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Outline of robotics

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia






Robotics – branch of technology that deals with the design, construction, operation, structural
disposition, manufacture and application of robots.[1] Robotics is related to
the sciences of electronics, engineering, mechanics, and software.[2]The word "robot" was introduced
to the public by Czech writer Karel Čapek in his play R.U.R. (Rossum's Universal Robots), published
in 1920. The term "robotics" was coined by Isaac Asimov in his 1941 science fiction short-story

1 Nature of robotics

2 Branches of robotics

3 Contributing fields

4 Related fields

5 Robots

6 History of robotics

7 Robotics development and development tools

8 Robotics principles

9 Applications of robotics

10 Robotics organizations

11 Robotics competitions

12 People influential in the field of robotics

13 Robotics in popular culture

14 See also

15 References

16 External links

Nature of robotics[edit]
Robotics can be described as:

An applied science – scientific knowledge transferred into a physical

Research and development –

A branch of technology –

Branches of robotics[edit]
Robotics incorporates aspects of many disciplines
including electronics, engineering, mechanics, software and arts. Control of robots relies on many
areas of robotics, including:[4]

Adaptive control – control method used by a controller which must
adapt to a controlled system with parameters which vary, or are
initially uncertain. For example, as an aircraft flies, its mass will
slowly decrease as a result of fuel consumption; a control law is
needed that adapts itself to such changing conditions.

Aerial robotics – development of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs),
commonly known as drones, aircraft without a human pilot aboard.
Their flight is controlled either autonomously by onboard computers
or by the remote control of a pilot on the ground or in another

Anthrobotics – science of developing and studying robots that are
either entirely or in some way human-like.

Artificial intelligence – the intelligence of machines and the branch
of computer science that aims to create it.

Autonomous car – an autonomous vehicle capable of fulfilling the
human transportation capabilities of a traditional car

Autonomous research robotics –

Bayesian network –

BEAM robotics – a style of robotics that primarily uses simple
analogue circuits instead of a microprocessor in order to produce an
unusually simple design (in comparison to traditional mobile robots)
that trades flexibility for robustness and efficiency in performing the
task for which it was designed.

Behavior-based robotics – the branch of robotics that incorporates
modular or behavior based AI (BBAI).

Biomimetic – see Bionics.

Biomorphic robotics – a sub-discipline of robotics focused upon
emulating the mechanics, sensor systems, computing structures
and methodologies used by animals.

Bionics – also known as biomimetics, biognosis, biomimicry, or
bionical creativity engineering is the application of biological
methods and systems found in nature to the study and design of
engineering systems and modern technology.

Biorobotics – a study of how to make robots that emulate or
simulate living biological organisms mechanically or even

Cognitive robotics – views animal cognition as a starting point for
the development of robotic information processing, as opposed to
more traditional Artificial Intelligence techniques.

Clustering –

Computational neuroscience – study of brain function in terms of
the information processing properties of the structures that make up
the nervous system.

Robot control – a study of controlling robots

Robotics conventions –

Data mining Techniques –

Degrees of freedom – in mechanics, the degree of freedom (DOF)
of a mechanical system is the number of independent parameters

 Digital image processing – the use of computer algorithms to perform image processing on digital images.  Dimensionality reduction – the process of reducing the number of random variables under consideration. their power. also their planning. planning and design of the interaction between people (users) and computers  Human robot interaction – a study of interactions between humans and robots  Kinematics – study of motion.that define its configuration. as applied to robots. such as choosing a sequence of movements to achieve a broader task. This includes both the design of linkages to perform motion. It is the number of parameters that determine the state of a physical system and is important to the analysis of systems of bodies in mechanical engineering.  Laboratory robotics – the act of using robots in biology or chemistry labs .  Evolutionary computation –  Evolutionary robotics – a methodology that uses evolutionary computation to develop controllers for autonomous robots  Extended Kalman filter –  Flexible Distribution functions –  Feedback control and Regulation –  Human–computer interaction – a study.  Distributed robotics –  Electronic Stability Control – is a computerized technology that improves the safety of a vehicle's stability by detecting and reducing loss of traction (skidding). robotics. and structural engineering. control and stability.  Developmental Robotics – a methodology that uses metaphors from neural development and developmental psychology to develop the mind for autonomous robots  Digital control – a branch of control theory that uses digital computers to act as system controllers. and can be divided into feature selection and feature extraction. aeronautical engineering.

