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 CONJUNCTIONS

Conjunctions are words used as joiners.
Different kinds of conjunctions join different kinds of grammatical structures.
The following are the kinds of conjunctions:

A. COORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS (FANBOYS)
for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so
Coordinating conjunctions join equals to one another:
words to words,

phrases to phrases,

clauses to clauses.

Coordinating conjunctions usually form looser connections than other conjunctions do.

Coordinating conjunctions go in between items joined, not at the beginning or end.

Punctuation with coordinating conjunctions:
When a coordinating conjunction joins two words, phrases, or subordinate clauses, no
comma should be placed before the conjunction.

A coordinating conjunction joining three or more words, phrases, or subordinate
clauses creates a series and requires commas between the elements.

A coordinating conjunction joining two independent clauses creates a compound
sentence and requires a comma before the coordinating conjunction

B. CORRELATIVE CONJUNCTIONS
either. . .or

both. . . and

neither. . . nor

not only. . . but also

These pairs of conjunctions require equal (parallel) structures after each one.

C. CONJUNCTIVE ADVERBS
These conjunctions join independent clauses together.
The following are frequently used conjunctive adverbs:
after all

in addition

next

also

incidentally

nonetheless

as a result

indeed

on the contrary

besides

in fact

on the other hand

consequently

in other words

otherwise

finally

instead

still

for example

likewise

then

furthermore

meanwhile

therefore

hence

moreover

thus

however

nevertheless

Punctuation
:

Place a semicolon before the conjunctive adverb and a comma after
theconjunctive adverb.

D. SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS
These words are commonly used as subordinating conjunctions

after

in order (that)

unless

although

insofar as

until

as

in that

when

as far as

lest

whenever

as soon as

no matter how

where

as if

now that

wherever

as though once whether because provided (that) while before since why even if so that even though supposing (that) how than if that inasmuch as though in case (that) till .

but in doing so. Because it is raining. do not separate the two clauses with a comma. we have an umbrella.Subordinating conjunctions also join two clauses together. Punctuation Note: When the dependent clause is placed first in a sentence. . use a comma between the two clauses. Loose: Tight: It is raining. A subordinating conjunction may appear at a sentence beginning or between two clauses in a sentence. A subordinate conjunction usually provides a tighter connection between clauses than a coordinating conjunctions does. they make one clause dependent (or "subordinate") upon the other. When the independent clause is placed first and the dependent clause second. so we have an umbrella.

com/site_php_files/grammar-exerciseconjunctions.php#.VBr-c5SSzk5 http://www.edu/ows/conjunctions.htm .Bibliography http://www.myenglishpages.towson.

Conjunction exerise .

1 You can come to the meeting ______ you don't say anything. so that as long as while until as if 4 Bob is very tall ______ Bill is very short. so that as long as while until as if 2 I'm not leaving ______ I get an apology from you. so that as long as while until as if . so that as long as while until as if 3 I came her ______ you could give me an explanation. so that as long as while until as if 5 You look ______ you've seen a ghost.

so that as long as while until as if 9 I came early ______ I could talk to you privately. so that as long as while until as if 7 I'm going shopping for food this evening ______ I don't have to go at the weekend.6 I refuse to pay anything ______ you do the work properly. so that as long as while until as if 10 ______ I don't think she's perfect for the job. she's certainly better qualified than Steve. so that as long as while until as if 8 You look ______ you haven't eaten for a week. so that as long as while until .

so that as long as while . so that as long as while until as if 14 We'll go to the mountains on Saturday ______ it doesn't rain. so that as long as while until as if 13 ______ the job is very interesting. it's also very badly paid. so that as long as while until as if 15 The winters here are very cold ______ the summers are very hot.as if 11 I don't mind if you go out for lunch ______ you're back for the meeting at two. so that as long as while until as if 12 Are you OK? You look ______ you have a problem.

so that as long as . so that as long as while until as if 20 I'm learning English ______ I can get a better job. so that as long as while until as if 19 ______ I don't approve of what you did.until as if 16 You can write the report when you want ______ it's ready by the end of the month. so that as long as while until as if 18 I want Mary to be in charge ______ I get back from holiday. I'm not going to punish you for it. so that as long as while until as if 17 It looks ______ the government has got a lot of problems.

while until as if .

looking at a list of interjections may further explain this definition. just as the list of adjectives or adverbs would be. List of Interjections The list of interjections used in English is extremely long. “When I think about the number of interjections in English. Almost any word or phrase can be used as an interjection. List of Common English Interjections If you want to jazz up your formal writing with some interjections.: ouch! well!) . I don’t think I could ever list them all. “good gracious” is the interjection.” Or “Dang! That hurt. this could go on and on. Absolutely Ahoy Alack Achoo Agreed Amen Ack Alas Anytime Ahh Alright Argh Aha Alrighty Anyhoo Ahem Alrighty-roo Anyhow As if Bah humbug Bravo Attaboy Behold Cheers Attagirl Bingo Crud Awww Blah Darn Awful Bless you Dang Bam Boo Doh . you don’t like spinach too much. You could. For example. if you said “So. if you hurt yourself.” Darn would be the interjection. or your dismay at the prospect of listing them all. however. designed to convey your amazement at the number of interjections.List of Interjections The dictionary defines interjection as an exclamation inserted into an utterance without grammatical connection to it or any of a class of words used in this way (Ex. as you can see.” In this case.. here is a list to get you started. For example. huh?” “Huh" would be the interjection on the end of that sentence. For example. also say “Ouch! That hurt. designed to convey the emotion or confusion (or perhaps sarcasm or dismay at the dislike of spinach). you might say “Darn! That hurt.” Or “Gee! That hurt!” or… well. Interjections do not always have to come at the beginning of a sentence either. An interjection is essentially almost any word in English that you can insert into a sentence to convey emotions.. good gracious. if it is inserted into a sentence to convey emotion. Interjections can even be found right in the middle of a sentence.

