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Apple, the company that has the highest revenue per employee, focuses more on simple and

functional design than its competitors.

Meaning Analysis

Apple,
o

the company that has the highest revenue per employee,

focuses more on simple and functional design than its competitors.

The sentence presents a comparison. However, the way this sentence is written, one can infer
two comparisons:
First Comparison: Apple focuses more on simple and functional design than on its competitors.
Entities Compared à “simple and functional design” and “competitors”.
Second Comparison: Apple focuses more on simple and functional design than its competitors
focus on. Entities Compared à “Apple” and “its competitors”.
The correct sentence should clearly state one unambiguous meaning.

Error Analysis
If the sentence is intended to compare simple and functional design and competitors (stating that
Apple focuses on design more than it focuses on its competitors), then we need the pronoun “on”
before “its competitors” to make the comparison clear.
If the sentence is intended to compare Apple and its competitors (stating that Apple focuses on
design more than its competitors do), then we need the helping verb “do” before “its competitors”
to make the comparison clear.

Answer Choices
more on simple and functional design than
Incorrect: This choice has the error pointed out in the error analysis.

B
on more simple yet functional design than
Incorrect:

1)

This choice repeats the same ambiguous comparison error as in choice A.

2) Change of placement of “more” changes the meaning. As per the original
sentence, “more” modifies “focuses”. Apple focuses more on design than its
competitors. As per this choice, “more” modifies “simple”. Here the emphasis is not
on the action of focusing but on the design itself.
3) Use of “yet” changes the meaning. As per the original choice, “and” suggests that
the design is simple and functional. Use of the word “yet” brings in a contrast,
implying that even though the design is simple, it is functional. The original sentence
does not present this contrast.

more on simple and functional design than on
Correct:
Use of the preposition “on” makes the comparison clear. The sentence states that
Apple focuses on design more than it focuses on its competitors.

D
on simple and functional design than
Incorrect:
1) Use of “than” requires the use of some comparative terms such as “more” to
present the comparison. Without the word “more,” the comparison is incomplete.
2)

This choice repeats the same ambiguous comparison error as in choice A.

E
more on simple design and is more functional than are
Incorrect:
1) This choice distorts the intended meaning. As per this choice, the subject for “is”
is “Apple”. The choice states that Apple is more functional whereas, per the original
choice, the design is functional.
2) Also, the choice suggests a comparison between Apple and the competitors on
the basis that Apple is more functional. This is certainly not the intended meaning of
the sentence.

As it is almost categorically accepted, the most intelligent scientists are those who
interpret empirical data to draw independent conclusions rather than just bolstering
already credited scientific hypotheses.

Meaning Analysis

As it is almost categorically accepted,

the most intelligent scientists are those
o

who interpret empirical data

to draw independent conclusions

rather than just bolstering already credited scientific hypotheses.

The sentence says something is almost a norm. What is that something? The something
is that as per the accepted belief the most intelligent scientists are those who use factual
data to make independent conclusions rather than to strengthen already credited scientific
hypotheses.

Error Analysis
The sentence uses the idiom X rather than Y where X and Y should be grammatically as
well as logically parallel. Here, X = “to draw” and Y = “bolstering”. These two entities are
not grammatically parallel to each other. This is the only error in this sentence.

Answer Choices

which is almost categorically accepted. 2) Per the intended meaning the relative pronoun modifier “which” should modify the preceding clause. 1. 2. Other Scientists . the most intelligent scientists are those who interpret empirical data to draw independent conclusions rather than just bolstering already credited scientific hypotheses. Almost categorically accepted. but can also bolster already credited scientific hypotheses. the fact that the scientists who are the most intelligent don’t just interpret empirical data to draw independent conclusions. Incorrect: 1) This choice distorts the parallel list.“independent conclusions” and hence distorts the meaning of the sentence.to draw independent conclusions or 2. Most Intelligent Scientists . Note this choice does not indicate that segment 2 interprets empirical data. Note that this modifier cannot be used to modify a clause. the differentiation between the two segments of scientists comes from the intended use of their interpretation of empirical data 1. Other Scientists .A As it is almost categorically accepted. B Rather than just bolstering already credited scientific hypotheses. Most Intelligent Scientists . Incorrect: This choice has the error stated in the error analysis.interpret empirical data to draw independent conclusion 2.bolster already created hypothesis. the most intelligent scientists are the ones who interpret empirical data to draw independent conclusions. But its placement is such that it modifies the preceding noun .to bolster already created hypothesis. Incorrect: . Per this choice. the differentiation between the two segments comes from what they do 1. Per the intended meaning.