 Robot kinematics – applies geometry to the study of the movement of multi-degree of freedom kinematic chains that form the structure of robotic systems.a.. direct manipulation is a human–computer interaction style which involves continuous representation of objects of interest and rapid.k.  Nanorobotics – the emerging technology field creating machines or robots whose components are at or close to the scale of a nanometer (10−9 meters). Robot learning – learning to perform tasks such as obstacle avoidance. fuel.  Programming by Demonstration – an End-user development technique for teaching a computer or a robot new behaviors by demonstrating the task to transfer directly instead of programming it through machine commands.. using actions that correspond at least loosely to the physical world. control and various other motion-related tasks  Manifold learning –  Direct manipulation interface – In computer science. and incremental actions and feedback.  Passive dynamics – refers to the dynamical behavior of actuators. the "piano mover's problem") is a term used in robotics for the process of detailing a task into discrete motions. the "navigation problem". concerned with how an agent ought to take actions in an environment so as to maximize some notion of cumulative reward. The intention is to allow a user to directly manipulate objects presented to them.  Motor control – information processing related activities carried out by the central nervous system that organize the musculoskeletal system to create coordinated movements and skilled actions.  Robotic mapping – the goal for an autonomous robot to be able to construct (or use ) a map or floor plan and to localize itself in it  Microrobotics – a field of miniature robotics. or organisms when not drawing energy from a supply (e. batteries. in particular mobile robots with characteristic dimensions less than 1 mm  Motion planning – (a. .g. reversible.  Reinforcement learning – an area of machine learning in computer science. ATP).  Artificial neural networks – a mathematical model inspired by biological neural networks. robots.

prototype parts.  Speech processing – study of speech signals and the processing methods of these signals. The signals are usually processed in a digital representation. or to update a map within a known environment (with a priori knowledge from a given map).  Robot programming –  Sensors – (also called detector) is a converter that measures a physical quantity and converts it into a signal which can be read by an observer or by an (today mostly electronic) instrument.  Software engineering – the application of a systematic. virtual. and the study of these approaches. and roboticallyassisted surgery are terms for technological developments that use robotic systems to aid in surgical procedures.  Robot-assisted heart surgery – . applied to speech signal.  Simultaneous localization and mapping – a technique used by robots and autonomous vehicles to build up a map within an unknown environment (without a priori knowledge). horizontal cross-sections and then producing successive layers until the items are complete. disciplined. transfer and output of digital speech signals. quantifiable approach to the design. storage. that is. the application of engineering to software. used for making models. so speech processing can be regarded as a special case of digital signal processing. [clarification needed] Aspects of speech processing includes the acquisition. Robot locomotion – collective name for the various methods that robots use to transport themselves from place to place.  Robotic surgery – computer-assisted surgery. transforming them into thin. and production-quality parts in relatively small numbers.  Support vector machines – supervised learning models with associated learning algorithms that analyze data and recognize patterns. used for classification and regression analysis. operation.  Rapid prototyping – automatic construction of physical objects via additive manufacturing from virtual models in computer aided design (CAD) software.  Remote surgery – (also known as telesurgery) is the ability for a doctor to perform surgery on a patient even though they are not physically in the same location. manipulation. and maintenance of software. while at the same time keeping track of their current location. development. As of June 2011.

