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iv.

fabricating
oman

ETH Studio Basel


Contemporary City Institute
Leon Faust, Benedikt Zweifel

Prof. Roger Diener, Prof. Marcel Meili


Liisa Gunnarsson, Mathias Gunz, Vesna Jovanovic,
Christian Mueller Inderbitzin
Spring Semester 2013

DRAFT
ETH Studio Basel

Contents

IV.
fabricating oman
production, construction,
distribution
Governmental welfare
40 Years of Progress
Oil and Gas
Energy and Water
Commercial Driving Forces

Diversification and foreign


investment
Public Establishment for Industrial Estates
Port of Sohar and Free Zone

construction

Oman Cement: Large Scale Local Operator


Ghala Industrial Area: Construction Cluster
MaAbilah and Wadi al Kabir: Small Enterprises
The Emerging Urban Landscape I: Housing
The Emerging Urban Landscape II: Infrastructure

Movement of goods And people


Flow of Goods
Expatriate Work Force and Omanisation
Securing a Future without Oil

ETH Studio Basel


Contemporary City Institute
Leon Faust, Benedikt Zweifel

DRAFT

Prof. Roger Diener, Prof. Marcel Meili


Liisa Gunnarsson, Mathias Gunz, Vesna Jovanovic,
Christian Mueller Inderbitzin
Spring Semester 2013
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ETH Studio Basel

Introduction

Introduction

Fabricating Oman

10

DRAFT

20km

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ETH Studio Basel

Fabricating Oman

Governmental Welfare

governmental welfare
In the last 40 years, since Sultan Qaboos bin Said Al Said overtook from his father, the Sultanate of
Oman developed rapidly. The success to bring the country out of a condition of backwardness and
isolation into a safe and prosperous modern state is unique.

DRAFT
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ETH Studio Basel

Fabricating Oman

1982 Near Nizwa

Governmental Welfare

DRAFT

2013 Muscat Expressway

40 Years of Progress
In the following it is explained briefly what made that progress possible, what the results of this enormous development are and whrere the future concerns porbably are emerging.
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GDP

2001
9/11

1985
collapse of oil price

1995
vision 2020

1981
foundation of the GCC

1978
discovery of gas
1980
second oil crisis

1973
rst oil crisis

1967
rst oil exoportation

1976
rst ve year plan

Governmental Welfare

23 July 1970
Sultan Qaboos bin Said Al Said
coming into power

Fabricating Oman

Population

Sultan Qaboos bin Said Al Said


Sultan Qaboos bin Said Al Said accceded to the throne
on 23 July 1970. His main aims were ending the countrys isolation and using its oil revenue for modernization
and development. Trough the so called Five Year Plans he
implemented remarkable economical reforms which turned
the Sultanate of Oman within 40 years from a developing
country into a prospering welfare state.
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Oil Production
Gas Production

1960

1970

1980

1990

Policy and Economy


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2000

2010

ETH Studio Basel

Fabricating Oman

Governmental Welfare

DRAFT

Oil and Gas


The oil and gas industry is Omans most important sector. Almost half of the economical power relies
on the petrochemical industry. As the resources are finite the main aim is to diversify and fund the
economy on more sustainable sectors
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1%

Fabricating Oman

Governmental Welfare

trade
14%
construction
36%

service
17%
industry
12%

1.2 Million Employees

I r a n

Doha

Dubai

Q a t a r
Abu Dhabi

Al Buraimi

GDP

Sohar

fish, agriculture
2%

Mina Al-Fahal

U n i t e d
A r a b
E m i r a t e s

Employees
government
12%

petrochemistry
1%

Muscat
government
17%

Ibri
Nizwa

trade
14%

Qalhat LNG
Terminal

Sur

petrochemistry
44%

trade
22%

construction
36%

service
17%
industry
12%

industry
11%

S a u d i

fish, agriculture
8%

A r a b i a
service
1%

23.4 Billion USD GDP

Port of Duqm
Duqm

construction
3%

1.2 Million Employees

Economic Power versus Work Force


Almost half of the GDP is beeing generated in the petrochemical sector. But only 1% of Omans workforce is there
GDP
employeed.

fish, agriculture
2%

government
17%

Y e m e n
Salalah

OIL_GAS LEGENDE

100 km

Oil-/ Gaspipeline
Refinery
LNG Tanker Port
Oil Tanker Port
Projected

petrochemistry
44%

trade
22%

ELECTRICITY_WATER LEGENDE

industry
11%

Gaspipeline

service
1%

Major Power Plant


> 1000 GWh/year

23.4 Billion USD GDP

construction
3%

Power Plant
Desalination Plant

Oil and Gas Infrastructure


The oil and gas deposits are locatet in the inland of Oman.
Pipelines transport the crude oil and gas to the harbours,
weher it gets refined and exported. Currently they are consructing a new oil and gas terminal near Duqm, with the
aim to relocate the industry away from the capital
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DRAFT

Safah Oilfield
One of the biggest oilfields in Oman.
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ETH Studio Basel

Governmental Welfare

1960

1980

1970

GDP

2001
9/11

1985
collapse of oil price

1973
rst oil crisis

1980
second oil crisis

2007
nancial crisis

Fabricating Oman

1990

Oil Price

2000

2010

Dependency on Global Economy


As the economy of Oman depends mainly on the oil and
gas, its GDP runs almost parallel to the oil price.

1 Saudi Arabia
2 Venezuela
3 Canada
4 Iran
5 Iraq
6 Kuwait
7 UAE

25 Oman
0

50

100

150

200

250

Oil Reserves for 15 Years


Omans oil reserves will last at least for 15 years, but due
to the geology the exploration becomes always more difficult and therefore the costs increase.
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Billion Barrels

PDO
Petroelum Development Oman
about 9000 employees
wealth distribution
60% Oman, 40% Shell
is responsible for exploration and production
hires subcontractors. (often LCC)

Opal

Wealth Division
LCC
LCC Local community contractor
Bedu get shares (genossenschaftsmodell)
history: were mostly uneducated, living in the desert
where the oil, wealth was exploited, wanted share -> HM
introduced LCC
work as subcontractors for pdo, do maintenance, exploration, production

Oman Society for Petroleum Services


economical union of X companies
train omanis, give them work

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Shaleem Petroelum Company SAOC


Example of LCC
Local Community Company
Taxes 12%
Omanisation 85%, Beduisation 45%