 Eh . what a delicious meal!  Aha . there! .  Hey . Interjections are often used with exclamation mark.Ah. now I see what you mean!  Alas .Hello."  Hello . I have no talent as a player. Examples of interjections This is a list of some English interjections:  Ah . I haven't seen you for ages.Eh? Say it again .  Er .he's got a nice friendly sort of face though he's not exactly handsome.Hi. alas.Aha. common in fiction or artistic writing. an interjection is a part of speech or (a lexical category) which is used to show a short sudden expression of emotion.Hey! What are you doing with my car?  Hi . well . however.I wasn't listening. They are."Is he handsome?" " Er.Drat Gee Whiz Ha Indeed Oops Shucks Woah Duh Golly Hallelujah Jeez Ouch There Woops Eek Goodnes Hey My gosh Phew Tut Wow Eh Gee Goodness Gracious Hi Hmm No Now Please Rats Uggh Waa Yay Yes Geepers Gosh Huh Nah Shoot What What are interjections? In grammar.I love football but. Using interjections Interjections are rarely used in academic or formal writing. Paul. Examples of common interjections in English are hi and hey.

Well. what shall we do now? Bibliography http://grammar."He says he's doing it for our benefit. Hmm .com/interjections/?lesson=exercises .grammarinenglish.Is that for me? Oh."  Oh .yourdictionary.html http://www. you're so kind!  Well . I'm still not convinced." " Hmm.com/parts-of-speech/interjections/list-ofinterjections.

Answers .

Even advanced learners of English find prepositions difficult. One preposition in your native language might have several translations depending on the situation. reading a lot in English (literature) and learning useful phrases off by heart (study tips). The only way to learn prepositions is looking them up in a dictionary. There are hardly any rules as to when to use which preposition. as a 1:1 translation is usually not possible. to) that usually stand in front of nouns (sometimes also in front of gerund verbs). The following table contains rules for some of the most frequently used prepositions in English: Prepositions – Time English Usage Example  on  days of the week  on Monday  in  months / seasons  in August / in winter  time of day  in the morning  year  in 2006  after a certain period of time (when?)  in an hour for night  at night  for weekend  at the weekend  a certain point of time (when?)  at half past nine since  from a certain point of time (past till now)  since 1980  for  over a certain period of time (past till now)  for 2 years  ago  a certain time in the past  2 years ago befor  earlier than a certain point of time  before 2004 to  telling the time  ten to six (5:50)  past  telling the time  ten past six (6:10)  to /  marking the beginning and end of a period of  from Monday to/till    at  e  . in.Prepositions Prepositions are short words (on.

Prepositions – Place (Position and Direction) English  in Usage Example  room. at the  station party (watch a film. taxi  in the book  picture. town. radio  on the first floor  on the bus. in a taxi  in the picture. in the sense of at the latest by  I will be back by 6  o’clock. I had  read five pages.English Usage till / until  time until Friday in the sense of how long something is going to  till /   Example last Friday. in  book. on a  wall London lies on the  Thames. in  London the world  at  meaning next to. at the  for table  for events  at the table  place where you are to do something typical  at a concert. world  in the car.  car. work) at the cinema. plane . at work  on  attached the picture on the  for a place with a river  being on a surface  for a certain side (left. study. up to a certain time  He is on holiday until By 11 o'clock. paper etc. building. street. by an object at the door. country in the kitchen. right)  for a floor in a house  on the table  for public transport  on the left  for television. at  school.

on the ground.English  Usage left or right of somebody or something by. lower than (or covered by) under   lower than something else but above ground below  the bag is under  something else the table the fish are below  the surface  over covered by something else   meaning more than  getting to the other side (also across) your shirt over 16 years of  age overcoming an obstacle  put a jacket over  walk over the  bridge climb over the wall   higher than something else. next  Example  on TV. beside  by / next to / beside the car. on the radio  Jane is standing to. bottom and the through  sides  to tunnel  movement to person or building  go to the cinema  movement to a place or country  go to London /  for bed Ireland   into drive through the   enter a room / a building  go to bed go into the kitchen / the house  towards  movement in the direction of something (but not  directly to it) go 5 steps towards the house . but not directly over above  it  lake getting to the other side (also over) across  walk across the  bridge getting to the other side  a path above the swim across the  lake  something with limits on top.

by bus  she learned Russian at 45  about  for topics. on horseback entering a public transport vehicle  get on the bus  in  entering a car / Taxi  get in the car  off  leaving a public transport vehicle  get off the train out of  leaving a car / Taxi  get out of the taxi by  rise or fall of something  prices have risen  travelling (other than walking or horseriding)    at  for age by 10 percent  by car. meaning what about  we were talking about you Bibliography .English Usage Example  onto  movement to the top of something  jump onto the table  from  in the sense of where from  a flower from the garden Other important Prepositions English  from Usage  who gave it Example a present from  Jane  of  who/what does it belong to  a page of the book  what does it show  the picture of a palace  by  who made it a book by Mark  Twain  on   walking or riding on horseback  on foot.

com/en/cram-up/grammar/prepositions/exercises?07 Exercise Answers .com/en/cram-up/grammar/prepositions http://www.http://www.ego4u.ego4u.