 Computer vision –  Machine vision – Contributing fields[edit]  Aerospace –  Biology –    Biomechanics – Computer science –  Artificial Intelligence –  Computational linguistics –  Cybernetics –  Modal logic – Engineering –  Acoustical engineering –  Automotive engineering – .usually silicon micromachined components operating in conjunction with computer controlled devices and radio transceivers to provide precision repeatability functions (such as in robotics artificial intelligence systems) emergency warning validation performance reconstruction. or to have an effect. Their actions may seek to incorporate emergent behavior observed in social insects (swarm intelligence). at a place other than their true location.  Intelligent vehicle technologies – comprise electronic. electromechanical. via telerobotics. to give the appearance of being present.  Telepresence – refers to a set of technologies which allow a person to feel as if they were present. similar to ants that lay and follow pheromone trails.  Ant robotics – swarm robots that can communicate via markings. and electromagnetic devices . Swarm robotics – involves large numbers of mostly simple physical robots.

in movies.  Film – See Robots in film.  Chemical engineering –  Control engineering –  Electrical engineering –  Electronic engineering –  Mechanical engineering –  Mechatronics engineering –  Microelectromechanical engineering –  Nanoengineering –  Optical engineering –  Safety engineering –  Software engineering –  Telecommunications – Fiction – Robotics technology and its implications are major themes in science fiction and have provided inspiration for robotics development and cause for ethical concerns. in computer games.  Literature – fictional autonomous artificial servants have a long history in human culture.  The Three Laws of Robotics in popular culture  Military science –  Psychology –  Cognitive science – . See Robots in literature. See List of fictional robots and androids. developing self-awareness and rebelling against their creators. Robots are portrayed in short stories and novels. dates only from the early 20th century. in web based media. Today's most pervasive trope of robots. in TV shows. and in comic books. in theatrical productions.

. contributing fields include the specific field(s) a particular robot is being designed for. for instance would be required for designing robotic surgery applications.  Autonomous vehicle – vehicle equipped with an autopilot system.  Philosophy –   Behavioral science – Ethics – Physics –  Dynamics –  Kinematics – Additionally.  Cyborg – also known as a cybernetic organism.g. over and over.  Ballbot – dynamically-stable mobile robot designed to balance on a single spherical wheel (i. which is capable of driving from one point to another without input from a human operator. a being with both biological and artificial (e.  Cruise missile – robot-controlled guided missile that carries an explosive payload. electronic.[5][6]  Automaton – early self-operating robot. performing exactly the same actions.  Android – humanoid robot. Related fields[edit]  Building automation –  Home automation – Robots[edit] Types of robots[edit]  Aerobot – robot capable of independent flight on other planets. . mechanical or robotic) parts. a ball). Robot resembling the shape or form of a human.e. Expertise in surgical procedures and anatomy.

some carry detonators that can be deposited at the object and activated after the robot withdraws. or specialized devices through variable programmed motions for the performance of a variety of tasks.  rover (space exploration) -a robot with wheels designed to walk on other planets floors.[8]  Snakebot – robot or robotic component resembling a tentacle or elephant's trunk. The components are at or close to the scale of a nanometer (10−9 meters). where the entire robot is mobile and snake-like.microscopic robots designed to go into the human body and cure diseases. A rarer application is thesnakebot.  Hexapod (walker) – A six-legged walking robot.same as a microbot. parts.  microbot. Explosive ordnance disposal robot – mobile robot designed to assess whether an object contains explosives. using a simple insect-like locomotion.[8]  Prosthetic robot – programmable manipulator or device replacing a missing human limb.[8]  Insect robot – small robot designed to imitate insect behaviors rather than complex human behaviors. so as to gain access through narrow spaces.  Surgical robot – remote manipulator used for keyhole surgery  Walking robot – robot capable of locomotion by walking. . multifunctional manipulator designed to move material.  Industrial robot – reprogrammable. This is usually applied to snake-arm robots.[7]  Gynoid – humanoid robot designed to look like a human female.[7]  Mobile robot – self-propelled and self-contained robot that is capable of moving over a mechanically unconstrained course.  nanobot . tools. just smaller. which use this as a flexible manipulator. where many small actuators are used to allow continuous curved motion of a robot component. Owing to the difficulties of balance. two-legged walking robots have so far been rare and most walking robots have used insect-like multilegged walking gaits.[8]  Service robot – machines that extend human capabilities. with many degrees of freedom.