According to the intended meaning. Hence. 2) Use of “can also” is incorrect as it distorts the intended meaning of the sentence. it is not empirical data that is categorically accepted but the fact that certain scientists are considered the most intelligent. the most intelligent scientists are those who interpret data to draw conclusions rather than to bolster already credited hypotheses. Incorrect: This relative pronoun modifier “which” incorrectly refers to “empirical data”. Correct: This is the correct answer choice as it rectifies the only error of Choice A. Please note that “to” is understood before “bolster” as “to” is already present before the first entity in the list “draw”. D The most intelligent scientists are the ones who interpret empirical data. Meaning Analysis  A little-known fact from Michelangelo’s early years as an artist is . rather than just bolster already credited scientific hypotheses. which is almost categorically accepted. and sold it for far more than it was actually worth. It is almost categorically accepted that the most intelligent scientists are those who interpret empirical data to draw independent conclusions rather than just bolster already credited scientific hypotheses. As per this choice.1) There is no verb for the subject “the fact”. As per the original sentence. A little-known fact from Michelangelo’s early years as an artist is that he forged a statue in 1496. the most intelligent scientists are those who interpret data to do both. treating it with acid to make it look like an antique. it is not necessary to repeat it before “bolster”.

Michelangelo forged a statue in 1496. which was treated with acid to make it look like an antique Incorrect: 1) The passive verb “was treated” does not convey the meaning that Michelangelo himself treated the statue with acid. The sentence begins by stating a fact about Michelangelo’s early years as an artist. Answer Choices he forged a statue in 1496.   treating it with acid to make it look like an antique. treating it with acid to make it look like an antique Incorrect: This choice has the error pointed out in the error analysis. and sold it for far more  than it was actually worth. which uses the possessive form “Michelangelo’s”.o that he  forged a statue in 1496. Error Analysis The pronoun “he” logically refers to the noun “Michelangelo”.” The statue clearly did not perform the action of selling itself. 2) The verbs “was” and “sold” are not logically parallel. B his 1496 statue was a forgery. The sentence then provides additional information about how he forged it: he treated it with acid to make it look like an antique. He sold this statue for far more than its actual value. The sentence presents some historical facts about Michelangelo. This is a grammatical error since this noun is not present in the sentence. leading to a nonsensical meaning. The sentence now states that “his 1496 statue was a forgery… and sold it. .

The original Ancient Greek gymnasiums were incredibly advanced and had more in common with our modern universities than with our local fitness clubs. holding lectures and discussions on philosophy. literature.  holding lectures and discussions on philosophy.C he forged a statue in 1496 that was treated with acid. Meaning Analysis  The original Ancient Greek gymnasiums o were incredibly advanced and o had more in common with our modern universities than with our local fitness clubs. making it look like an antique Incorrect: 1) This choice has the same pronoun error as option A does. 2) Like Choice B. treating it with acid to make it look like an antique Correct: This choice is the correct answer as it fixes the pronoun error of option A by using the noun “Michelangelo”. and music. E a statue treated with acid to make it look like an antique was forged in 1496 Incorrect: 1) This option does not make it clear that Michelangelo himself forged the statue. long before teachers such as Plato and Aristotle had begun their work. leading to a meaning error. and offering free public libraries. 2) It also repeats the parallelism error of Choice B since the verbs “was” and “sold” are not logically parallel to each other. and . Michelangelo forged a statue in 1496. this choice also uses the passive verb “was treated”. literature.

