the total number of solutions was considerably smaller (99228 vs. This is probably a consequence of the fact that the Croatian sample is more representative than the English sample.32% of all solutions. Metaphorical patterns manifesting VRIJEME (TIME) metaphors identified via metaphorical pattern analysis VRIJEME JE/TIME IS OMEĐEN PROSTOR/SPREMNIK (A BOUNDED SPACE/CONTAINER) puno radno vrijeme. produljiti/produžiti vrijeme PROSTOR KROZ KOJI SE KREĆEMO (SPACE WE ARE MOVING THROUGH) kroz (to) vrijeme PLOHA (A SURFACE) na vrijeme. 0. With 5% ‘noise’ (one of the meanings of 'vrijeme' is 'weather'. „bulevar vremena“ TOČKA U PROSTORU (POINT IN SPACE) od (toga) vremena NEŠTO ŠTO SE KREĆE PREMA NAMA I PROLAZI PORED NAS I ODMIČE OD NAS (SOMETHING MOVING TOWARDS US AND COMING TO US AND PASSING US) vrijeme doći/dolaziti.) vremena PROSTOR ODREĐENE DULJINE (SPACE OF A CERTAIN LENGTH) kratko /kraće/najkraće vrijeme. 3.. 100 million words each). The results of a metaphorical pattern analysis are shown in Table 2a below: Table 2a. respectively).47 % of all solutions). The size of the sample is the same as the English sample because the BNC and HNK are of the same size (approx. 'vremenu' (dative) and 'vremenom' (instrumental).. it reinforces our claim that time/vrijeme is more often used metaphorically than literally. In the Croatian sample there were 333 metaphorical uses = 70. which is a slightly more than in the English sample (312 hits or 62. u (.

.... sve/svo (ovo) vrijeme. Y stajati vremena. X uzeti puno vremena. vrijeme potrošeno za ŽIVO BIĆE (A LIVING BEING) X ubiti vrijeme. određeno vrijeme.. X kupiti vrijeme. X potrošiti (.. u posljednje/zadnje vrijeme KRUG (A CIRCLE) vrijeme biti zaokruženo SUPSTANCA (A SUBSTANCE) „prljavo“ vrijeme CJELINA KOJA SE MOŽE DIJELITI (A WHOLE THAT CAN BE DIVIDED INTO PARTS) cijelo (to) vrijeme. vrijeme dopušteno.) vremena. X zahtijeva vrijeme NOVAC (MONEY) X uložiti (.. PREDMET (AN OBJECT) vrijeme se stavlja pod povećalo NEŠTO ŠTO SE MOŽE POSJEDOVATI (SOMETHING THAT CAN BE POSSESSED) njegovo/naše/svoje/X-ovo vrijeme. istek (. X dati (neko) vrijeme Y-u... X gubiti vrijeme. (. duh (X-ovog) vremena NEŠTO ŠTO RADI ZA NAS (SOMETHING WORKING FOR US) vrijeme radi za X (=osoba) DIKTATOR (A DICTATOR) diktat vremena NEŠTO ŠTO IMA ODGOVORE (SOMETHING THAT HAS THE ANSWERS) vrijeme pokazati TOTAL 5 7 23 1 1 9 31 1 16 22 12 4 3 1 1 4 333 .... čitavo vrijeme. X iskoristiti (ovo) vrijeme. preostalo vrijeme.. manje vremena.) vremena. izgubljeno vrijeme.) vremena. X imati (dovoljno/puno/. nedostatak vremena. N posto vremena. vrijeme potrebno za.. nešto vremena.NEŠTO ŠTO SE KREĆE I SA SOBOM NOSI PROMJENE (SOMETHING MOVING AND BRINGING CHANGES ) 8 s vremenom (X) postati/se dogoditi/biti bolje/ izabrati. protok vremena NEŠTO ŠTO MI VODIMO KROZ PROSTOR (SOMETHING WE ARE LEADING THROUGH SPACE) X provesti/provoditi vrijeme NEŠTO ŠTO SE KREĆE USMJERENO (OD PROŠLOSTI PREMA BUDUĆNOSTI)/SOMETHING MOVING IN A CERTAIN DIRECTION (PAST TO FUTURE) u prvo vrijeme.) vremena.) vremena. jedno vrijeme. trebati (. kupnja vremena. vrijeme donositi PROMJENA TEKUĆINA (A LIQUID) vrijeme proteći. veći dio vremena NEŠTO ŠTO SE MOŽE KVANTIFICIRATI (SOMETHING THAT CAN BE QUANTIFIED) neko vrijeme. uštediti vrijeme. preraspodijeliti vrijeme NEŠTO ZA ČIM POSTOJI POTREBA (A THING FOR WHICH THERE IS A NEED) X-u biti potrebno vrijeme.) vrijeme biti nužno.) vremena (OGRANIČEN) RESURS/ A (LIMITED) RESOURCE imati (.