or resembling animals or insects).  Drive Power – energy source or sources for the robot actuators. They are most commonly wheeled. By mode of locomotion[edit] Mobile robots may be classified by:   The environment in which they travel:  Land or home robots. used to construct fast-acting manipulators with a wide range of movement.[8]  End-effector – accessory device or tool specifically designed for attachment to the robot wrist or tool mounting plate to enable the robot to perform its intended task. crevasse filled environments The device they use to move. mainly:  Legged robot : human-like legs (i.  Wheeled robot. designed to navigate icy.  Tracks. but also include legged robots with two or more legs (humanoid.[7][8]  Linear actuator – form of motor that generates a linear movement directly. an android) or animallike legs. It is common for electrical control to be used to modulate a high-power pneumatic or hydraulic motor. be pneumatic or hydraulic.e.  Aerial robots are usually referred to as unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs)  Underwater robots are usually called autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs)  Polar robots.[9] Robot components and design features[edit]  Actuator – motor that translates control signals into mechanical movement.  Delta robot – tripod linkage. The power supply may likewise be any of these. (Examples may include gripper.robots that are not controlled by humans. . more rarely. The control signals are usually electrical but may. autonomous robot.

pneumatics. A robotic 'hand'. Also sometimes applied to robot manipulators with their own touch sensitivity.f.[8]  Pneumatics – control of mechanical force and movement.f.[7]  Haptic – tactile feedback technology using the operator's sense of touch.  Parallel manipulator – articulated robot or manipulator based on a number of kinematic chains. c. parallel manipulator.f.  Remote manipulator – manipulator under direct human control. actuators and joints.  Serial manipulator – articulated robot or manipulator with a single series kinematic chain of actuators. serial manipulator. c. from a series of intermittent and noisy values.  Hexapod (platform) – movable platform using six linear actuators.f. in parallel. or any other application tools. c.  Klann linkage – simple linkage for walking robots. they also have applications as a robotic manipulator. Often used in flight simulators and fairground rides.)[8]  Forward chaining – process in which events or received data are considered by an entity to intelligently adapt its behavior. .spot-weld gun.[8]  Pendant – Any portable control device that permits an operator to control the robot from within the restricted envelope (space) of the robot.paint gun. generated by the application of compressed gas. c. often used for work with hazardous materials. See Stewart platform  Hydraulics – control of mechanical force and movement. hydraulics. spray.  Kalman filter – mathematical technique to estimate the value of a sensor measurement. generated by the application of liquid under pressure.  Manipulator – gripper.  Muting – deactivation of a presence-sensing safeguarding device during a portion of the robot cycle. arc-weld gun.

[8]  Slow Speed Control – mode of robot motion control where the velocity of the robot is limited to allow persons sufficient time either to withdraw the hazardous motion or stop the robot. Real robots by region[edit] Robots from Australia[edit]  GuRoo –  UWA Telerobot – Robots from Britain[edit] . rather than continuously moving.  Servomechanism – automatic device that uses error-sensing negative feedback to correct the performance of a mechanism.  Unimate – the first off-the-shelf industrial robot. [8]  Stepper motor –  Stewart platform – movable platform using six linear actuators. of 1961.  Single Point of Control – ability to operate the robot such that initiation or robot motion from one source of control is possible only from that source and cannot be overridden from another source.  Subsumption architecture – robot architecture that uses a modular.[8] Specific robots[edit]  Aura (satellite) – robotic spacecraft launched by NASA in 2004 which collects atmospheric data from Earth. hence also known as a Hexapod. Servo – motor that moves to and maintains a set position under command.[7]  Chandra X-ray Observatory – robotic spacecraft launched by NASA in 1999 to collect astronomical data. bottom-up design beginning with the least complex behavioral tasks.[7]  Robonaut – development project conducted by NASA to create humanoid robots capable of using space tools and working in similar environments to suited astronauts.  Teach Mode – control state that allows the generation and storage of positional data points effected by moving the robot arm through a path of intended motions.