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ETH Studio Basel

Fabricating Oman

Governmental Welfare

DRAFT

Energy and Water


The distribution of energy in Oman bases mainly on the natural gas grid. The gas resources will last
for another 30 years, but the consumption increases rapidly. Therefore an alternative to todays energy
sources will soon play an important role.
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Fabricating Oman

Sohar

Al Buraimi
Sohar

Al Buraimi

Governmental Welfare

Barka

Muscat

Gubrah

Barka
Gubrah
Ibri

Muscat

Main Interconnected
Rusayl
Nizwa
System
Main Interconnected
Nizwa
600000 Customers
System

Rusayl

Ibri

Sur

600000 Customers

Sur

Qarn Alam
Qarn Alam

PDO Power System

PDO Power System

Duqm
Duqm

Salalah System

70000 Customers
Salalah System
70000 Customers

Salalah
Salalah

ELECTRICITY_WATER LEGENDE
0

100 km

100 km

Gaspipeline
Major Power Plant
> 1000 GWh/year
Power Plant
Desalination Plant

Omans Energy Infrastructure


From the gasfields in the inland of Oman the natural gas
gets transportet trough the gaspipelines to the power
plants in the urban areas. There are three electricity
networks; the biggest is the Main Interconnectet System
which supplies mainly the capital area and the Batinah
Plain, in the south there is the Salalah System and in between the indipendent PDO System supplies the oilfields.
For stability reasons and the supply guarantee all the
networks can be connected to each other.
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Energy 100% from Fossile Fuel


All electricity in Oman is beeing produced from fossile fue
only; mainly from nautral gas, petrol as alternative.
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Fabricating Oman

Governmental Welfare

1 Russia
2 Iran
3 Qatar
4 Turkmenistan
5 Saudi Arabia

3000

6 USA
7 UAE
Energy Production

2000

28 Oman
1200
Gas Production

1000

800

Exports
Gas Consumption

Energy Consumption

1985

1980

1995

1990

2000

2005

0
Trillion Btu

1999

2001

2003

2005

2007

400

2009

0
Billion cu.Ft.

Energy Production/ Consumption

Production/ Consumption of Gas

Over the last 30 years the energy production tripled but


also the consumpiton increased exponentially.

Natural Gas is the main energy source and for price reasons already today 11 % of the consumed gas is imported.

water desalination
1%

diverse

industry
48%

10000

20000

30000

40000

50000

Billion CU M

Natural Gas Reserves for 30 Years


The nautral gas resevers will last at least for 30 years. But
the consumption increases exponentially. 98 % of industries relies on oil and gas. In the region Qatar owns still the
biggest reserves and there are contracts in the GCC for
oil and gas supply. Already today exists a gaspipeline from
Qatar trough the UAE to Oman.

petrol
24%
commercial &
public service
4%

residential
9%

natural gas
76%

transportation
23%

Omans Five Major Power Plants


867 Trillion Btu

867 Trillion Btu

Energy Consumption by Sector

Primary Energy Consumption

The industry sector makes almost halfpart of the energy


consumption.

Three-fourths of the energy consumed relys on natural gas.


Just one quarter comes from petrol.
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Barka Power Plant


Rusayl Power Plant
Sohar Power Plant
Gubrah Power Plant
Qarn Alam Power Plant

DRAFT

2200 (GWh/year)
1700
1500 (see above)
1300
1000
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ETH Studio Basel

Fabricating Oman

Governmental Welfare

Typical Gas Fired Power Plant

Al Ghubrah Desalination Plant

The Al Kamil Power Plant is located nearby Sur in the


inland. With its output of 460 GWh per year it is a typical
midsize gas fired plant. In case of a gas balckout it can be
run also with petrol, stored in tanks nearby.

The Al Ghubrah Desalination and Power Plant is a hybrid


plant, which produces electricity and uses the rejected
heat for desalination. They use the multistage flash distillation (MSF), wich is based on steam injection and heat
exchanger.

Gas Well

200 - 800 km

> 10 km

Power Plant

Factory

Sea

Desalination Plant

Factory

From the Gasfield to the Factory

From the Sea to the Factory

The electricity in Oman is produced locally. The gas is


beeing transported from the wells trough pipelines to the
power plants, which are for the reason of less energy loss
located close to the facties.

Desalinated water is beeing produced mainly by the three


big desalination plants. For efficiency reasons they are
combined with power plants. The water is mainly distributed by trucks (see below).

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ETH Studio Basel

Fabricating Oman

Governmental Welfare

DRAFT

Todays Road Infrastructure


The great road infrastructure as it exists today all over Oman would not have been possible without the revenue from the oil. The way it impacts on the landscape is unique and an expression of the
enormous development over the last 40 years.
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Fabricating Oman

Port of Khasab

Port of Khasab

Dubai

Dubai

Abu Dhabi

Governmental Welfare

Abu Dhabi

Al Buraimi

Port of Sohar

Al Buraimi
Sohar

Port of Sohar

Sohar

Muscat

Muscat

Port of Sultan Qaboos Port of Sultan Qaboos

Ibri

Ibri

MCT

MCT

Nizwa

Nizwa

Sur

Duqm
Port of Duqm

SLL

Salalah
Port of Salalah

0
100 km

Sur

Duqm
Port of Duqm

SLL

Salalah
Port of Salalah

100 km

Road Infrastructure
In Oman the traffic is totally dependent on the road system. There are four lane highways connecting the main
urban areas in Oman and to Abu Dhabi and Dubai in the
UAE. The population depends completely on the car, therefore six to seven cars per family are normal. A big issue is
the land consumption by the roadsystem and consequently
relocation problems.
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Through the Mountains and over the


Valleys
The construction of the roads has an enormous impact
on the landscape. By cutting the mountains and filling up
the valleys in between there is beeing moved an incredible mass of material. That cut and fill can be seen as an
expression of the extreme development pressure in Oman.
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ETH Studio Basel

Fabricating Oman

Governmental Welfare

Engineering Construction
Because of the higher complexity and therefore the higher
costs, bridges and other engineering constructions are
very rare and used only in the earlier stages and where its
absolutely necessary, mainly because of Wadis or crossing
of another road.
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DRAFT

Bausher - Amerat Road


N 23 33 37 E 58 25 42
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ETH Studio Basel

Fabricating Oman

Governmental Welfare

$30,579,769,066

$16,088,051,666

16% Cars

Motor
2.4% Floating 1.8%
for
or submersiblevehicles
transporting
goods
drilling
platforms