The only metaphorical mapping that seems to be specific for Croatian is TIME IS SOMETHING WE ARE LEADING THROUGH SPACE (provoditi vrijeme. there are also some mappings in the English sample that do not come up in the Croatian sample. which is shown in Table 2b below: Table 2b.73% 50.82% VRIJEME JE NEŠTO ŠTO SE KREĆE/TIME IS SOMETHING MOVING SOMETHING MOVING TOWARDS US AND COMING TO US AND PASSING US SOMETHING MOVING AT A CERTAIN SPEED 4 1 Anić. Zagreb: Novi liber 18. FUTURE IS FORWARD. 'provoditi' = to show the way. It could be rewarding to explore the etymology of that particular expression. TIME IS A LIQUID . On the other hand. The mappings that were not found in the English sample are TIME IS A SURFACE. The main metaphorical mappings with the target domain VRIJEME VRIJEME JE PROSTOR/TIME IS SPACE TIME IS A POINT IN SPACE TIME IS SPACE OF A CERTAIN LENGTH TIME IS SPACE WE ARE MOVING THROUGH TIME IS A SURFACE TIME IS A BOUNDED SPACE/CONTAINER ! 32. lead someone through something or past something 4). which in this case seems to be specific for English.As can be seen from Table 2a. As another proof that these additional mappings that we find in the Croatian sample are not much different from the mappings in the English sample.45% VRIJEME JE SUPSTANCA/TIME IS A SUBSTANCE TIME IS A WHOLE THAT CAN BE DIVIDED INTO PARTS TIME IS SOMETHING THAT CAN BE QUANTIFIED TIME IS AN OBJECT TIME IS SOMETHING THAT CAN BE POSSESSED TIME IS A (LIMITED) RESOURCE TIME IS A THING FOR WHICH THERE IS A NEED TIME IS MONEY 28. All of these are also well-entrenched in Croatian. Rječnik hrvatskoga jezika. We know from experience that these concepts are also common in English. such as TIME IS OUR OPPONENT IN A RACE (LIFE IS A RACE). we were able to group them into the same three abstract level mappings as we did for English.1% . Vladimir (2007). TIME IS VERTICAL. except for TIME IS VERTICAL. there is a larger number of identified mappings in Croatian. which we take to be the consequence of a slightly more representative sample. etc. TIME IS SOMETHING MOVING AT A CERTAIN SPEED. TIME IS SPACE WE ARE MOVING THROUGH. TIME IS A FRUIT .

g. but their order is also the same. although it is slightly less represented in the Croatian sample.  There is a larger number of identified mappings in Croatian (probably due to a slightly more representative sample). TIME IS SPACE is the most frequent in both languages. But with the world becoming a global village and the consumerist philosophy becoming the predominant one we should expect this to be reflected in language. The only way to account for this difference is to say that this is due to a more representative sample in Croatian. while in Croatian the most common subtype is TIME IS A BOUNDED SPACE/ CONTAINER (e. Since most of the patterns under this heading instantiate the TIME IS A LIMITED RESOURCE metaphor. because it is hard to imagine that Croatians should have a more dynamic understanding of time than Angloamericans. One striking difference is that in English the most metaphorical patterns of that type instantiate the more specific type TIME IS A POINT IN SPACE (e. 4. The finding that it is less represented in the Croatian sample may indicate a cultural difference. possession. but they can be grouped under the same three abstract-level mappings as in English: 1) TIME IS SPACE 2) TIME IS A SUBSTANCE 3) TIME IS SOMETHING MOVING . since samples were picked at random.SOMETHING MOVING AND BRINGING CHANGES A LIQUID SOMETHING WE ARE LEADING THROUGH SPACE SOMETHING MOVING IN A CERTAIN DIRECTION (PAST TO FUTURE) TOTAL 97. although it is considerably less represented in the Croatian sample. at the time). Concluding remarks  The time metaphor systems in English and Croatian are very similar. we may hypothesize that this difference is due to the fact that Angloamerican cultures set more store by material values than a culture like ours. TIME IS SOMETHING MOVING takes the third place. it is a result of entrenchment. and it shows the asymmetry of the two linguistic systems. If this is true than it's not surprising that they think of time in terms of resource. or it is a pure coincidence. more than we do.g. u vrijeme). This difference is probably linguistic by nature. so that the difference found here may vanish eventually.28% Not only are these mappings the same as in Croatian. valuable commodity etc. On the second place it is again TIME IS A SUBSTANCE metaphor. and is more frequent in the Croatian sample. too.

In Corpus-Based Approaches to Metaphor and Metonymy. while in Croatian the most common subtype is TIME IS A BOUNDED SPACE/ CONTAINER (e. 2004. at the time).g. Gries -. the time-as-substance metaphor is slightly more represented than in Croatian ( 39. HNK Hrvatski nacionalni korpus.hr/ References Kövecses. More than Cool Reason.ffzg. Journal of Pragmatics 36. Corpus-based approaches to metaphor and metonymy. and Stefan Th. 4. One striking difference is that in English the most metaphorical patterns of that type instantiate the more specific type TIME IS A POINT IN SPACE (e. Culture. London: The University of Chicago Press. -. Chicago. (+ Afterword.  The time-as-space metaphor is the most frequent one in both languages. Berlin. Language. Christina. 2003). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 1253-1269. Metaphor and Emotion. 2006a. London: The University of Chicago Press. and Body in Human Feeling. 2006b. Anatol. the moving time metaphor is more represented than in English (18. 2000. Lakoff.g. World Edition. Metaphor and translation: some implications of a cognitive approach. 2004. and Mark Johnson. u vrijeme).hnk. Stefanowitsch.82%). % vs 28.). New York : Mouton de Gruyter Stefanowitsch. edited by Anatol Stefanowitsch and Stefan Th. Metaphors We Live By.  In English. edited by Anatol Stefanowitsch and Stefan Th.48%). 1980. A Field Guide to Poetic Metaphor. -. available online at www. Data Sources BNC British National Corpus. 2006. Gries .1% vs. However. Corpus-Based Approaches to Metaphor and Metonymy. George. Gries (eds. 1989. Chicago. Metaphor in Culture. In Corpus-Based Approaches to Metaphor and Metonymy. Universality and Variation. Anatol.42. Words and their metaphors: A corpus-based approach. Schäffner. Zoltán. there are some differences in their distribution:  In Croatian. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.