Next. Smoking is the problem among youth and adult is not peculiar to our country. So. A doctor who specializes in respiratory disease is known as a pulmonologist. a chest medicine specialist. It was great day today to disscuss and debate about news. These include diseases of the lung. Smoking is the largest preventable cause of premature death. trachea. Besides. He work as chronic lung diseases. Dr.Lastly.Lung specialist: Respiratory disease is common disease in the world. Mohd Aidil bin Othman from Hospital Pusrawi. 1st panelist . there are effecting a bad cause in human being. a respirologist or a thoracic medicine specialist. In left side him. Aidil bin Othman. there are so many opinion about how to prevent or protect our environment from this problem. pleural cavity. illness and disability. Besides. . bronchial tubes. Neither is it a new phenomenon. Respiratory diseases range from mild and self-limiting such as the common cold to life-threatening such as bacterial pneumonia or pulmonary embolism. Smoking can damage our respiratory system. many diseases and health problem happen around us. there is Datuk Muhammad Faris Aiman bin Mohd Zaki as socialist on Pertubuhan Anti Dadah Malaysia. I would give the all questioning about the smoking phenomenon that really worse to Dr. There is voluminous research to prove beyond and doubt that smoking is harmful to the health of smokers to those around them. Theres Dr. a respiratory medicine specialist. Respiratory Disease is the term for diseases of the respiratory system. and upper respiratory tract and of the nerves and muscles of breathing. today panelist that can shared an information between us were invited. She works as senior school councellor for 10 years. Miss Nor Sharnida binti Daud from SMK Seri Suria. Nowaday. The study of respiratory disease is known as pulmonology.Nor Hidayahne binti Jamil to hit us to a better and happy lifestyle. Are there serious? For that.Forum English Proficiency I : Forum-Is it always spoken? Chairperson :Very good morning and assalamualaikum for all audience and panelist. I also invited psychologist Universiti Malaya.

Aidil. We must keep it as a small advice from a specialist in lung cancers. Nowaday. or exposure to radiation. defined by a long-term cough with mucus Emphysema. fatigue. Lung specialist: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is one of the most common lung diseases. Chairperson :That’s very helpful information from Dr. This involves blowing out as hard as one can into a small machine that tests lung capacity.Chairperson : How about the serious respiratory diseases that you can related with it? Please explain to us. The best test for COPD is a simple lung function test called spirometer. Sometimes it is necessary to do a blood test (call a “blood gas”) to measure the amounts of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood. It makes it difficult to breathe. exposure to heavy amounts of second-hand smoke and frequent use of cooking gas without proper ventilation. defined by destruction of the lungs over time Most people with COPD have a combination of both conditions The causes is form exposure to certain gases or fumes in the workplace. Cough with mucus. drawing blood. The test can be interpreted immediately and does not involve exercising. although sometimes the lungs sound normal even when COPD is present.Using a stethoscope to listen to the lungs can also be helpful. there are many campaign and seminars for . shortness of breath (dyspneadyspnea) that gets worse with mild activity. Pictures of the lungs (such as X-rays and CT scans) can be helpful but sometimes look normal even when a person has COPD. and frequent respiratory infections and wheezing. There are two main forms of COPD:   Chronic bronchitis. Since the symptoms of COPD develop slowly. some people may be unaware that they are sick.

in recent survey by Ministry Youth and Sport on negative behaviours among 5 860 adolescents 80% indicated that they had ever experience in smoking. Besides. we on NGOs also trust what we going held to give all teenagers awareness about bad habits which is smoking. NGO’s also have a serious commitment on this. For the moment. Chairperson : Are there have a statistic or other fact that you can shared with us? Socialist : Yes. Datuk Faris Aiman to answer it. So. I believe the bad habit can be control by community if we together bring a good manner around us. in fact. Otherwise. we also have a governments advises that shown in campaign. 2nd Panelist-socialist : Thank you for giving me an opportunity to shared the information about today topic. I would like to debate about this with our panelist. Futhermore. So. there is a statistic at Kelantan which that shown the prevalence of male adolescent smoking in Malaysia reported as 30% by the National Health Mobidity survey conducted nationwide in 1996. As conclusion. in my opinion. we will success to reduces this bad habit especially among youth. I also believe this may be because of homogenity of study in participants. I also believe if we can give support and encouragement between community. For an examples. It shown that higher prevalence than national level. teenagers and youngster. I have. However.preventing the bad habit which is addiction on smoking that focusing the next generation. we should not only blamed the teenagers when they are smoking but we should think wisely about the environtment of surrounding. I think the fact really help NGOs to give some information and awareness to prevent the more . I as a president of Anti-drug Organizations believe that addicton among teenagers is the serious problem in Malaysia.