1.5% Bread,
pastry, cakes,
biscuits and
other baked

6.5%
Petroleum oils,
rened

61% Petroleum oils, crude

2.0% Mineral alcohols


12% Petroleum
or chemical
gases
fertilizers,

0.91% Air
2.4% Parts for1.1%
Appliances forconditioners
use with hoists
thermostatically
and excavation
machinery
0.84%

0.99% Pumps Transmission


for liquids

1.3% Insulated
0.95% Self
wire; optical propelled
ber cables bulldozers,
0.91%
1.2% Turbojets,
Telephones
turbo

1.0%
0.54% Other
Structures andbars and rods

0.58%
Poultry

0.87%
Petroleum
gases

0.67%
Polymers of

0.70% Iron
ores and
concentrates

2.2%
Unwrought
aluminum

0.81% Cement0.30%

Bitumen

0.43% Parts
of radios,

1.1% Articial 0.34%


Cleaning
corundum
0.31%
Polycarboxylic

0.35%

0.72% Ships' Electric


derricks; cranes

0.66%
Medicaments,0.28%
Industrial

0.67% Parts
and accessories

0.44% Other 0.32%


0.78% Hot
rolled iron or tubes and Seminished
non alloy steel,

copper and

0.54% Wheat
and meslin

0.66%
0.58%
Centrifuges Electrical
transformers

0.41%
0.75%
Apparatus
Machinery for

2.0% Tubes,
pipes and
hollow proles,
0.41% Tube
seamless, of 0.56% Renedor pipe

0.83% Other
not reinforced

1.1% Milk and


cream,
concentrated

0.73% Rice

0.59% Acyclic
alcohols
1.1% Jewelry of
precious metal

0.29%
Other

0.33%
Aluminum

nitrogenous

1.6% Cyclic
hydrocarbons

0.66% Cigars
0.52%
1.6% Parts and
Parts of
accessories ofgoods of
the motor
1.5% Motor
vehicles for the

1.1% Acyclic

0.32%
Glazed

0.79% New
pneumatic

0.40%
Polymers of

0.51%
Polymers of

0.36%
Tubes,

0.94%
Insulated wire;
optical ber
cables

0.65% Milk
and cream,
concentrated

4.2%
Petroleum oils,
rened

0.50% Other
furniture and

0.33%
Ferrous

Omans Import 2010

0.52% Cars

DRAFT

Commercial Driving Forces


Omans export is clearly dominated by the petrochemical industry. The whole economy bases on the
oil revenue. In importing the dominating part consists of cars, machinery and accessories mainly used
in the construction sector.
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0.40%
Chromium ore

Omans Export 2010


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ETH Studio Basel

Fabricating Oman

Governmental Welfare

WORKFORCE
FOREIGN WORKERS
Top 3 Countries

800000

470000 India
125000 Bangladesh
106000 Pakistan

250000
Omani Workers

Natural Gas

3.9 B $

Power Plant

Cars

Industry

3.7 B $

Petroleum
Handcraft

Refinery

Raw Oil

Machinery

PRODUCTION

Refined
15.2 B $
Petroleum

Oil-/ Gasfield

1.8 B $

5.6 B $ UAE
3.5 B $ Japan
1.2 B $ USA
0.9 B $ South Korea
0.8 B $ India
0.8 B $ Germany
16.1 Billion $ Total

Metals

Metals
1.2 B $
Chemicals
1.7 B $

EXPORT
Top 6 Countries
Raw Oil

9.2 B $

1.7 B $

RESOURCES

Construction

IMPORT
Top 6 Countries

Natural Gas

11.0 B $ China
4.0 B $ Japan
3.6 B $ South Korea
2.6 B $ Thailand
2.0 B $ UAE
0.7 B $ India
30.6 Billion $ Total

TRADE

Driving the Machine


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ETH Studio Basel

Fabricating Oman

Diversification and Foreign Investment

DIVERSIFICATION AND FOREIGN


INVESTMENT
As Oman depends highly on the oil revenue one of the main goals is to diversify the industrial production. Therefore the government stimulates systematicly the non-oil sector to be prepared for the
time after the oil. One important part in this approach is the attempt to attract foreign companies.

DRAFT
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ETH Studio Basel

Fabricating Oman

Diversification and Foreign Investment

KOM
Knowledge Oasis Muscat
PEIE
Rusayl Industrial Estate

Public Establishment for Industrial Estates

DRAFT

The so called Public Establishment for Industrial Estates (PEIE) is an organisation which administrates so far about ten industrial parks all over Oman. In 1993 PEIE was established in response to the
expanding industrial estates with the objective of planning, establishing, managing and developing the
industrial estates across Oman. Currently, in addition to the industrial estates, PEIE also manages one
IT park, the Knowledge Oasis Muscat (KOM), and Al Mazunah Free Zone.
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ETH Studio Basel

Fabricating Oman

Diversification and Foreign Investment

Muscat Expressway

Gateway
Restaurants
PEIE Office
Powerplant
Al Buraimi

Al Buraimi

Sohar

Ibri

Sohar

RUSAYL
Nizwa

Muscat
Oman Cables

Sumail

NIZWA

Gulf Int. Chemicals


Sur

Oman Packaging

Sur

Sadolin Paints Oman


Int. Poly Industries
Oman Foodstuff

Rusayl Industrial Estate

Duqm

Rusayl Industrial Estate is situated 45 kilometres from


Muscat and occupies around 750 hectares, of which
240 hectares have been fully developed and subdivided
into plots of various sizes. Established in 1983, Rusayl is
Omans flagship industrial estate. From its initial 12 factories, Rusayl continously expanded to over 154 factories in

operation, 13 under construction and 40 in consideration.


Factories in operation produce a wide spectrum of goods
as well as industrial-oriented products, ranging from:
chemicals, batteries, electrical and building materials, fibre
optic cables, foodstuff, textiles, stationery and paints

Mazunah

Raysut

Salalah

Omans Industrial Estates


The first industrial estate in Oman was established at Al
Rusayl in 1983. As new industrial estates were set up,
the Public Establishment for Industrial Estates (PEIE) was
formed a decade later to give substantial impetus to industrial development all over the country.
The infrastructure within an industrial estate, which contains power and water supply as well as facility management, is provided by the PEIE. The plots are rented to the
several companies.
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PEIE Office and Infrastructure


As on all PEIE managed estates, Rusayl provides its renter
with serveral facilities and services which include: factory
and office space, electricity, water, gas, telecommunications, sewage treatment, disposal of solid and other waste,
internal and external road networks, mosques, banks,

DRAFT

restaurants, a supermarket, a postal office and a clinic.