The sentence then goes on to describe how these gymnasiums were similar to modern universities: 1. holding lectures and discussions on philosophy. and music. literature. Answer Choices A had more in common with our modern universities than with our local fitness clubs. and  offering free public libraries. The advanced Ancient Greek gymnasiums existed before Plato and others began their work. and music.  long before teachers such as Plato or Aristotle had begun their work. and offering free public libraries. They offered public libraries for free. B . All this happened before teachers such as Plato or Aristotle started their work. 2. They held lectures and discussions on philosophy.music. This sentence talks about the original Ancient Greek gymnasiums. Error Analysis The use of the past perfect tense “had begun” is incorrect since it has been used for a later event. literature. long before teachers such as Plato and Aristotle had begun their work Incorrect: This choice has the error pointed out in the error analysis. It says that these gymnasiums were very advanced and that they had more in common with our modern universities than with our local fitness clubs.

and offered libraries free to the public. Or the gymnasiums had more in common with the modern universities than the local fitness clubs had in common with the modern universities. literature. 2) Removing “with” before “our local fitness clubs”. long before teachers such as Plato and Aristotle began their work Correct: This choice corrects the only error from the original sentence by changing the past perfect tense into the simple past tense. 3) This choice has the same verb tense error as in choice A. having more in common with our modern universities than our local fitness clubs Incorrect: The comma + verb-ing modifier “having” incorrectly refers to the preceding clause “teachers… began their work. literature. had more in common with our modern universities than with our local fitness clubs. they held lectures and discussions on philosophy. and music. and offered free public libraries long before teachers such as Plato and Aristotle began their work. The gymnasiums had more in common with the modern universities than they had with local fitness clubs 2. the Ancient Greek gymnasiums did. The two possible comparisons here are: 1.” The teachers did not have anything in common with modern universities. . D have more in common with our modern universities than our local fitness clubs. and music.held lectures. this choice presents an ambiguous comparison. literature. holding lectures and discussions on philosophy. and offering libraries free to the public. discussed philosophy. long before teachers such as Plato and Aristotle had begun their work Incorrect: 1) The simple present tense “have” is incorrectly used to present a fact from the past. and music.

. the increase in demand due to the relatively stable economy after the recession increased India’s service exports to $133 billion. Meaning Analysis  In the financial year 2010-11. nearly 38 percent more than that of 2009-10. literature. India’s service exports rose to $133 billion.were more like our modern universities than our local fitness clubs. In the financial year 2010-11. 2) It also has the same verb tense error as in choice A. resulting in pronounantecedent number agreement error. These exports were nearly 38 percent more than the exports of 2009-2010. This sentence tells us that in 2010-2011. This increase was because of the relatively stable economy after the recession. holding lectures and discussions on philosophy. Error Analysis Singular pronoun “that” refers to the plural noun “exports”. and music as well as offering free public libraries. long before teachers such as Plato or Aristotle had begun their work Incorrect: 1) This choice has the same comparison error as in choice D. Answer Choices that of 2009-10 Incorrect: This choice has the error pointed out in the error analysis. the increase in demand due to the relatively stable economy after the recession increased India’s service exports to $133 billion. o nearly 38 percent more than that of 2009-10.

D those of its 2009-10 service exports Incorrect: Since this choice already uses the noun “service exports” the pronoun “those” becomes redundant. Secondly. It was not as if India as a country undertook some measures to make this increase happen. a film with a complex storyline is more likely to do badly at the box-office than a film with a story-line that is not complex. It appears to indicate that India did the increase in its exports. This is not correct since the increase happened because of the factors stated. Since other causes of poor box-office performance are not related to the awards won by the director. C it did in its 2009-10 exports Incorrect: The construction of this choice is such that it appears that the pronoun “it” refers to India and the pronoun “its” refers to India’s. Note that the sentence has “India’s” and not “India”.those of 2009-10 Correct: This choice rectifies the only error of the original sentence by using the plural pronoun “those” to refer to the plural noun “exports”. First of all “it” cannot grammatically refer to India since India does not exist in the sentence. but this antecedent does not exist in the sentence. there must be more films with poor box-office collections . E it exported in 2009-10 Incorrect: As in choice C. this reference is absolutely illogical. the pronoun “it” appears to refer to India. A film is more likely to have a complex storyline when it is directed by a director who has won an Academy Award. Regardless of the awards won by the director.