So why do so many teens continue to do it? Tobacco advertising may impact that decision more than we realize. . In addition. counselor. fact shown that image such as Marlboro Man equate smoking with a macho ruggedness that is appealing to men and boys. camping or seminar. I think thats being a mitos is too much for the teenagers.serious negative influence among teenagers to join us in community activities such as rafting. encouraging them to smoke.millions of children around the world and in our neighborhood are on the verge of becoming hooked. encouraging them to do this the smoking ads promising to attract interest. Today. I would like to thanks organizer for inviting me to deliver some benefit information on our forum today. social worker. right now.school cauncellor : First and foremost. Although they have influence of friends. Boys may believe that smoking will give them the aura of coolness they are searching for. not on phonics but on cigarette! I am a teacher..Everyone knows that smoking is bad for your health. Datuk Faris Aiman. A very good morning also to Miss Chairman. This theme mirrors the pressures many boys face to be “tough”. This theme mirror the pressure many boys face tobe tough. and tobacco prevention efforts are everywhere. panels and my beloved audience. Chairperson : Thank you. member of society and also a mother of two boys – which both are teenagers. Boys believe that smoking will give them the aura coolness that they are searching for. Images such as the Marlboro Man equate smoking with a macho ruggedness that is appealing to men and boys. but there is more strong. Did you agreed with me Miss Nor Sharnida? How can we give something inside from us to keep our generation from suffered this bad habit? 3rd panelist. But the teens and adults in cigarette advertising may be one of the most influential peer groups of all. We know that kids feel peer pressure from other kids in their everyday lives.

yellow teeth. they are tend to follow their parents habit. You ought to encourage good behavior with positive praise. how about to reduce smoking addiction? Please plessure to explain it. At the same time. I’ve faced with so many problems related with smoking and there are many persons who came to me and mentioned their intention to quit smoking but they failed. you can understand the doors that might be open to the use of tobacco. If you walk through this situation together. at first I will have a frank discussion session with the students and offer them advices. If you don’t smoke.As a parent. I will motivate and promote them till they have the desire to quit smoking. Secondly. parents can also talk to their teenagers about smoking. Chairperson : Puan. I tried my best to play a vital role to help my client or school students to stop smoking and reduce addiction of cigarette. When you understand where your teenagers might be looking to fit in. remind your teenagers about the unattractive qualities of smoking such as bad breath. For example. I’ve done some researches and find out a few ways that we can do to help our teenagers to stop smoking or at least reduce addiction of cigarette among them. roles play with your teenagers to give practice at saying no. As a counselor. School cauncellor : The first step is if you are a smoker. I am concerned that my sons may be influenced to use cigarette or be involved in behaviors and activities that will derail their future! What about you? Are you a parent like me who is concerned about the plague of cigarette that threatens your son or daughter? Or are you a person who wants to make a difference in the lives of children? Since I am a counselor. . Apart from that. put down your cigarette. Other than that. keep it that way. This is because teenagers who have parents that smoke. your teenagers will be better equipped to say no when approached by a peer who smokes. smelly clothes and chronic cough just might be enough to turn your teenagers off to the idea of smoking.

When they see their family smoke especially their father or brothers for the whole day. Chairperson : What does if the teenagers feel when they are smoking. As we know. We always heard people talk about smoking especially among the teenagers so this is a very common issue that most people talk about. they will offer cigarettes to their friends and I think the usual and most safe place to smoke is in the toilet. the teenagers will try to smoke themselves to find what is so special with cigarette. teenagers having the nature of curiosity. they will taunt and challenge them until those teenagers follow. we can see many research and experiment on smoking habits. they will influence their peers especially at the school.It’s not easy to stop smoking but never forget that where there’s a will. we must keep mind to give a good manner to the youngster. During recess time.doctor? . To the further information. There are a phrase “like father. When the teenagers start to smoke. Children whose parents smoke are twice as likely to start compared to those with non-smoking parents. Their friends who do not want to follow. 4th panelist.Psychologist : Firstly. Nor Hidayahne Bt. I would invited Dr. I’m as the psychologist will answer the question given by Miss Chairman. teenagers are wondering what is so interesting with smoking. As an adult. there’s a way !! Chairperson : It was great motivation about the reality today. doctors and psychologist found that disease not only cause a physical effects but also on emotional caution. There are many reasons why smokers among teenagers start to smoke. The major cause is their family especially their parents. And the last solution for that question. Others. a very good morning and thank you Miss Chairman for inviting me to talk about this topic. So. Jamil to share with us about the addiction on smoking habits among teenagers. like son“ that I think most suitable to be related with this situation. for the moment.