 Black Knight  eSTAR  Freddy II  George  Shadow Hand  Silver Swan  Talisman UUV  Wheelbarrow  Robop Robots from Canada[edit]  Canadarm2 –  Dextre –  hitchBOT –  ANATROLLER ARI-100 –  ANATROLLER ARE-100 –  ANATROLLER ARI-50 –  ANATROLLER Dusty Duct Destroyer –  ANAT AMI-100 – Robots from China[edit]  FemiSapien –  Meinü robot –  RoboSapien –  Robosapien v2 –  RS Media – .

 Xianxingzhe – Robots from Croatia[edit]  DOK-ING EOD –  TIOSS – Robots from Czech Republic[edit]  SyRoTek – Robots from France[edit]  Digesting Duck –  Jessiko –  Nabaztag –  Nao – Robots from Germany[edit]  Marvin –  Care-Providing Robot FRIEND –  LAURON – Robots from Italy[edit]  IsaacRobot –  Leonardo's robot –  iCub – Robots from Japan[edit]  AIBO –  ASIMO –  Choromet –  EMIEW –  EMIEW 2 – .

The – Robots from Portugal[edit]  RAPOSA – Robots from Qatar[edit] . –  SCARA –  Toyota Partner Robot –  Wakamaru – Robots from Mexico[edit]  Don Cuco El Guapo – Robots from the Netherlands[edit]  Adelbrecht –  Flame –  Phobot –  Senster – Robots from New Zealand[edit]  Trons.B.O. Enon –  Evolta –  Gakutensoku –  HAL 5v  HOAP –  KHR-1 –  Omnibot –  Plen –  QRIO –  R.

 Robot jockey – Robots from Russia (or former Soviet Union)[edit]  Lunokhod 1 –  Lunokhod 2 –  Teletank – Robots from South Korea[edit]  Albert Hubo –  EveR-1 –  HUBO –  MAHRU –  Musa – Robots from Spain[edit]  Maggie –  REEM-B –  Tico – Robots from Switzerland[edit]  Alice mobile robot –  E-puck mobile robot –  Pocketdelta robot – Robots from the United States of America[edit]  Albert One –  Allen –  ATHLETE –  Baxter –  Ballbot – .

 avbotz Baracuda XIV –  Beer Launching Fridge –  Berkeley Lower Extremity Exoskeleton –  BigDog –  Boe-Bot –  Coco –  Cog –  Crusher –  Dragon Runner –  EATR –  Elektro –  Entomopter –  Haile –  Hardiman –  HERO –  Johns Hopkins Beast –  Kismet –  Leonardo –  LOPES –  LORAX –  Nomad 200 –  Nomad rover –  Opportunity rover – .

David Ross) {Red Dwarf} . John Lenahan. Doug Naylor. Doug Naylor. David Ross. Clarke) – From British radio[edit]  Marvin the Paranoid Android (Douglas Adams) – From British television[edit]  Kryten (Rob Grant. Robert Llewellyn) {Red Dwarf} –  Talkie Toaster – (Rob Grant. Programmable Universal Machine for Assembly –  Push the Talking Trash Can –  RB5X –  Robonaut –  Shakey the Robot –  Sojourner –  Spirit rover –  Turtle –  Unimate –  Zoë –  Pleo – Robots from Vietnam[edit]  TOPIO – International robots[edit]  European Robotic Arm –  Curiosity Rover for NASA on Mars Science Laboratory space mission – Fictional robots by region[edit] Fictional robots from the United Kingdom[edit] From British literature[edit]  HAL 9000 (Arthur C.

