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Water Financing Partnership Facility

RETA 6498: Knowledge and Innovation Support for ADBs Water Financing
Activity Title: Pilot Development of a Sanitation Safety Plan for the Philippines


Request Date: 5 April 2013



Activity Proposed Start Date:

September 2014


Southeast Asia

Activity Proposed Duration:

July 2015

Cost Estimate: US 49,950

1. Background and Rationale:

Adequate sanitation is essential for the protection and promotion of individuals' and community
health and enables a productive and dignified lives. Access to basic sanitation, linked to proper
use and disposal, can substantially reduce diarrhoeal disease, intestinal worm infections and
vector-borne disease. According to WHO (2008), the reduction in incidence of diarrhoeal
infection has been estimated to be up to 32%. In contrast, lack or improper use of sanitation
facilities, as well as inadequate containment, treatment or handling of the resulting excreta and
wastewater will impact on both human disease incidence and mortality, via multiple routes of
exposure. Inadequate disposal of wastes also contributes importantly to the degradation of the
Multiple human exposure pathways, the quantity of pathogens, local environmental and climate
conditions, the capacity to deal with waste and the attitudes, knowledge and beliefs related to
human waste are all closely linked to sanitation safety. The pathways include the fecal-oral
pathway of infection through direct or hands-mouth contact or through foodstuffs. Other
pathways involve exposure to contaminated soil: e.g. hookworm infection is spread through
larval penetration of the bare skin. Unimproved latrines may serve as breeding places for certain
disease vectors (mosquitoes, houseflies). Therefore, transmission by vectors provides another
pathway that can be tackled by improved sanitation.
In light of the above, there is an obvious need to assess, prioritize and manage sanitation in a
systematic manner both for the 2.6 billion people estimated to lack access to improved sanitation
facilities as well as in relation to different existing installations, treatment and disposal or reuse
options. In the Philippines, sewerage system coverage remains very low at around 10% only
while access to improved sanitation facilities is about 74% in 2010 (JMP, 2012). This situation
suggests that approximately 24 million Filipinos are exposed to the risks associated with human
waste. This sanitation condition is a threat to the quality of groundwater and shallow well
sources. World Bank data (2003) show that at least 58% of groundwater intended for drinking is
contaminated by E. coli. Indeed, to curb the vicious cycle of human waste and disease, it is

appropriate to come up with an intervention that will address all potential risks from sanitation. It
is in this light that sanitation safety planning is proposed.
Sanitation safety planning is a preventive risk management approach applied to a sanitation
facility. The purpose of SSP is to ensure that control measures are in-place to address potential
risks that may arise during the course of the operation of a sanitation facility. This concept was
derived from the experience of WHO in supporting water utilities in developing and implementing
water safety plans, and it was introduced in the WHO Guidelines for the Safe Use of
Wastewater, Excreta and Greywater (2006). At present, WHO has a plan to develop specific
guidelines on sanitation safety plan. Lessons learned from this pilot activity will be used in the
development of such guidelines, and template for sanitation safety planning.
2. Objectives:
To carry out a pilot development of a sanitation safety plan (SSP) in the Philippines using a
water district with a septage treatment facility and translate the lessons learned from developing
the SSP into a template that can be used for future development of sanitation safety plans in
other water districts and utilities in the Philippines and other countries.
3. Scope and location of Work / Description of Activities
Development of a sanitation safety plan will be limited to one water district with existing
sanitation system (e.g., a septage treatment plant or wastewater treatment facility) and water
safety plan. At present, the Baliwag Water District in Bulacan province has an on-going project
on septage management, and its water safety plan is due for completion. The sanitation safety
plan will complement the operation of their sanitation system and will support the implementation
of their water safety plan.
To develop the sanitation safety plan, the following activities will be undertaken.
3.1 Introduction to the SSP concept. Initial meeting with the Department of Health (DOH),
Local Water Utilities Administration (LWUA) and Baliwag Water District key staff will be
organized to introduce the concept and components of a sanitation safety plan, and to
prepare a workplan to undertake the required activities. Steps in developing a sanitation
safety plan will be presented and an Inception Workshop will be conducted to gather
initial information. Organization of a sanitation safety plan team for the water district and
Technical Working Group will be started during this meeting.
Expected outputs: Clear understanding of SSP concept by the Water District;
Sanitation safety plan team in place; Inception report, including workplan to complete
the SSP; initial outline and first draft of SSP
3.2 Drafting of sanitation safety plan. The SSP team will organize a series of meetings to
complete the data set needed for a sanitation safety plan. At critical points, consultants
shall be invited to assist the water district in resolving unclear issues. The following
components shall be developed and completed:
a. Description of the sanitation system with flow diagram.
b. Hazard identification and risk assessment.
c. Identification and validation of control and risk management measures
d. Development of an improvement plan for uncontrolled risks


Verification of the effectiveness of the sanitation safety plan

Preparation of management procedures
Expected outputs: 2nd draft of sanitation safety plan