In conclusion. Chairperson : we will break a few minutes for give a chance to audience give a question to our panelist today. I will motivate the student who smoke and have a frank discussion session with them personally. Before everything becomes bad to worst. We still have time to save our generation and have you ever heard ”better late than never”. teachers and adults are responsible because they must take serious action to curb the addiction of smoking among the teens. cooler and interesting. the problems can be solved in so many ways. Firstly. I have a curiousity about the teenagers in school environment. For that. those emotions of teenagers are normal because they have a curious nature. we need to increase awareness among teenagers and youth to avoid them from bad influence. media and all bad influences around them. there a few recommendations that we can apply to solve the smoking problem or reduce smoking addiction among students. I have one question to you. Second round Chairperson : Puan Nor Sharnida. To solve this problem.Psychologist : Teenagers especially boys think smoke can make them matured. what are recommendation programs to prevent the tobacco addict? School cauncellor : In my opinion. the society should be alert with their environment because the teenagers today are always changed and easy to be influenced by peers. That is not true at all because smoking is only harmful to the teenagers. influence of friends and try to change the appearance. The teenagers assume that smoking will make they look smarter. I will also provide a complete information about smoking whether the . At this level. they still cannot differentiate which one is good and bad for them. Actually. parents. This is one of the misconceptions of their minds. Emotionally.

parents should also give a fully support to their smoking children and let they think that quitting smoking is the best thing that they have done in their life. That unfortunely. Audience : My name is Moni. Don’t ever force them to do it because teenagers will not change without their own desire. Perhaps social life can be more unhappy because the bad habits.reasons. This is the best way to slow down the lung damage. But despite such as strong evidence linking to smoking to health problem and mortality rates. So. Thank you to our panellist today. risks and any other disadvantages.  tiotropium (Spiriva). it is better to quitting smoke to prevent our next generation from bad habit lifestyle. there are many things you can do to relieve symptoms and keep the disease from getting worse. I from Melaka. Therefore. they will start to have a desire for quitting smoking. . Secondly.I would ask to Dr. such as ipratropium (Atrovent). Medications used to treat COPD include:  Inhalers (bronchodilators) to open the airways. salmeterol (Serevent). Persons with COPD must stop smoking. quitting smoking can reduced health risk. As a tips. Apart from that. or formoterol (Foradil) Inhaled steroids to reduce lung inflammation Chaiperson : That it’s a good answer for us. will never happen as the tobacco industry is too big a money-maker to forsaken. As concequence. I conclude that smoking give us a bad lifestyle. there are some I would like to share. Aidil. Aspecially among teenagers. it is substantially reduces the risk of developing and dying from cancer. Theres is the most effective way to do that. people still choose to subject their bodies to the harmful effects of tobacco smoke. However. What is a medication use to treat COPD diseases? Lung cancer specialist : There is no cure for COPD. First.

The last but no least.acupuncture. Thank you. alternative approaches such as hypnosis. nicotine replacement products can help quitting smoking. That’s all for the forum today.Thirdly. .acupressure or laser therapy can be use to quit smoking.

com/watch?v=jl3zob-WPVE Opinion on the interview: Background of ECCE Council - The ECCE Council was set up under EPP1. The main purposes of ECCE Council is for the Council to be the link between the government and the early childhood care and education (ECCE) industry. What will ECCE Council do with the childhood care centers and preschools are operating without proper licenses? - The Ministry of Education in collaboration with the Council had conducted road - shows to inform the importance of registration. Therefore. Reason why we need high quality early childhood care and education - The first 5 years of a child’s life is the most critical period for development. sustained levels of cortisols in the brain do not only lead to impairment in learning and memory but also to behavioural disorder. Stress can change the architecture of the brain. If a child’s needs are not met. Thus. Ramping Up Early Child Care and Education. to - boost the country’s economy. High. These cells need experiences for them to connect to form synapses and neural pathways for the brain to develop.Listen to an Interview and Write down the Opinion Source of the interview : https://www. . an initiative under the Economic Transformation Program (ETP). parents and society must play their part by sending their children to registered childcare centres and registered preschools. the kind of experiences a child has or is exposed to - determine the way the brain develops. Children are born with over 100 billion neurons or brain cells. we may be nurturing an emotional monster. However. stress hormones or cortisols are released.youtube.

Early childhood educators and operators need to respect themselves before they can demand respect from others. in the interim period.- Parents need send their children to egistered childcare centres and preschools are more likely to meet the standards required by the Department of Social Welfare and Ministry of Education respectively What are the things that current early childhood care and education operators can do to upgrade their status so they will be recognized as qualified operators and educators? - The Council has been advocating for quality early childhood care and education. Advice to the existing early childhood care and education operators and educators - Love what you do and have self-respect. To be a member of the ECCE Council. When a person respects him/herself. However. - the person will give his/her level best. working experiences are considered. the minimum qualification is Diploma in - Early Childhood Education (ECE) or its equivalents. .

Prolonged inhalation of polluted air will result in serious lung infection which particularly affects the elderly. During the haze.Report Writing ARTICLE: Factual Haze: A Danger to Health by Loh Ming Wen The haze is a constant phenomenon faced by Malaysia and her neighbouring countries. The haze is further worsened by open burning practised by most Malaysians. radio. The haze is basically pollution of atmosphere. hospitals and clinic often report a dramatic increase in respiratory problems. solutions and steps-need-to-be-taken to reduce the haze need to be promoted through all types of social media like television. The government must play its role to reduce the haze treat. newspaper and even via internet. It has to cooperate with the Indonesian authorities to stamp out forest fires. either through healthy fine or prison sentence. On-going campaigns on the dangers of open burning should be intensified. The Indonesian authorities appear to have no power to control farmers from practising such methods. lung infections and asthma attack. The haze has long-term side effects. Many are ignorant of the health effects of open burning. which is clogged with pollutants and other substances from forest fires. strict laws must be imposed to penalise those who practise open burning. The authorities should also provide assistance to farmers and introduce more sophisticated forest clearing methods. The culprits must be brought to justice. Open-field burning of rice straw by the rice planters and open burning of dried leaves and garbage done by the public are a few examples that done by Malaysian. The haze is a direct effect of forest fire in Kalimantan and other parts of Indonesia due to slash and burn method of farming. The government should also raise the public awareness of the dangers of forest fire. Individuals too have . Continuous campaign of the cause. In Malaysia. Constant vigilance would ensure the perpetrators do not repeat their offence. The Air Pollution Index (API) usually indicates the hazardous and dangerous levels of pollution during this period.