The conclusion is based on the fact that AWDs are more likely to direct a film with CS. films with CS are more likely to perform worse at box office than films without CS. the flaw would show a logical gap in the author’s reasoning while reaching the conclusion. All other factors behind poor performance of films at box office are unrelated to awards won by the directors. Thus. we will look at the logical structure. focusing on linkage 1 and the conclusion. To do so. The argument above is most vulnerable to which one of the following criticisms? Argument Analysis Pre-Thinking Conclusion Clarification The author concludes that total number of films with poor BO collections directed by AWDs would be greater than total number of films with poor BO collections directed by NAWDs. and irrespective of the awards won by the director.with Academy Award-winning directors than with directors who have not won any Academy Awards. there may not be more films with poor BO collections with AWDs than with NAWDs. We will understand the condition under which the conclusion is falsified. Pre-Thinking Approach To pre-think a flaw in the reasoning. Linkage#1 –  Falsification Condition: What if the total number of films directed by NAWDs is significantly more than that directed by AWDs? In such a case. let’s see how we can falsify this conclusion. .

No flaw This statement is of no relevance to the argument since the argument is concerned with the performance of the films only at the box office. Incorrect . If we see the pre-thinking example. It points out that the argument does not compare the actual total number of films made by AWDs and NAWDs. we can notice that the author’s conclusion is incorrect for the particular scenario. Correct This choice is written along the lines of our pre-thinking per Linkage #1. please consider the following scenario: Category Total films directed (A) Total films with Complex story-line Academy Award winning directors 100 80% = 80 Other directors 1000 20% = 200 Likelihood that a film complex story-line w perform poorly at bo (B) 80% With this pre-thinking in mind. It identifies one aspect of the films as the sole determinant of their box office . To understand the same. let’s evaluate the answer choices. It fails to consider a scenario in which the number of films directed by directors who have not won Academy Awards is significantly more than that directed by directors who have won Academy Awards. Answer Choices A It ignores the fact that a film that does not do well on the box-office may eventually do well when broadcasted on TV. Flaw: The argument is vulnerable to the criticisms that there is an abrupt jump from the premises given to the conclusion drawn. The argument has arrived at the conclusion without comparing the actual total number of films made by Academy Award winning directors and the ones made by the rest of the directors.

E It fails to factor in the number of films with poor box-office collections that were directed by Academy Award-winning directors and that ultimately won critical acclaim. o faced several charges during his fight against the government.No flaw This statement is irrelevant since the author’s conclusion is concerned with only the box-office performance of such films.performance without considering other possible aspects.No flaw The awareness of directors regarding the eventual box-office performance of their films is of no relevance to the author’s conclusion.No flaw This statement is incorrect since the passage does talk about “other factors” besides a complex storyline that determine a film’s performance at the box office. Incorrect . The passage says that all other factors are not related to awards won by directors. Meaning Analysis  The South-African anti-apartheid revolutionary Nelson Mandela. Nelson Mandela. The South-African anti-apartheid revolutionary. spending 27 years in prison. Incorrect . only four years after he had come out of prison. Incorrect . . o also known as Madiba or Tata (Father). also known as Madiba or Tata (Father). was elected the President of South Africa in 1994. D It fails to consider a scenario in which directors may be aware of the fact that a complex storyline may not translate into a successful box-office collection. faced several charges during his fight against the government.  spending 27 years in prison.