3.3 Finalization of sanitation safety plan. Key stakeholders will be consulted before the SSP
is finalized. Reuse options will be considered, and the WHO Guidelines for the Safe Use
of Wastewater, Excreta and Greywater (2006) will be incorporated into the sanitation
safety planning process. Once completed, this will be submitted to DOH for approval.
a. Consultations with key agencies and stakeholders.
b. Incorporation of guidelines for safe reuse.
c. Revised sanitation safety plan
Expected outputs: Final draft of sanitation safety plan
3.4 Consolidation of lessons learned. Lessons learned from developing a sanitation safety
plan will be translated into a template which can be used by other water utilities in the
Philippines, and as inputs to the guidelines being developed by WHO for preparing
sanitation safety plans.
Expected outputs: Sanitation safety plan template
4. Implementation Schedule




Sanitation Safety Plan

Introduction to SSP


Month 1

Drafting of the SSP

-Water District

Month 1 and 4

Finalization of SSP
and SSP template

-Water District

Month 5 and 6

5. Institutional Management Arrangements

A Technical Working Group will be formed, to be composed of DOH, LWUA, WHO and ADB,
and chaired by DOH to serve as the clearing house for technical concerns. Baliwag Water
District will be responsible for ensuring that the data needed from the facilities are inputted to the
SSP. WHO will provide technical support in the entire process, coordinate with the Baliwag
Water District on deliverables, and supervise the consultants to be hired. ADB will monitor the
project, provide advice and coordinate with WHO.
Individual consultants will be engaged to carry out the work described above comprising one
international and one national sanitation specialists.

Preferred consultants should have at least 10 years experience in sanitation projects in the
Philippines and elsewhere; with acceptable experience in designing, constructing, managing, or
operating a septage or wastewater treatment facility. They must have a strong background on
risk assessment and risk management concepts and with post-graduate course or equivalent
work experience on sanitary engineering, environmental engineering, or environmental l
management. Familiarity with the water safety plan concept and process is desired.
6. Expected Results (outputs/outcomes/effects/impacts):
Outputs: Sanitation safety plan of a water district; conceptual framework and template for
Sanitation Safety Planning
Outcomes: Conceptual framework and template for sanitation safety plan preparation
developed under the PDA are adopted by other water districts and utilities in the Philippines,
and are used as inputs in the WHO guidelines; Reduced discharge of untreated septage and
wastewater or reduced exposure to hazards from a sanitation facility
Impacts: Protection of the environment from degradation of water and soil quality, and
protection of public health from the hazards of diseases due to poor sanitation
7. Measurable Performance Indicators:
Output indicators: SSP team created; SSP development workplan prepared; Sanitation
Safety Plan completed; conceptual framework and template for Sanitation Safety Planning
Outcome indicators: Water districts and other utilities in the Philippines developing their
sanitation safety plan using the conceptual framework and template; WHO guidelines
consider the conceptual framework and template recommended by the PDA; Compliance
to effluent standards; reduced breakdown of sanitation facility operation; improved
efficiency of the sanitation facility
Impact indicators: reduction of poor sanitation-related diseases in the area; improved
quality of water, air and soil

Stakeholders Participation:
Key stakeholders will be involved in the project, such as:
LGU (Baliwag, Bulacan) on health and environmental concerns and delivery of public
services; information, education and communication campaign and consultations with
Department of Health (DOH) regulation on sanitation standards and septage
management; with overall responsibility for SSP
Local Water Utilities Administration (LWUA) regulation on water district operations
Environment Management Bureau, Department of Environment and Natural Resources
(EMB-DENR) regulations on effluent and water quality standards and criteria
Philippine Society of Sanitary Engineers design and construction of septage or
wastewater treatment plants
Department of Agriculture for the safe application of treated sludge/biosolids as
fertilizer or soil conditioner

Department of Public Works and Highways - National Sewerage and Septage

Management Program for consideration of SSP in the packaging of projects
Philippine Association of Water Districts for the dissemination and adoption of SSPs.
9. Scope for Replication/Use in Other Countries:
The activities/outputs that can be replicated in other water districts and utilities in the Philippines
and in other countries include: (a) the conceptual framework and process in developing a
sanitation safety plan, including reuse considerations; and (b) template for sanitation safety plan,
including cost, staff, and key stakeholders involved. Outputs of this project can be advocated as
a component of sanitation facilities to be installed under the National Sewerage and Septage
Management Program of the Philippines and as part of the implementing rules and regulation of
the Sanitation Code of the Philippines and Clean Water Act of the Philippines.
10. Cost Estimates

1. Consultants/Specialists
Services and related

Amount (US$)
International Sanitation Specialist:
0.5 person-month @ 20,000/mo: 10,000
Local Sanitation Specialist:
3 person-months @ 6,000/mo: 18,000
Travel cost
Expat: 2 trips to Philippines @ 7 days duration/ trip x 2200/trip
= 4,400
Local specialist: 5 trips to area@ 5 days per trip: 400/trip =
Report and communication = 2,000
Assistant Researcher
6 person-months @600/mo. = 3,600

2. Workshops

Food = 5 technical workshops of 3 days and 25 participants =
5 x 3 x 25 x 18/pax/day = 6,750
Food = 1 Validation workshop with key stakeholders = 50 pax x
1 day x 25 = 1,250
Materials: 50 x 2 = 100


US $ 47,600