Rusayl is also home to offices of the Customs Department
and the Royal Oman Police

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ETH Studio Basel

Fabricating Oman

Diversification and Foreign Investment

Office

Raw Oil Storage

Refinery

Bottling Plant

Refined Oil Storage

Products Storage

Areej Vegetable Oils & Derivatives


Areej Vegetable Oils and Derivatives S.A.O.G is manufacturing and marketing vegetable oils, ghee, margarines,
specialty fats and butter products. Areej imports crude
vegetable oil trough the Port of Muscat. They are licensed
by Thomy, Nestl, etc. Half of their export goes to GCC
countries, the other half is distributed all over the world.
60% of the 653 employees are Omani.
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DRAFT

Factory Site
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ETH Studio Basel

Fabricating Oman

Diversification and Foreign Investment

Europoles Middle East


Europoles Middle East was established in 2010 as a
Joint Venture between Europoles and RAY International L.L.C. With a total production capacity of 40,000
masts, Europoles Middle East should be able to
replace the wooden masts currently used in Oman in
short order.
For quality reasons the machinery for production is
imported from Germany and Italy.

Production Process
For the production of spun concrete masts there is a high
qualtity concrete needed. For this reason the cement is
beeing imported, while the aggregates come from the
region. For the mixing process of the concrete they use ice
instead of water due to the high ambient temperature.
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ETH Studio Basel

Fabricating Oman

Diversification and Foreign Investment

DRAFT

Port of Sohar and Free Zone


The Sohar Industrial Port is the main commercial harbour in Oman. It is a joint venture between the
Omani government and the Port of Rotterdam and therefore a prime example for Omans international collaboration. The Sohar Free Zone is located nearby the port and offers ideal conditions for
companies integrated in international trade.
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ETH Studio Basel

Diversification and Foreign Investment

Fabricating Oman

Sohar Industrial Port

Free Zone Sohar

Port of Sohar is the biggest commercial harbour in Oman.


The management of this industrial port lies with Sohar
Industrial Port Company, a 50/50 joint venture between the
Government of Oman and the Port of Rotterdam.

The Free Zone of Sohar is located nearby the Sohar Industrial Port and offers an ideal environment for foreign investments to a strategic location on the Arabian Peninsula. The
One-Stop-Shop solution simplifies the permit procedure.

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DRAFT
ETH Studio Basel

Fabricating Oman

Construction

Construction
In the past 40 years the population of Oman has multiplied. The increasing need for new houses and
investment of oil money in large scale infrastructure projects have created a construction industry
which accounts for 1/3 of the labour force in Oman. The construction industries around Muscat are
concentrated in clusters with specific functions.
The pressure and speed at which infrastructure projects like the Muscat Express Highway are built, produce
an urban landscape formed by the economy of construction and the geological qualities of the earth.

DRAFT
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ETH Studio Basel

Fabricating Oman

Construction

Major Development Areas


Construction Industries
Expatriate Living Areas

Ma Abilah:
Small Enterprises

Labourcamp

Wadi Al Kabir:
Small Enterprises
Ruwi

Oman Cement:
Large Scale Local Operator
Ghala:
Construction Cluster
Sewage Plant

10km
10km

Transforming a City: Actors and Places

DRAFT

Major Development Areas

Major Development Areas

Construction Industries

Construction Industries

Expatriate Living Areas

Expatriate Living Areas

Labourcamp
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Labourcamp

ETH Studio Basel

Fabricating Oman

Construction

DRAFT

Oman Cement: Large Scale Local Operator


The majority of the raw material derives from local suppliers. The biggest one is Oman Cement, hidden in the mountains on the way from Muscat to Nizwa. This machinery produces about 1/3 of the
cement used on Omans construction sites.
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ETH Studio Basel

Fabricating Oman

Construction

Stones and Rocks from the Mountains

RESSOURCES, MINING

LABOUR CAMPS

Stones

OMAN CEMENT

Workers
Cement

Machines, Materials,
Knowledge

GHALA
Cement, raw Material

Parts, Machines

CONSTRUCTION SITE

Prefabricated Bricks, Tiles

Gaspipeline 27000 m3 / h

cut or fill
material

Road to Ghala

Fitout, Metall, Wood

PORT DUBAI

Road to Muscat City

MA ABILAH WADI AL KABIR


OTHER CONSTRUCTION SITE

1km

Parts Metall, Wood

MATERIAL

PROCESS

PRODUCT

Oman Cement: Mining and Production


in the Mountains
Founded in 1982 Oman Cement is 60% government
owned and has 550 employees, with an Omanisation rate
of 70%. It produced 9000t cement daily.

Extraction of Raw Material


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DRAFT
ETH Studio Basel

Fabricating Oman

Construction

Construction Material

CEMENT CRUSHER

ent

es

sto

cem

CONSTRUCTION

WADI or MOUNTAIN

HOUSING

DUMPSITE
garbage

Material Flow
The Wadis are excavated to a depth of 2m. The extracted
stones are crushed and used as raw material for examples
as paving or for the cement production.
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Landfill: Dump Site in the Wadis


Later the excavated wadis are used as dump site and filled
with the garbage of the city of Muscat.
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DRAFT
ETH Studio Basel

Fabricating Oman

Construction

DRAFT

Ghala Industrial Area: Construction Cluster


Ghala is the organisational centre from which all construction sites are coordinated and supplied with
material, machines and knowledge.
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ETH Studio Basel

Fabricating Oman

Construction

Maabilah

Wadi Al Kabir
Ghala
Sewage

20km

RESSOURCES, MINING

LABOUR CAMPS

Stones

OMAN CEMENT

Stratetic Location
The Location was determined in 1980 by the masterplan of
Fred Scholz.

Workers
Highway to Muscat

Cement

Machines, Materials,
Knowledge

GHALA
Cement, raw Material

Ghala

Parts, Machines

CONSTRUCTION SITE

Prefabricated Bricks, Tiles

cut or fill
material
Fitout, Metall, Wood

PORT DUBAI

Expresshighway to Muscat

MA ABILAH WADI AL KABIR

Sewage Plant

OTHER CONSTRUCTION SITE


Parts Metall, Wood

Expresshighway to Batinah
1km

MATERIAL

PROCESS

PRODUCT

Situated Between two Highways


The area is well connected through the access to highways. This was the basic precondition for Ghala to become
a distribution centre for the construction industries.