four years after his release from the prison. spending 27 years in prison. who was also known as Madiba or Tata. became the president of South Africa in 1994. spending 27 years in prison. C . only four years after  he had come out of prison. only four years after coming Correct: This choice corrects the only error of Choice A by adding “and” before “was elected”. faced several charges during his fight against the government. Mandela: 1. they should be connected using a parallelism marker. This sentence presents a few facts about the South-African anti-apartheid revolutionary Nelson Mandela. was elected the President of South Africa in 1994. which is missing from the sentence. only four years after he had come Incorrect: This choice has the error pointed out in the error analysis. This led to him spending 27 years in jail. However. Error Analysis The verbs in the parallel list – “faced” and “elected” – are grammatically parallel. However. 2. Answer Choices A faced several charges during his fight against the government. use of “had come out” is OPTIONAL here and even simple past tense verb “came out” will also be correct here because “after” explicitly establishes the time sequencing. and was elected the President of South Africa in 1994. Note that use of past perfect tense is correct in the clause “he had come out…” because Mandela first came out of the prison and then became the president. 1. faced many charges when he was fighting against the government. was elected the President of South Africa in 1994.

E who faced several charges during his fight against the government and spent 27 years in prison. only four years after he had come Incorrect: 1) There is no verb for the subject “Nelson Mandela” since “who” is the subject of the verbs “faced” and “was elected” in this choice. faced several charges during his fight against the government while spending 27 years in prison and was elected the President of South Africa in 1994. Also. only four years after he came Incorrect: 1) This choice retains the missing verb error of Choice C. 2) This choice distorts the intended meaning since “having spent” illogically implies that he faced several charges after spending 27 years in prison. In their prerehearsal stage. This choice nonsensically implies that he faced several charges while he spent 27 years in prison. Many stage actors follow a form of method-acting in which the emphasis is on understanding the psychology of the characters being played and keeping in mind how the characters would have reacted in various situations being enacted. it is highly likely that such actors are very consistent in their initial performance in rehearsals and their final on-stage performance. most strengthens the above argument? Argument Analysis . Therefore. “faced” and “spent” have been made parallel. having spent 27 years in prison. “elected” has been made a verb-ing modifier. and was elected the President of South Africa in 1994. Now instead of “faced” and “elected” being part of the list.who faced several charges during his fight against the government. if true. Which of the following. 2) This choice distorts the parallel list. only four years after he came Incorrect: This choice also changes the intended meaning. being elected the President of South Africa in 1994. This is exactly opposite to the intended meaning. they go to extremes such as living in situations similar to their hypothetical characters’. leading to distortion of meaning.

The strengthener could be based around these assumptions. Answer Choices For an actor. some factor influences the performances.Pre-Thinking Conclusion Clarification N/A Pre-Thinking Approach Let’s see how we can make the conclusion more believable. we will look at the logical structure. The assumption then will be that this condition does not exist. focusing on linkage 1. Linkage #1: Falsifying condition: Any reason that shows that there can be a significant inconsistency between the initial rehearsal performance and final on-stage performance of actors following method acting. o Instance: As rehearsals progress. the repetition of a performance in rehearsals adds little to the understanding of the character being played. let's take a look at the option statements. .  Strengthener: The actors do not get significantly better in their performances as they progress in their rehearsals. the first step in the process is to think of a falsifying situation in which the conclusion doesn’t hold. Accordingly. leading to a significant difference between the initial and final performance. and try to come up with assumptions. With this understanding in mind. To do so.  Assumption: No factor influences a significant change in performance between the first rehearsal and final on-stage performances.