Saburo Yatsude) {Super Electromagnetic Robo Combattler V} . A.U. Tokichi Aoki) {Ginga Senpuu Braiger}  Combattler V – (Tadao Nagahama.U. (Rossum's Universal Robots)} Fictional robots from France[edit] From French ballets[edit]  Coppélia – (Arthur Saint-Leon.R.R.U.R.U.R. Thea von Harbou. K-9 (Doctor Who) –  Robotboy – (Bob Camp. Léo Delibes) {Coppélia} From French literature[edit]  Hadaly – (Auguste Villiers de l'Isle-Adam) {The Future Eve} Fictional robots from Germany[edit] From German film[edit]  Maschinenmensch – (Fritz Lang. (Rossum's Universal Robots)}  Radius – (Karel Čapek) {R. (Rossum's Universal Robots)}  Helena – (Karel Čapek) {R. Prof Moshimo.U. (Rossum's Universal Robots)}  Sulla – (Karel Čapek) {R. Brigitte Helm) {Metropolis} From German literature[edit]  Maschinenmensch – (Thea von Harbou)  Olimpia – (E. (Rossum's Universal Robots)}  Marius – (Karel Čapek) {R.U. Laurence Bouvard) {Robotboy} Fictional robots from the Czech Republich[edit] From Czech plays[edit]  Daemon – (Karel Čapek) {R.R. T.R. (Rossum's Universal Robots)}  Primus – (Karel Čapek) {R. Hoffmann) {Der Sandmann} Fictional robots from Japan[edit] From anime[edit]  Braiger – (Shigeo Tsubota. Heath Kenny. Charlie Bean.

Anthony Daniels) {Star Wars}  ED-209 – (Paul Verhoeven. Craig Hayes. Saburo Yatsude) {Brave Leader Daimos}  Groizer X – (Go Nagai) {Groizer X}  Mechander Robo – (Jaruhiko Kaido) {Mechander Robo (Gasshin Sentai Mekandaa Robo)}  Raideen – (Yoshiyuki Tomino. Ken Ishikawa) {Getter Robo}  Grendizer – (Go Nagai) {UFO Robo Grendizer}  Mazinger Z – (Go Nagai) {Mazinger Z}  Tetsujin 28 – (Mitsuteru Yokoyama) {Tetsujin 28 . Edmund H.Go!} Fictional robots from the United States of America[edit] From American comics[edit]  Amazo – (Gardner Fox) {DC Comics}  Annihilants – (Alex Raymond) {Flash Gordon} From American film[edit]  C-3PO – (George Lucas. Ben Burtt) {Star Wars} . Saburo Yatsude) {Super Electromagnetic Machine Voltes V} From manga[edit]  Astro Boy – (Osamu Tezuka) {Astro Boy}  Doraemon – (Fujiko Fujio) {Doraemon}  Getter Robo – (Go Nagai. North. Tadao Nagahama) {Brave Raideen}  Trider G7 – (Hajime Yatate) {Invincible Robo Trider G7}  Voltes V – (Tadao Nagahama. Harry Bates. Daimos – (Tadao Nagahama. Kenny Baker. Lock Martin) {The Day the Earth Stood Still}  R2-D2 – (George Lucas. Phil Tippett) {RoboCop}  Gort – (Robert Wise.