Ghala: Machines, Material Depot and


Headquarters
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DRAFT
ETH Studio Basel

Fabricating Oman

Construction

Galfar Headquarter

gatehouse

Construction companies are foremost all owned and runned


by expatriates from India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Jordan and
Germany. The biggest firm with about 27000 foreign workers
is Galfar from India. Founded in 1974 with 6 workers, they build
everything from oil plantation to the major highway projects.

machinepark

CCC White Camp:


The first Labour Camp in Oman
Founded in 1973, it is organized like a small town and has for
example a restaurant and a carpentry. Besides all the workers,
also about 50 engineers are living there with their families.

worker housing

headquater

storage

Organisation Model of Operation Centres


The companies are organized in lots, leased by the government
span of 2025 years. Within the lots the companies
have all the key elements nearby. Larger companies like Galfar
have several lots that are scattered over entire Ghala, making a
total area of several hectares.

container housing
for a time
2 rooms 5 beds

IV /62

DRAFT

Machinepark
There are dozens of hectares of desert sand on which
hundreds of machines are burning at 50 in the sun.
IV/63

ETH Studio Basel

Fabricating Oman

Construction

DESALINATION or GROUNDWATER

fresh water

HOUSING

Barka Desalination Plant

Ghala Sewage Plant

Water is desalinated at the seaside under huge consumption of energy (gas).

Situated right next to the industrial area, the sewage plant


is cleaning the water of the entire Muscat region.

dirty water

SEWAGE PLANT

purified water

BUILDING SITE or FARM

Landfill with Compressed Earth and


Poured Water

Cascade of Water Usage


Although the cascading usage may seem efficient on first
sight, there is a lot of loss. For example the transportation
by pipes would be much more efficient.
IV /64

The purified water is used on building sites for the landfilling. This is quite water intense: the earth needs to be
compressed and watered to become a physically stable
clay mixture.
IV/65

DRAFT
ETH Studio Basel

Fabricating Oman

Construction

DRAFT

MaAbilah and Wadi al Kabir: Small Enterprises


MaAbilah and Wadi al Kabir are two industrial zones with congruent services. Small enterprises prefabricate simple building materials and there are also little shops that produce custom designed goods
on demand (e.g. decorated wooden furniture, metal gates, ...)
IV /66

IV/67

ETH Studio Basel

Fabricating Oman

Construction

Maabilah

Wadi Al Kabir
Ghala

20km

RESSOURCES, MINING

LABOUR CAMPS

Stones

OMAN CEMENT

Workers

Service Coverage
Although they have typological differences, both Areas
feature very similar services and products. Ma Abilah
customers come rather from the Batinah Plane, while the
customers of Wadi al Kabir are foremost Muscat Citizens.

Cement

Machines, Materials,
Knowledge

GHALA
Cement, raw Material

Parts, Machines

CONSTRUCTION SITE

Prefabricated Bricks, Tiles

cut or fill
material
Fitout, Metall, Wood

PORT DUBAI

MA ABILAH WADI AL KABIR


OTHER CONSTRUCTION SITE
Parts Metall, Wood

MATERIAL

PROCESS

PRODUCT
200m

MaAbilah and Wadi al Kabir:


Prefab on Demand

MaAbilah: Grid on the Plane


IV /68

200m

DRAFT

Wadi al Kabir: Built into the Mountains


IV/69

ETH Studio Basel

Fabricating Oman

living upstairs
street
scrap material

Construction

Products: MDF Carpentry

Products: Metallgates

The wood is imported from Asia, Africa, comes in through


the Emirates, Dubai.

Metal works are produced by commission by cataloge


examples.

courtyard workshops

working area,
storage

small shops

gatehouse
taxi, hitchikers
mosque

Organisation Model of Production Unit


in Maabilah

Street Typology

In the smaller front shops services like carpentry, metalwork, car maintenance are offered. Production on larger
scale happens in courtyards independently.

Streets are specialized in certain materials. The shops are


owned by Omanis and are leased to expatriate managers
for about 200300 Rial per arc unit.
IV /70

IV/71

kitchen

volleyball court
fitness

bigger accomondation

DRAFT
ETH Studio Basel

Fabricating Oman

Living and Working in One


Low-Tech Manufacturing
Most procedures are half automatized, but need still a lot
manual operation.

The workers live all nearby, in the slabs upstairs of the


frontshops. This two room appartment is shared by 8 workmen, they earn about 80 Rial monthly and pay each 20 Rial
for the rent.

Construction

Recycling of Broken Cars


Huge lots are filled with broken cars, which serve as spare
parts. New parts are imported from Asia over Port Dubai.

Maintenance of Cars

Prefabrication in Courtyards
In the courtyards bigger companies of 1020 workers produce basic building materials like bricks, tiles etc.
IV /72

The automobile as the instrument of mobility is maintained


and repaired in Ma Abilah and Wadi al Kabir. The growing
upgrade and tuning industry, is serving the car as status
symbol. To quote Mr. Yaqoob, HR Areej Vegetables: If you
want to know a company, you have to look at the parking lot
of their employees.
IV/73

DRAFT
ETH Studio Basel

Fabricating Oman

Construction

DRAFT

The Emerging Urban Landscape I: Housing


With the political change and the new gained wealth from oil, the population has quadrupled within
40 years. The need for houses has developed a market where new building sites pop up at high speed,
but are put on hold shortly thereafter or are delayed due to the lack of money, thus leaving an fragmented urban territory under constant construction.
IV /74

IV/75

ETH Studio Basel

Fabricating Oman

Construction

Maabilah

Wadi Al Kabir
Ghala

10km

Major Development Areas


Development
Areas
Construction Industries
Expatriate Living Areas
Labourcamp

Growing Need for new Houses

100m

Since His Majesty has taken the power the population has
quintupled from 600000 to almost 3 million inhabitants.
Omani living abroad came home after the change of power.
Hospitals were built all over the country and the health
care enhanced.
Another factor that led to a higher demand for houses is
the atomization of families. While it was common to live
with the relatives in the same house, nowadays every family wants their own home.
IV /76

Fragmented Territory
As an instrument to distribute the wealth among the people, an Omani when turned 23 has the right to a piece of
Land to build his own house. The lots are distributed by a
lottery. First the new owners build the wall and from there
on it can take years until they have the money to construct
the entire building.
IV/77

DRAFT
ETH Studio Basel

Fabricating Oman

Construction

GDP in Billion US $

Living on Site
In housing construction the workers live in the unfinished
structure on site or in improvised huts nearby.