but instead we lent it from our future generations. Source from: http://englishforallsmkbenut.blogspot. Every individual has to remember that we do not own the world. We must protect our world so that our grandchildren woulh have a healthy earth to live. Students can advise their parents not to practice open burning.com/p/spm-sample-of-essays-directed-writing.a role to play.html . They must participate in every campaign and stop burning.

First of all. Most of them are worried that the use of Internet is dangerous to their kids. fans can know more about the artists from Youtube. Besides. Some of them are free.com . we can add more friends and make new friends. Some others said that Internet may bring benefits to their children especially to those who will be sitting for an examination. In short. . We canwatch videos of our favourite artists by just one click through 'Youtube' website. They can visit the websites and revise their studies in more exciting way. Twitter. students can get additional information that they cannot find it in books. For instance. We can also know friends from other country as these social networks are used internationally. videos and files that can be downloaded for free! Internet users can enjoy themselves at anytime watching their favourite artists' performance for free. We can also watch favourite movies without paying. Internet provides vast informations and knowledge which is very beneficial for the students. As we know. let me talk about the benefits first. Plus. unicliq. Internet also offers entertainment. The examples of popular websites are tutortv. we can also strengthen our relationship with our friends and family who are staying far away from us using Skype. The websites also provide useful notes and exercises. We can see them in front of our eyes eventhough they are actually far away from us through web camera. and tutor. 4shared. So. there are many artists born from 'Youtube'.com .com. students. Other than adding friends.my. the use of Internet is increasing especially among adolescence or more accurately. Through these social networks. At the same time. MySpace and many other. students can visit various websites to assist their studies. they can go to 'Google' or 'Yahoo' search engines to search for more ideas to write an essay. Internet also provides lots of social networks such as Facebook .ARTICLE: Article for School Magazine / Newsletter How Internet Affects Life By:Syawalynn Zain Nowadays. Internet is mostly used by students. Next. By surfing internet. The Internet issue is discussed by the adults and parents. Meanwhile.com provides tracks. On my opinion. Students can visit it anytime they want. Internet has both benefits and drawbacks.

most students will not attracted to surf knowledgeable websites. it depends on you. it depends on how we are using it. Wasting timeon Internet can cause students to neglect their studies. As for example. someof them only play video games or just sit down wayching videos on Youtube. yet. With the uses of more electricity non-stop.my gives a wide room for surfers to promote anything they want to sell. Although Internet can add more friends to our list. Not all of the users use Internet to make friends. people with no job can gain money and support their lives by doing the online business. Through this. The conclusion is. If we spend more time using it for benefits. but wasting their time on other non-beneficial things. . However. However. We just not pay for the electric bills but also internet monthly bills. It also provides business opportunities. it can encourage cyber crimes. they may not realise that there is an earthquake out there! This anti-social behaviour may leads to health problems. we will get negative effects. as I said earlier. The worst thing is. But if we use it more to non-beneficial things. Internet also brings bad effects to its users. They will only sit and ignore what is happening around them.Internet doen not only offersbenefits for students but also to those who want to gain more money. mudah. The users will just stay at home and sit in front of computer and this will cause them to be lazy couch potatoes. we will get positive effects. Next. Firstly. everything has its own benefits and drawbacks. Not only time is wasted but also money. This should be avoided as studies are important especially to teenagers. it still can develop anti-social behaviour. utility bills may increase dramatically. So. It will also lead to obesity. students who spend too much time on Internet may neglect their studies and do not finish their homework. Besides that.

the dam was at 33. It has been hovering around this mark for weeks.DIRECTED: ARTICLE / REPORT: Newspaper Article / Report RAIN EVERYWHERE BUT NOT A DROP IN THE SG SELANGOR DAM BY PATRICK LEE Low tide: The worryingly low level at the Sg Selangor Dam near Kuala Kubu Baru. still dangerously close to its 30% critical level. .13% capacity as of 8am Saturday. has barely seen an increase in its level despite the current rainy spell. Picture was taken yesterday. the state’s largest. According to the Selangor Water Management Authority (LUAS) website. PETALING JAYA: The Sungai Selangor dam. Selangor.

