Chemistry 5

Chapter-5 Reactions in Aqueous Solutions Part-2 30 September 2002

Recognizing Acids & Bases
Key Feature of Acids:
• contain ionizable hydrogen Examples--

• not all molecules with hydrogen are acids Examples--

Key Features of Bases:
• contain either ionizable OH group or element (e.g., N) that can accept a proton (H+) Examples--

• not all molecules with OH are bases Examples--

Additional A-B Reactions
Acid-base reactions can occur between an insoluble base and soluble acid:
• a number of metal hydroxides have limited solubility in water, yet they react readily with acids Al(OH)3 Zn(OH)2

• Alka-Seltzer, NaHCO3 • Milk of magnesia, Mg(OH)2 • Maalox, Mg(OH)2 + Al(OH)3 • Tums, CaCO3

Oxidation-Reduction Reactions
Oxidation-reduction or redox reactions are common to all facets of chemistry and biology. For example:

In any redox reaction, there is always one species oxidized and one species reduced; cannot have one without other! This concept of coupled oxidation and reduction of species in a redox reaction can be seen by assigning oxidation states to reactants and products.
• Ca(s) + 2H+(aq) Ca2+(aq) + H2(g) Mn2+(aq) + CO2(g)

• MnO4-(aq) + C2O42-(aq)

Redox Half-Reactions
The concept of coupled oxidation and reduction of species in redox reactions can also be seen by separating the reactions involving oxidation and reduction from each other–
• write two half-reactions, where one involves oxidation of a reactant and the other involves reduction of another reactant. • the sum of the half-reactions is the equal to the overall reaction.

Redox Half-Reactions
• Zn(s) + Cu2+(aq) Oxidation: Reduction: Overall: • Cu(s) + Ag+(aq) Oxidation: Reduction: Overall: Cu2+(aq) + Ag(s) Zn2+(aq) + Cu(s)

Some Trends in Redox Reactions
Reactions of metals in acidic solution
React to yield hydrogen gas: • alkali metals (group-I) • alkaline earth metals (group-II) • Al, Zn, Fe, Sn, Pb No Reaction: • Cu, Ag, Au, Hg


Balancing Redox Reactions
Chemical reactions must conserve mass. In redox reactions, must also balance the loss (oxidation) and gain (reduction) of electrons. Redox reactions can be balanced by the following general approach:
• write down two half-reactions: (1) reactant is oxidized and (2) other reactant is reduced. • use integer coefficients to balance numbers of all elements except “O” and “H”. • in acidic solution add H2O to balance oxygen in half-reactions • In acidic solution, add “H+ to balance hydrogen from water. • add electrons (e-) to balance charge. • use integer multipliers to make the number of electrons produced (oxidation) and used (reduction) the same. • add the two half reactions; cancel e- (and other species as appropriate).

Balancing Redox Reactions: Example
Consider the following chemical reaction in acidic aqueous solution: Pb + PbO2 + SO42PbSO4 Identify the oxidation/reduction half-reactions, and balance the overall reaction.

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