Improvised Toilet

GDP in Bio US $

Employees in 1000

Employees in 1000
Construction sector accounts for 1/3 of the labourforce in
Oman and consists foremost of expatriate workmen of
India, Pakistan and Bangladesh. Most of them are living in
labour camps as introduced in the fourth chapter.

GDP in Billion US $

IV /78

Fragmented Construction
Unfinished houses under construction are appearing everywhere and mark the urban landscape.
IV/79

DRAFT
ETH Studio Basel

Fabricating Oman

Construction

The Emerging Urban Landscape II: Infrastructure

DRAFT

Omans overall national strategy of the past 15 years was focused on the building of infrastructure at
large scale. Enormous amounts of earth have been moved around to build projects like the Muscat
Express Highway or the new airport.
Intervention at large scale resemble a Roman approach of dominating the nature, although this newly
built structures are surprisingly well integrated through layers of sand and dust that covers everything.
IV /80

IV/81

ETH Studio Basel

Fabricating Oman

5 Year National Plan


Surpreme Council for Planing (SCP)

Construction

10 national goals

His Majesty Approval

Ministries
develop specific 5 year plan

5 Year Ministrial Plan

Fragmented Bridges
Especially expensive engineering work like bridges are
discontinued. For example a dozen of unfinished bridges
stand along the Batinah Highway.

set goals within ministry


make project and budgets

Ministry of Transport

SCP Review
meeting overal goals?
approval / correction
> budged allocation

Ministries Adjustment

Annual Adjusment Plan


Ministry
of Transport

annual budgets
projects

SCP Review
annual budgets
projects

Decision Making in Investment


The longterm strategies are defined by His Majesty and
the Surpreme Council for Planning with the instrument of
the 5 year plan. The goals are implemented into the ministries and controlled through several layers. The budged is
revised and new allocated annually.
IV /82

Budget Cut: Project on Hold


Due to the international finance crisis 2008 some projects
were put on hold.
IV/83

DRAFT
ETH Studio Basel

Fabricating Oman

Construction

RESSOURCES, MINING

LABOUR CAMPS

Stones

Mountain Cutting as Source


Extracted earth is brought to the next filling site or depot.

OMAN CEMENT

Settlement built on Excavations

Workers
Cement

Machines, Materials,
Knowledge

GHALA
Cement, raw Material

Parts, Machines

CONSTRUCTION SITE

Prefabricated Bricks, Tiles

cut or fill
material
Fitout, Metall, Wood

PORT DUBAI

MA ABILAH WADI AL KABIR


OTHER CONSTRUCTION SITE
Parts Metall, Wood

MATERIAL

PROCESS

PRODUCT

Flattening the Landscape for the Airport


The airport is the biggest landfill project in Oman. Trucks
from construction sites all over the region deposit waste
material which is then used for flattening the landscape for
the rollfields or the building up of ramps for bridges.

Product and Source


IV /84

IV/85

DRAFT
ETH Studio Basel

Fabricating Oman

Construction

1km
25.02.2009

25.06.2009

DRAFT

30.11.2010

Muscat Expresshighway 20092010


IV /86

IV/87

ETH Studio Basel

Fabricating Oman

Construction

concretete
concretete
slip
slip
plain
plain
(falling
(falling
rocks,
rocks,
rain)
rain)
10%
10%
inclination
inclination

7070

8080
3.00
3.00

3.00
3.00

shotcrete
shotcrete
with
with
steelmesh
steelmesh

weepholes
weepholes
forfor
drainage
drainage

raw rock 1:20

shotcrete 1:20

Raw Rock with Slip Plain

Shotcrete with Weepholes

With shotcrete steeper cuts are possible. This is adopted for


porous stones or very high cuts of 80100m. Because the
angle can be up to 80 less material has to be excavated.

1. Excavator
makes path to top

2. Drilling Rig
drills holes for explosives

4. R
com
3. Explosives
blast up the mountain

3. Water Truck
watering ground

4. Dozer
move material to the side

2. Dozer
disperse material in layers

4. Dump Truck
brings material to next fill site

1. Dump Truck
brings material from cut site

DRAFT

Cutting Process 1:1000


The inclination of the road is limited with 67%. The assimilation is made by cutting passages through the mountain,
because its the cheapest method. Cutting an average
mountain takes about 34 months.
IV /88

Movement of Material
Material is moved at large scale to the next filling site.
IV/89

ETH Studio Basel

Fabricating Oman

Construction

temporary Props for holding


the Prefab Elements

temporary Props for holding


8.00
the Prefab Elements

temporary Props for holding


the Prefab Elements

Anchor 8m

Anchor 8m

Anchor 8m

Prefab Concrete

Textile Layer

Textile Layer
60

Earth in Layers of 25cm


compressed and Water poured

60
Earth in Layers of 25cm
compressed and Water poured

25

3.00

60

Earth in Layers of 25cm


compressed and Water poured

25

3.00

8.00

Prefab Concrete

Prefab Concrete

Textile Layer

8.00

25

Wadi Passage

3.00

Concrete Curtainwall
The curtainwall princip protects the clay wall from rainfall.

For the annually floating waters there are orthogonal tubes


because of the lack of bridges. These are often the only
ways to pass a highway without risking your life.

Compressed Earth Wall 1:20


The earth is scattered in layers of 25 cm, then water is
poured and the layer compressed.
4. Roller
compressing material

3. Water Truck
watering ground material

2. Dozer
disperse material in layers of 25 cm

1. Dump Truck
brings material from cut site

DRAFT

Filling Process 1:1000


Instead of expensive bridges which require engineering
work, wadis are filled with the earth from cutting sites. In
principle it is an oversized clay wall. An average wall is built
within 7 months.
IV /90

Production of Landscape
Consequences for the ecosystem yet unknown.
IV/91

ETH Studio Basel

Fabricating Oman

Movement of Goods And People

Movement of Goods And People


The road infrastructure is the backbone of the distribution system of Oman. In this network goods as
well as people are fast and individually distributed. This infrastructure is built up by an army of workmen, which are only temporary visitors in Oman. Expatriates accounts for about 80% of the workforce in the private sector and build as this the backbone of the economy.