which was not enough to stave off water rationing.” he said. Selangor and the Klang Valley were the hardest hit. He said there was no sign of the El Nino phenomenon in Malaysia so far. adding that it was important that rain must fall in the catchment areas. He said states with low dam levels would be hard hit during droughts.Water experts said consumers must brace for any eventuality and that water must be conserved. then the rest of the year would be quite stable. adding that if it were to arrive by the year end. Meteorological Department spokesman Dr Hisham Mohd Anip said rainfall was expected during the inter-monsoon period in October throughout the country. Syed Mohamad said it was hard to predict what capacity the dams would have by the end of the year. he said it was hard to say if rain would fall in the catchment areas due to the “unpredictability of weather”. Association of Water and Energy Research (Awer) president S. “(If) the dam was at 100% in January. He said in January this year. A heat wave in the first quarter of the year and falling dam levels saw water rationing imposed in many parts of the peninsula.7 million people affected by rationing. Piarapakaran said longer periods of rainfall was needed to prepare dams for dry seasons. . Malaysian Water Association (MWA) president Syed Mohamad Adnan Alhabshi said a full dam would act as a buffer during dry weather periods. it would be “very weak” and will not have a large effect on the weather pattern. with more than 6. However. the Sungai Selangor dam was at 70%.

2004 Dear Sir or Madam: I have recently ordered a new pair of soccer cleats (item #6542951) from your website on June 21. My order number is AF26168156. Sincerely. I saw that the cleats were used. I have already went out and bought a new pair of cleats at my local sporting goods store so sending another would result in me having two pairs of the same cleats. Than you for taking the time to read this letter. The cleats had dirt all over it and there was a small tear in front of the part where the left toe would go. Signature Ken Thomas .Formal Letter 65 Market Street Val Haven. Unfortunately. when I opened it. If you need to contact me. I would like you to credit my account for the amount charged for my cleats. WA 65435 June 30. CT 95135 ______________________________________________________________________ Customer Service Cool Sports. To resolve the problem. LLC 8423 Green Terrace Road Asterville. I received the order on June 26. you can reach me at (555) 555-5555. I have been a satisfied customer of your company for many years and this is the first time I have encountered a problem.

With this high additional education level and knowledge. I have experience working in both food manufacturing and also auto manufacturing fields. Lot 123. Negeri Sembilan 18 JULY 2010 Dear Sir / Madam. . Bhd. 2. Lim and Sons Manufacturing Sdn. Bhd. Since my present position offers little prospect for career advancement. I would like to work in Nilai as I intend to further my studies and get professional qualification. Before this. 40. 3. I have the necessary qualifications as stated in my curriculum vitae which is attached to this letter. I am currently working in Lazat Ice Cream Sdn. I would like to be attached to a fairly large organisation such as yours. I was working in TFR Auto Enterprise as an Accounts clerk. Interstate Industrial Area. I have registered with a college in Nilai to do ACCA on part-time basis. 76 000 Seremban. in capacity of an Accounts Assistant and have been here since January 2008. JalanTempler. Application for the Post of Accounts Assistant I wish to apply for the post of Accounts Assistant as advertised in The New Strait Times dated 15th July 2011.Chong Mei Lin. Negeri Sembilan _________________________________________________________________________ The Manager. 76 001 Nilai. I can perform better in applying the accounts knowledge in the future job. Taman HatiBersih..

I can assure you that I am capable person who can work independently. I was active in extra-curricular activities and was considered as responsible and dedicated worker.4. I would have no problems travelling outstation should the job require. 7. Furthermore. In view of my qualification and experience. adapt easily to any working environments and can work with people from all works of life. I am a team player. I am interested in working with a company like yours as I feel I can grow well with the company. And since I have my own car. i have a good command of English. 5. Raju (RAJU a/l MANIAM) . up to three sets at a time. I led and organised many activities for the school clubs so I am confident that I can be an asset to your company in this capacity. I look forward to hearing from you and I am fully prepared to attend an interview at any time convenient to you. I would expect a salary more than RM 2 000. 6. I am able to handle full sets of accounts. Yours faithfully. Thank you.

My advice is leave all your online gaming activities until you have finished your PMR Examination. Please send my regards to father and mother.INFORMAL LETTER 322C.Therefore. 20 August 2013. How are you? I hope you are fine. Dear Vince. call it a night around 10 p. don't spend too much time playing online games. Mother phoned me a few days ago and told me about it. I heard that you did not do well in your recent PMR Trial Examination. in the morning. So.m. There is nothing wrong in playing online games but when it affects your studies then you should put a brake to it. Focus on your studies first. I miss you all dearly. Father and mother are really worried about you spending too much time on the Internet. instead of sleeping around 1 to 2 a. First of all. you can continue playing once you have finished your examination. young man. Next.Taman Danau Maluri 53300 Kuala Lumpur.Enough sleep will enable your mind to stay sharp and productive the next day.Don't burn your midnight oil chatting on the Internet. don't stay up late. I am writing this letter to give you some tips on how to divide your time wisely. Our body needs at least 8 to 10 hours of sleep everyday. Go to bed early.m. .

I have to prepare for my next week's final term semester examination. remember. Now. the Internet contains a lot of useful information for everyone.Draft out a study timetable to help you manage your time wisely. . Hugs and kisses. Go cycling or walking around the park. You need a healthy body and mind to do well in your PMR Examination. Physical activities help keep your body and mind healthy. I wish you all the best in your PMR Examination. I hope you will take my advice and mend your ways. Finally. Play football or badminton with your friends in the evenings. It can be used to gain knowledge and to sift through for information useful for your PMR Examination. join some outdoor physical activities rather than just being holed up in the house in front of your computer the whole day. Bernice Gabriel. Your loving sister. On the timetable allocate one to two hours to surf the Internet. I wish I could write more but I have to stop here for now.