Incorrect .Irrelevant How the actors get in to character is not the main focus of the argument. . E These days many film actors prefer to do multiple rehearsals with their coactors to fully understand the character they are portraying. The difference in the performance is the focus of the discussion. It is very likely for a method-actor playing the role of a beggar to actually dress up and wear torn and soiled clothes throughout the preparation stage to understand the psychology of the character. C Many famous and highly paid actors are from acting schools that specialize in teaching method-acting. Incorrect . B There are some props that are available to actors only on the final day of the show. Incorrect .Correct This choice is on the same lines as our pre-thinking analysis. Incorrect .Irrelevant We do not know how these props affect the performance of the actor.Irrelevant This statement does not talk about method acting or stage actors. It states that the actor’s understanding of the characters does not change with repeat rehearsals and hence furthers our belief in the conclusion.Irrelevant The actors in method acting are not important. The consistency in performance is the main question here.

defying the rigid relationship barriers enforced inside prison walls.The inmates of Arizona state prison who are selected by the state forest department to work as wilderness firefighters eat in the same cafeterias. View Solution Answer Choices A defying the rigid relationship barriers enforced defying the relationship barriers enforced rigidly C they defy the rigid relationship barriers enforced D an arrangement to defy the relationship barriers that are enforced rigidly an arrangement that defies the rigid relationship barriers enforced . sleep in the same campsites. and wear the same uniforms as their professional counterparts do.

Ships during the Baroque period usually had four masts as well as gigantic figureheads. Pre-Thinking Approach . a Royal Navy warship from the Baroque age known to have been destroyed in a battle. The recently-discovered wreck of the Endeavor. that could only be installed in place once the ship’s stemhead was fixed in place. Clearly. has a stemhead but not a figurehead. usually representing angels or other divine beings that were believed to protect the ship. Which of the following would most help to assess the conclusion above? Argument Analysis Pre-Thinking Conclusion Clarification The conclusion states that the FH on Endeavor must have been either destroyed or detached from the ship during the battle. the figurehead must have been either destroyed or detached from the ship during the battle it was part of.

then it is quite possible that even though the ship had a stemhead but not a figurehead. With this pre-thinking in mind. if the answer to the question is no. The assumptions then will be that these conditions don’t exist. reasons not related to holding a figurehead. However. If the stemhead could have been installed for other reason. it’s possible that the Endeavour didn’t have an FH and thus it couldn’t have been destroyed or detached.  Assumptions1: All sailing ships from the Baroque period that had an SH also had an FH installed in that place. the linkage will not hold. no other possible purpose existed such that it could require fitting the SH on the ship even without an FH. Answer Choices A Whether the figurehead on Endevaor was similar to that found on other ship-wrecks from the Baroque period Incorrect .Irrelevant The similarity of the figurehead has nothing to do with determining whether it existed on the ship in the first place or not. Linkage#1 –  Falsification Condition: What if. Thus. Whether a stemhead could have been installed for purposes unrelated to holding a figurehead Correct This choice is written along the lines of our pre-thinking per Linkage assumption 2. then it increases our faith in the author's conclusion. let’s look at linkage 1 and understand the conditions under which it doesn’t hold. To do so. let’s evaluate the answer choices.In order to evaluate the linkage. C .  Assumption2: For an SH. we’ll pre think assumptions by thinking of conditions that will falsify the conclusion. An answer choice that evaluates any of the fundamental assumptions made by the author will be the correct choice. what if an FH wasn’t installed in the ship? In such a case. not all ships from the Baroque period that had an SH had an FH too? What if SH could also be fixed for purposes other than installing an FH? In other words.

Hence. depending on the process used to arrive at them. premises = true 3. if premises true. called premises. this choice does not add anything to our understanding of the argument. and you then determine what else would have to be true if the premises are true. D Whether ships from periods other than the Baroque also had stemheads to support figureheads Incorrect . you begin with some statements. deductive 2. In the process of deduction.Already stated The passage already tells us that the Royal Navy was a part of the battle.Irrelevant Evaluating whether ships from other periods also had SHs to support FHs doesn't tell us whether Endeavour had an FH to begin with. The author’s primarily concerned with Passage Analysis Paragraph Logical arguments are usually classified as either deductive or inductive. which are assumed to be true. start with premises 2.No new Information We are already told in the passage that the ships usually had figureheads. inductive How deductive arguments are arrived at: 1.Whether the historians unanimously agree that the Royal Navy actually participated in the battle in which it was known to have been destroyed in Incorrect . Whether most military ships of the Baroque period were mounted with figureheads Incorrect . what else could be true My Paragraph Summary (written) Explains one of the two usual processes for arriving at a logical argument . Reading and Thinking (in mind) Two normal ways of classifying logical arguments: 1.