DRAFT
IV /92

IV/93

ETH Studio Basel

Fabricating Oman

Movement of Goods And People


Port of Shahid Rajaee 5M TEU
8M TEU capacity

PERSIAN GULF

IRAN

Port Khor Sharjah 3M TEU


6M TEU capacity

Port of Doha 1M TEU


2M TEU capacity (2016)

Port of Jebel Ali 13M TEU


55M TEU capacity (2030)

Port Khor Fakkan 2M TEU


4M TEU capacity

GULF OF OMAN

Port of Sohar 0.2M TEU


6 M TEU capacity

UNITED ARAB
EMIRATES

Port Sultan Qaboos0.3M TEU


0M TEU, closing for tourism

SAUDI ARABIA
OMAN

Port of Duqm 0M TEU


3.5M TEU capacity (opened 2013)

ARABIAN SEA
YEMEN

Port of Salalah 3M TEU


8M TEU capacity

TEU= one standard container


(twenty-foot equivalent unit)

Ports Scales and Capacities


Flow of Goods
The road network built in the past 30 years has become the backbone of Omans economy. All goods
are moved through this system by independent small enterprises.
IV /94

In the past 10 years Oman has made major investments in


ports, still most goods are imported through Dubai, which
is an established distribution centre. Like in most GCC
countries the market in Oman is too small to take up the
volumes of direct imports.
IV/95

DRAFT
ETH Studio Basel

Fabricating Oman

Movement of Goods And People

Waiting for a Comission


Like a taxi driver in front of a hotel truck owners wait in
front of industrial areas like Rusayl or Ghala to be called up.

PRODUCTION COMPANY
needs to deliver goods to UAE
-> asks for offers

X
TRUCK FIRM

all Trucks abroad


> too long waiting time

TRUCK FIRM

TRUCK FIRM

only one truck available


> too high offer

not interested in
delivering abroad

TRUCK FIRM

enough trucks are available


offer accepted

Small Shipping Enterprises distribute


Goods
The distribution system of Oman is very decentralised,
hundreds of small enterprises with about 13 trucks offer
shipping services. The transportation rate is not fixed but
has to be bargained about. Companies with goods to ship
call up truck owners to see who is available at which rate.
The prices vary from day to day, for example when there is
a traffic jam in Saudia Arabia because of strict customs.
IV /96

DRAFT

Trucks without Logos


No major truck company dominates the road.
IV/97

ETH Studio Basel

Fabricating Oman

Movement of Goods And People

Expatriate Work Force and Omanisation

DRAFT

Expatriates account for 1/3 of Omans population and with about 80% of the labour force in the private sector Oman is highly dependent on this people. At the same time it is made clear that they are
only temporary visitors by naming them expats rather than immigrants.
Oman is trying to enforce its independency with laws, foremost the Omanisation rate. This demands
the employment of a certain amount of Omani and has an huge impact on Omans economy.
IV /98

IV/99

ETH Studio Basel

Major
Development Areas
Movement of Goods And People

Fabricating Oman

Construction Industries
Expatriate Living Areas
Ma Abilah

Labourcamp

Wadi Al Kabir
Ruwi

Ghala

10km

Major Development Areas


10km
Construction Industries
Expatriate Living Areas
Labourcamp
Major Development Areas

DRAFT

Living Areas of Foreign Workers

Construction Industries

The employer has to provide his employees with food and


housing by law. About 1/3 of all expats are employed in the
construction sector. These workmen are living foremost in
so called labour camps (blue circles).
IV /100

Expatriate Living Areas

Labourcamp

IV/101

ETH Studio Basel

gatehouse

Fabricating Oman

machinepark

headquater

worker
housing
Movement

of Goods And People

storage

gatehouse
taxi, hitchikers

kitchen

mosque

Selfmade Fitnesscenter

Container Mosque

volleyball court
fitness

Built out of leftovers from construction sites.

bigger accomondation

container housing
2 rooms 5 beds

Organisation Model of a Labourcamp


The camps are semi-temporary structures, they need a
building permit and have to persist for a minimum of 2
years to be economical.
The organisation resembles a military camp. Seen from
satellite they are distinguishable only by the lack of an
exercising square.

Flowers for the Hindu Altar


The workmen grow flowers next to their containers. They
need them for their prayers on small altars inside.
IV /102

IV/103

DRAFT
ETH Studio Basel

Fabricating Oman

Movement of Goods And People

Taxi, Hitchhiking for Free Time

Bus for Work


The workmen are transported by bus to the construction
sites. The drivers are Omani by the Omanisation law.

Transportation is shared, one can often see expatriates


waiting on the side of a road for somebody to pick them
up.

Highway to Ghala, Muscat

Highway to Nizwa

100m

Direct Access to Highway

Weekend Destination: Ruwi (Little India)

The easy access to a highway is crucial for the distribution


of workforce. On large construction projects the camps are
built directly on site.

The workmen have one day off per week on the weekend
(Friday). They go to Ruwi by taxi or hitchhiking, where they
meet friends and family members.

IV /104

IV/105

DRAFT
ETH Studio Basel

202020202020

Fabricating Oman

Movement of Goods And People

5) get contract at arrival


much lower salary

1 oneway flight paid + 30 days vacation per year


after 2 years: twoway flight, 60 days

2020 20

charges

4) sell there land to landlords


to pay for flight, visa

AUNT
PARENTS
SPOUSE

2020

AGENCY

WESTERN UNION

FAMILIES

AGENCY

WORKERS
202020202020

3) recruiting
promise

give job profile


salary

202020202020

1) pay for visa,


flight, charges

2020202020202020202020

COMPANY

202020202020202020202020202020

FARMER

00

0
00

00

00

2) forwarding
job profile, salary offer

1 Mio Expats x 12 x 100 Rial


= ca 1 Billion Rial / Year

Recruitment of Workers

Connection to Homeland

Uneducated farmers are promised a high salary and get the


real contract only after landing in Muscat. That way they are
forced to sign. A common workman earns about 80100
Rial. To bring their familiy along expatriates need to earn at
least 350 Rial.

The workmen send the majority of the money to their


families back home. Because the relatives back home do
not share it equally, they have to send it separately to the
different family members and spend a lot of money on
transfer fees.