Frank Baum) {Ozma of Oz} From American television[edit]  Bender Bending Rodriguez – (Matt Groening. Bill Corbett. Ellis) {The Steam Man of the Prairies}  Tik-Tok – (L. Robot}  The Steam Man of the Prairies – (Edward S. Patrick Brantseg) {Mystery Science Theater 3000}  Data – (Gene Roddenberry. . Gary Chalk ) {Adventures of Sonic the Hedgehog} History of robotics[edit] Main article: History of robots Robotics development and development tools[edit]  Arduino – current platform of choice for small-scale robotic experimentation and physical computing. Trace Beaulieu. and Tom Servo (Joel Hodgson. Brent Spiner) {Star Trek: The Next Generation}  Jenny Wakeman – (Rob Rezenti. Frankie Darro. John DiMaggio) {Futurama}  Cambot – Gypsy. Robby the Robot – (Fred M. Jim Mallon. Wilcox. Janice Kawaye) {My Life as a Teenage Robot}  Robot B-9 – (Irwin Allen. Crow T. Robot}  Gnut – (Harry Bates) {Farewell to the Master}  Robbie – (Isaac Asimov) {I. Robot. Robert Kinoshita. Bob May. Gale Anne Hurd) {The Terminator} From American literature[edit]  Adam Link – (Eando Binder) {I. Dick Tufeld) {Lost in Space}  Grounder and Scratch – (Phil Hayes. Josh Weinstein. David X. Robert Kinoshita. Marvin Miller) {Forbidden Planet}  The Terminator – (James Cameron. Cohen.

 Degrees of freedom – extent to which a robot can move itself. expressed in terms of Cartesian coordinates (x.[7]  Emergent behaviour – complicated resultant behaviour that emerges from the repeated operation of simple underlying behaviours. This has developed from a hobby in the 1990s to several TV series worldwide.  Tool Center Point (TCP) – origin of the tool coordinate system. Applications of robotics[edit]  Combat. [8]  Uncanny valley – hypothesized point at which humanoid robot behavior and appearance is so close to that of actual humans yet not precise or fully featured enough as to cause a sense of revulsion. workpiece. and roll). aerosol particles and chemical vapors. Robotics organizations[edit] . airborne microbes.  Cleanroom – environment that has a low level of environmental pollutants such as dust. and z) and angular movements (yaw. function.[7] Robotics principles[edit]  Artificial intelligence – intelligence of machines and the branch of computer science that aims to create it. CAD/CAM (computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing) – these systems and their data may be integrated into robotic operations. and attachments. or both.  Envelope (Space).[8]  Humanoid – resembling a human being in form. one of the first serious considerations of the ethics and robopsychological aspects of robotics. y. robot – hobby or sport event where two or more robots fight in an arena to disable each other.  Three Laws of Robotics – coined by the science fiction author Isaac Asimov. pitch. Maximum – volume of space encompassing the maximum designed movements of all robot parts including the end-effector. often used in robot assembly.

Travel dismounted across rubble 3. human-engineered environments. Drive a utility vehicle at the site 2. Climb an industrial ladder and traverse an industrial walkway . funded by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency. Remove debris blocking an entryway 4. it aims to develop semi-autonomous ground robots that can do "complex tasks in dangerous. degraded. Held from 2012 to 2014.   DARPA Grand Challenge (2004)  DARPA Grand Challenge (2005)  DARPA Grand Challenge (2007) DARPA Robotics Challenge – prize competition funded by the US Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency. the most prominent research organization of the United States Department of Defense. It founded various robotics competitions for elementary and high school students."[10]  Initial task requirements 1. FIRST (For Inspiration and Recognition of Science and Technology) – organization founded by inventor Dean Kamen in 1989 in order to develop ways to inspire students in engineering and technology fields. Open a door and enter a building 5. Robotics competitions[edit] Main article: Robot competition  National ElectroniX Olympiad  ABU Robocon  BEST Robotics  Botball  DARPA Grand Challenge – prize competition for American autonomous vehicles.

