Chemistry 5

Chapter-6 Gases Part-2 7 October 2002

Some Cool Chemistry Research
Prof. H. Park & Group

Hongkun Park

General Gas Equation
In many instances, several properties of gas change at once. To analyze, consider following: • initial: PiVi = niRTi • final: PfVf = nfRTf R = PiVi/niTi PiVi/niTi = PfVf/nfTf, general gas eqn.

Example, calculate the volume of a helium balloon, which is used to carry instruments into the upper atmosphere, if the initial volume is 1x106 L, T= 300 K & P=1 atm, and final T=240 K & P=0.1 atm. PiVi/niTi = PfVf/nfTf ni = nf, unless there’s a leak! Vf = (PiVi/Ti)(Tf/Pf) = (Pi/Pf)(Tf/Ti)Vi = (1/0.1)(240/300)1x106 L = 8x106 L

Gas Density
How does density, d, of ideal gas depend on molecular weight? • d = m/V mass, m = n . M d = (n . M)/V substitute for n/V with ideal gas eqn. = M(P/RT) densities of common gases:
Gas Hydrogen Nitrogen Oxygen Chlorine Helium Neon Radon MW (g/mol) 2.02 28.01 32.00 70.90 4.00 20.18 222 Density (g/L)

0.0901 1.250 1.428 3.163 0.178 0.9003 9.90

Example: Gas Density
How large would H2, He and Ne balloons need to be to lift an instrument weighing 100 kg? First, compare densities of ‘lifting gas’ with that of air. For He at STP: d(air) – d(He) = 1.29 (g/L) – 0.178 (g/L) = 1.11 g/L This is the lifting force of He per liter The Balloon Volumes are then: (100 kg)(1000g/kg)(1L He/1.11g) = 9.01x104 L He (100 kg)(1000g/kg)(1L H2/1.20g) = 8.33x104 L H2 (100 kg)(1000g/kg)(1L Ne/0.39g) = 2.56x105 L Ne

Chemical Reactions
With ideal gas equation, it is possible to analyze reactions involving gases in terms of volume and pressure (in addition to moles). Consider the following reaction that occurs when ‘drain cleaner’ is poured into a clogged drain:
2Al(s) + 2NaOH(aq) + 6H2O 2NaAl(OH)4(aq) + 3H2(g) What volume of H2 gas is produced from 13.49 g of Al at STP? 1. Determine moles (n) of H2 produced: n(H2) = 13.49gAl x (1mol Al/26.98g) x (3mol H2/2mol Al) = 0.75 mol 2. Use ideal gas equation to determine volume: V = nRT/P = .75(0.08206)(273.15K)/1atm = 16.8 liters

Mixtures of Gases
Our atmosphere is a mixture of a number of gases– N2, O2, CO2, Ar, H2O– and what is termed atmospheric pressure is a sum of the pressures exerted by all of these individual components.

Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressures The total pressure of a mixture of gases is the sum of the partial pressures of its components. Ptot = PA + PB + PC + … Dalton’s law is useful for addressing many common gas problems, for example, when gases are collected over water (also ca. situation in our lungs).

Mixtures of Gases: Example
A convenient method to determine experimentally reaction gases involves collecting gas products over water; however, this method introduces a contribution from water vapor pressure to the total pressure.
T (oC)

19

21

23

25

30

50

VP (mmHg) 16.5 18.7

21.1 23.8 31.8 92.5

What about 100 oC? Calcium carbide decomposes in H2O to yield acetylene gas. The reaction of an unknown amount of CaC2 produced 500 ml of gas at a pressure of 1 atm and temperature of 30oC. How many moles of CaC2 were used in the reaction?
1. Use Dalton’s law to determine partial pressure acetylene

Pac = Ptot – Pwater = (760 mmHg – 31.8 mmHg)1atm/760 mmHg = 0.958 atm
2. Use ideal gas eqn to determine moles CaC2

n = PacV/RT = (0.958 atm)(0.500 L)/(0.08206 L-atm/mol-K)(300.15 K) = 0.0194 mol

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