IV /106

IV/107

DRAFT
ETH Studio Basel

Age Structure

Fabricating Oman

Movement of Goods And People

2.8 Mio

Doha

Dubai

Abu Dhabi

Suhar
Al Buraimi

United Arab
Emirates

Muscat
MCT

Ibri

Omani
Expatriates

Nizwa
Sur

20

Age Structure

Labourforce in 1000
20

2.8 Mio

Saudi Arabia

20

20
20
20
20

808

Oman

20
795
Duqm

20

20
110

20

Copper
Gold

Omani

Industry

Omani
105

Gas
Oil

Expatriates

Agriculture

employees
Ministries

Oil Tanker Terminal


LNG Terminal

Demographics

SLL

AboutYemen
half a million of young expats are working in Oman.
They are named expats and not immigrants which already
indicates that they are only temporary visitors. With the
visa they also get a so called labour card which serves as
an ID.
Women working as housemaids are most likely missing in
this diagram because they are not registered. Almost every
family has a housemaid. The employer is legally responsible
for them.
Salalah

Labourforce in 1000

100

200 km

14
105

Omani
147

employees
private sector

147

Omani
252

252

100% Omanisation

Omanisation:
You want Expats You need Omanis

0% Omanisation

If you want to run a business you need expats because


they costs 23 times less than Omani worker: the Omani
minimum salary is now 325 (before 2013: 200), compared
to the expats with no minimum salary but a market salary
20
of 60100 Rial monthly. In addition they are better motivat20
ed because they are only in Oman to earn money and have
no family or other conflicting interests.
So expats are needed to run a business and to be competitive in regard to other companies but also for Oman as
country. The massive development would never have been
possible without this work force.

IV/109

808

40% Omanisation

Cost of 5 Employees

Competition Market:
If you Want to Survive you Need Expats.

total
workforce: 1.2 Mio

Omani people prefer to work for the state even if they are
paid only half of what the would earn in the private sector.
On the one hand its a question of prestige, on the other of
20
securing the future: state employees
are de facto non-callable. Expats account for 80% of the public work force.
This problem is targeted by the Omanisation law which
prohibits a certain amount of Omani employees, depending
on the sector and job profile.

IV /108

20

20

DRAFT
ETH Studio Basel

Fabricating Oman

Movement of Goods And People

Taxi Driver: Jobs of 100% Omanisation


Certain jobs have an Omanisation rate of 100%: HR manager, busdriver, taxi driver. This can become a problem for
example due to the lack of knowledge transfer and new
inputs.

Construction Sector: 99% Expatriate


Omanisation Award
The Omanisation rate is a very important business factor.
Awards are proudly presented at the entrance of companies.
IV /110

The Omanisation rate in the construction sector is 25%.


Because its very difficult to find Omanis who are willing
to work in construction companies offer them about 100
Rial for giving their signature, that proofs that they work for
them.
IV/111

DRAFT
ETH Studio Basel

Fabricating Oman

Movement of Goods And People

16bio $ annualy
2.8mio
95% of year annualy

n%

oil a

oo

sch

on

ati

du

ra
lg

20000 $

nd g
as e

xpor
t

55000 km

2 per 1000 inhabitants

oil and gas export

ion

lat

u
op

km

ved
pa

doctors

ds

roa

BIP per capita

0.6 mio

1960

1970

1980

1990

2000

2010

2030?

OIL DISCOVERY
POLITIC CHANGE
EDUCATION, HEALTH
INFRSTRUCTURE
SOCIAL WELFARE

Securing a Future without Oil


In the past 40 years Oman has undergone massive change. In 1970 it was the least developed country
in the world with only 5 km of paved roads, one hospital and one school. There were medieval conditions.First
After
the political
change,
oil
Sultan Qaboos
took overHM Sultan Quaboos started to use the oil money to rapidly develop
INFRASTRUCTURE
EDUCATION AND HEALTH
the country. Starting with building
up schools and hospitals in the 80s. This health
and educational
SOCIAL WELFARE
programs were succeeded by investments in infrastructure at large scale. Now the development is focusing on the social welfare, generating jobs and attracting foreign investments.
It seems that Oman is in a rush to build a base for an unknown future. So far the direction is only
1975
1965
1985
1995
2005
pointing up, but the machinery is slowly running out of oil. Oman has a serious problem in finding an
alternative source of money, so far diversification from oil is only the export of gas.
IV /112

DRAFT
IV/113

ETH Studio Basel

Fabricating Oman

Sources
Books

Internet

Muscat: Sultanat Oman, Fred Scholz, 1990

http://maps.google.com
http://www.bing.com/maps
http://www.peie.om/
http://www.mocioman.gov.om/default.aspx?lang=en-US
http://www.taminat.com/english/index.jsp
http://www.omanpwp.com/Documents.aspx#46opwp
http://www.owatco.com/mainsite/
http://www.omangrid.com/
http://atlas.media.mit.edu

Laws
Ministry of the Manpower
http://www.manpower.gov.om/en/Law_home.asp

Maps
Muscat: Sultanat Oman, Fred Scholz, 1990
The Oil & Gas Year S. 72 ff.

Appendix

image credits

acknowlegments

All graphics and photos by Leon Faust, Benedikt Zweifel


and students of ETH Studio Basel FS13, except where
noted.

Persons

P. 26,29,30,33,34,36,39,40,43
http://www.bing.com/maps

Peter Hamel
Hussain Yousuf Al-Bulushi
Mohd Yaqoob
Anikumar R. Pillai
Sophie Loschert

Institutions
GUtech, Muscat

Interviews

Students

Hussain Yousuf Al-Bulushi, Supreme Council for Planing

Sami Al Habsi
Safaa Al Shukairy
Fatma Al Harrasi
Hawa Al Harrasi
Yomna Mohamed
Meriam Osman

Peter Hamel, Shaleem Petroleum


Mark Hobbs, General Manager, Shaleem Petroleum
Mohd Yaqoob, HRD Manager, Areej Vegetables
Ali Mohammed Al-Raiisi, Deputy General Manager,
Al Ghubrah Power and Desalination
Mesh Chandra Shee, Production Controller,
Al Kamil Power Station
Mohammed Salim Al-Harthy, CEO,
OPAL Oman Society for Petroleum Services
Ahmed al Bathi, Nephew, Lightning Star Ghala
Thomas Gandler, Commercial Director, Strabag
Anikumar R. Pillai, Sr. Manager Operations Roads &
Bridges Unit, Galfar
Christof Nottbeck, General Manager, Europoles
Wolfgang Persterer, Production Manager, Europoles
Yasir Said Tabook, Head of Customer Care, PEIE Rusayl

DRAFT
IV /114

IV/115

ETH Studio Basel