Locate and close a valve near a leaking pipe 8. MIT 5. Use a tool to break through a concrete panel 7. WRECS 8.6. SCHAFT 2. Team TRACLabs 7. IHMC Robotics 3. RoboSimian 6. TROOPER  Defcon Robot Contest  Duke Annual Robo-Climb Competition  Eurobot  European Land-Robot Trial  FIRST Junior Lego League  FIRST Lego League  FIRST Robotics Competition  FIRST Tech Challenge  International Aerial Robotics Competition  Micromouse  National Engineering Robotics Contest  RoboCup . Connect a fire hose to a standpipe and turn on a valve  Teams making the finals 1. Tartan Rescue 4.

See also[edit]  Outline of automation  Outline of machines  Outline of technology . Isaac – science fiction author who coined the term "robotics". Robofest  RoboGames  RoboSub  Student Robotics  UAV Outback Challenge  World Robot Olympiad People influential in the field of robotics[edit]  Asimov. and wrote the three laws of robotics. Karel – Czech author who coined the term "robot" in his 1921 play. Robotics in popular culture[edit]  Droid  List of fictional cyborgs  List of fictional robots and androids  List of fictional gynoids and female cyborgs  Real Robot  Super Robot  Robot Hall of Fame  Waldo – a short story by Robert Heinlein. that gave its name to a popular nickname for remote manipulators.  Čapek. Rossum's Universal Robots.

 Automatic waste container  Bina48  Cyberflora  Educational robotics  Electrointerpretation  History of technology  List of emerging robotic technologies  Microsoft Robotics Studio  Mobile manipulator  Mobile Robot Programming Toolkit  NASA robots  Open-source robotics  Open-source hardware  Robotics suite  Category:Robotics suites  Whegs  VEX Robotics  Artificial Life  Control systems  Mechatronics  Roboticists References[edit] . For classes and types of robots see Category:Robots.

Retrieved 14 January 2013. Oxford Dictionaries. 1941 issue of Astounding Science 5. Daniel Hunt (1983). Robotics: a reference guide to the new technology. Jump up^ http://robots. Libraries Unlimited. Jump up^ Helena Domaine (2006). Retrieved 2011-01-28. Industrial Press Inc. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e f g h i j k l m n "OSHA Technical Manual SECTION IV: CHAPTER 4 . 3. Retrieved 28 January 2011. Retrieved 4 February 2011. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e f g h Joseph A.newcastle. 8. "Glossary".edu. Retrieved 2007-08-26. Jump up^ "robotics". Angelo (2007). Jump up^ "DARPA ROBOTICS CHALLENGE (DRC)". ISBN 978-1-57356-337-6. 2. 4. ISBN 978-0-8311-1148-9 6. Occupational Safety and Health Administration. Robotics. Lerner Publications. the term "robotics" was first used in the short story "Liar!" published in the May. Industrial robotics handbook. 9. 258–327.1. Jump up^ "Industry Spotlight: Robotics from Monster Career Advice". pp.INDUSTRIAL ROBOTS AND ROBOT SYSTEM SAFETY". "Appendix A Glossary". Jump up^ According to the Oxford English Dictionary. Jump up^ V. External links[edit] Find more about Robotics at Wikipedia's sister projects Definitions from Wiktionary Media from Commons Quotations from Wikiquote Source texts from Wikisource . Jump up^ Rail track and Linear track (PDF) 10.. ISBN 978-0-8225-2112-9 7.

Textbooks from Wikibooks Learning resources from Wikiversity  Robotics at DMOZ  Autonomous Programmable Robot  Four-leg robot  Robotics Resources at CMU  Society of Robots Research  The evolution of robotics research  Human Machine Integration Laboratory at Arizona State University  International Foundation of Robotics Research (IFRR)  International Journal of Robotics Research (IJRR)  Robotics and Automation Society (RAS) at IEEE  Robotics Network at IET  Robotics Division at NASA  Robotics and Intelligent Machines at Georgia Tech  Robotics Institute at Carnegie Mellon  Robotics at Imperial College London [show]  V  T  E Robotics [show] .

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