of the above: For example. you note that the Data suggest that chances of probability of becoming schizophrenic is becoming schizophrenic greatly increased if at least one parent is greatly enhanced if one schizophrenic. The premises themselves. you determine what drawing are with respect to theory or theories could explain the data. the behavior of the Same data used to arrive at a schizophrenic parent may cause the child different theory. Elaborates on the process of arriving at the second kind of 1. Schizophrenia may be hereditary. premises are regarded correct. and from that you parent is schizophrenic. conclude that schizophrenia may be Your conclusion: inherited. however. BUT the premises are beyond the reach of being tested. As per the process of induction. For example. in the process of induction. or for the purpose of exploration. begin with some data argument 2. remain unproven and unprovable. and then determine what general conclusion(s) can logically be derived from that data. you begin with some data. .For example. however. Note. Eg. what explains the data. that induction does not prove that the theory is correct. to be schizophrenic. analyse it and see what kind of conclusions can be drawn from it The conclusions you are In other words. or by faith. There are often alternative theories that are also supported by the data. That is certainly a reasonable hypothesis given the data. not the genes. the conclusion is reasonable. of the above The argument you arrive at With deduction you can provide absolute by deduction. Process of arriving at inductive arguments: On the other hand. since your 100% sure of it. you can be proof of your conclusions. in mathematics you can begin with some axioms and then determine what you can prove to be true given those axioms are true. as your premises are considered correct. Data could easily lead to other theories. BUT this process does not prove the theory you arrived at. they must be accepted on face value. Eg.

no way to test the validity of the premises. And. While deduction gives absolute proof. +ve of deduction = gives 100% proof -ve of deduction = no way to test the basis in the first place Evaluates both the processes in terms of how scientific they are +ve of induction = through observation of real data -ve of induction = no conclusive theory A combination of the two is required for a scientific approach Summary and Main Point . while induction is driven by observation. Both deduction and induction by Neither of the two processes themselves are inadequate for a scientific is sufficient on its own for a approach. To conclude that the parents have no effect on the schizophrenia of the children is not supportable given the data. Accordingly. a synthesis of these two logical approaches is required for an actual scientific method. If from the same data one concludes that there is no relation between the schizophrenia observed between the two generations is not a logical conclusion through this process. and would not be a logical conclusion. scientific approach. it never makes contact with the real world. there is no place for observation or experimentation . it never approaches actual proof of a theory.The important part of this What is important in induction is that the process is that the conclusion theory does indeed offer a logical arrived at does offer a logical explanation of the data. explanation of the data.

you should have a fair idea of the primary purpose/main idea of the passage. Also. the author explains the two processes in the first two paragraphs and then goes on to evaluate them in the last paragraph. This evaluation is done with respect to how scientific these processes are. let’s evaluate the answer choices. In addition to describing the two processes. the author . as soon as you finish reading the passage. As seen in the summary and main point section above. you must come to an approximate idea of what the author wants to convey through the passage. before going in to the answer choices. Accordingly. Answer Choices describing two modes of constructing a logical argument Incorrect: Partial Scope This choice barely captures the scope of the first two paragraphs and fails to account for the final one. In fact.Prethinking This is a Main Idea question. So we can conclude that the main purpose of the author is to explain the two normal processes of arriving at a logical argument and evaluate them on a specific criterion. let’s take a look at the overall structure of the passage. The correct choice must be broad enough to encompass the various sections of the passage but specific enough to not veer outside the scope of the passage. With this understanding in mind.