So. I’m looking forward to seeing them again. According to the news. They could be fined up to RM 3 000 for breeding aedes mosquitoes. Taman Bukit Bintang. schools all over Malaysia carried out a clean-up campaign of the school compound. Yours sincerely. 67500 Ipoh. don’t worry. This problem seems to have become very serious all of sudden. The residents’ association in my housing are also organised a family day clean-up of the housing estate. The problem is made worse by the rainy season. You can bring your family for a holiday here in June. Do take care. radio and newspapers were taken to make people aware of the issue and take precaution rather than cure them. There were huge piles of rubbish especially old tyres and containers littered by the hawkers near the might market site. There were also a few students taking the examination in the hospital. Bukit Bintang. These statistics are quite worrying.No. The authorities have taken various steps to control the situation. Perak 14 January 2011 Dear John. My neighbour’s daughter who was in Standard 6 last year could not sit for UPSR examination because she was down with dengue fever on the eve of the exam. Street of Fame. Fortunately. Send my regard to your mom and dad. Harun . Contractors at the construction sites have been instructed to take appropriate actions and warned to clean up. How are you? I’m sorry to hear that your cousin had dengue fever. Before the long holidays for the Chinese New Year. There have been no reports of new cases of dengue. Lot of campaigns through the television. We always feel that the problem is not our concern until someone close to us is affected. About 53 per cent of 621 confirmed cases last year comprised children and youth under the age of 24. Fogging has been carried out in many public areas and most of the housing estates. The situation in Malaysia has improved since the end of January. 34. The stagnating water attract the mosquitoes to lay egg and breeding on the areas. students made up nearly 30 per cent of the 1 500 suspected cases over the first three weeks of the year. This has prompted the health ministry to increase checks on aedes breeding grounds in school and public areas. The construction sites are largely to blamed. the authorities gave her an exemption so she is now in Form One.

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It asks a little of us here. And steadfast as Keats' Eremite. So when at times the mob is swayed To carry praise or blame too far. Not even stooping from its sphere. Since dark is what brings out your light. It asks of us a certain height. Use language we can comprehend. talk Centigrade. But to be wholly taciturn In your reserve is not allowed. We grant your loftiness the right To some obscurity of cloud— It will not do to say of night.' But say with what degree of heat. Say something to us we can learn By heart and when alone repeat. . 'I burn. Talk Fahrenheit. We may choose something like a star To stay our minds on and be staid. Some mystery becomes the proud. But does tell something in the end. Tell us what elements you blend. Say something! And it says.Choose Something Like a Star by Robert Frost O Star (the fairest one in sight). It gives us strangely little aid.

the narrator wants scientific evidence of the star’s temperature and elemental makeup. Knowledge of the star’s existence is not enough.” The narrator needs the star to say “something” to him so badly that it does not even matter what the “something” is. does not provide clear evidence that the star possesses any intelligent thought. The star simply replies. be comforted. Although he acknowledges that stars are naturally quiet. while others emphasize science as a comfort.” “-oud. scientific information about the star. He explains that a few words from the star would be enough to help humanity strive for greater heights and. the narrator still begs the star to say something to him.Analysis of the poem The narrator speaks to a star in the sky and urges it to give him something to believe in. Some individuals use religion as a way to reassure themselves.” and “-ar” to create the following pattern: AABAABCBCDCDEFFEFAGGAHIIH. Instead. its words have nothing to do with the narrator’s experience on earth. with a regular rhyme scheme and iambic meter. In addition to creating this combination of religion and science.” “-ere. Frost expands the irony of the narrator’s plea through the use of the term “something. The poem focuses on humanity’s need for reassurance from a higher power.” Frost introduces the scientific genre of thought and describes the narrator’s need for specific. In the very first line. at the very least. “I burn. this poem is relatively traditional. When the star speaks.” “-end. Frost asserts (ironically) that what the star says does not actually matter. The simple existence of the words is enough to reassure mankind.” The narrator is not satisfied with the star’s response and urges it to be even more specific. Frost echoes a traditional prayer to God with the reverential tone and the term “O” (which would normally precede “God” or “Lord”). “I burn. Frost uses rhymes for “-ight.” “-aid.” “-eat. when the star declares. The star has no comprehension of anything outside of its own existence and can only quantify its presence with “I burn. because it proves that humans are not . even more importantly. the pithy “I burn” relates only to the star itself and.” “-earn. Analysis In terms of form.” However. Frost plays with these genres of thought by blending different aspects of each into the narrator’s urgent plea to the star. Later.

even as such devotion threatens to make humanity “staid” (old-fashioned. even the object of such reverence is not crucial to narrator’s comfort: as the title reveals.isolated in the universe. an individual has the capacity to become “stayed” (comforted. By selecting a distant object to idolize. . static). Frost uses the wordplay of the terms “to stay” and “to be staid” to reiterate the narrator’s explanation in the poem. no matter what it is. not necessarily the star itself. In the last line of the poem. rooted). an individual must only choose “something” like a star. Moreover.