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Chapter-6 Gases Part-1 4 October 2002

**Gases & Pressure: Intro
**

Gases and Periodic Table:

At room-temperature: H2, N2, O2, F2, Cl2 He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, Rn

**Pressure: Concept & Examples
**

When blow up a balloon with air or other substance, the gas exerts a force or pressure to keep the balloon expanded. ‘pressure’ rising ‘pressure’ falling landing in airplane

• balloon:

•Other:

good weather storm approaching ?

• Pressure

defined as force per unit area: P(Pa) = F(N)/A(m2), SI units There are many units used to describe pressure, we will primarily discuss in terms of unit ‘atmosphere’ ≡ atm 1 atm = 1.013x105 Pa

Measuring Pressure

How do we measure pressure?

Liquid Pressure: how is pressure related to property of liquid”

P = F/A = W/A, weight is force = g.m/A, weight is mass times acceleration due to gravity = g.V.d/A, mass is volume times density of liquid = g.h.d hence, pressure is simply proportional to height of liquid!

Electronic Methods?

Direct electronic methods can be readily used to determine pressure in many cases. For example, at lower pressures the number of gas molecules are literally counted as an electrical current.

Pressure & Volume

How are gas pressure & volume related?

Demonstrations/Observations:

1. 2. 3. add force decrease volume Add larger force decrease volume more. Volume and force inversely related.

Boyle’s Law:

For a fixed amount of gas at a constant temperature, the gas volume is inversely proportional to gas pressure.

P ∝ 1/V or PV = constant

Volume & Temperature

How are gas volume & temperature related?

Demonstrations/Observations: Decrease temperature (pouring liquid nitrogen on balloon) reduce volume of gas in balloon! Increase temperature (boiling water) increase volume of gas in balloon!

The volume of a fixed amount of gas at constant pressure is directly proportional to the temperature in Kelvin.

Charles’s Law:

V∝T or V = constant x T

**A Note on Standard Conditions
**

Gas properties depend on temperature and pressure, and thus for comparison purposes it is useful to define standard conditions: standard temperature: 273.15 K = 0 oC standard pressure: 1 atm = 760 mmHg Standard conditions of temperature and pressure are abbreviated “STP”.

Avogadro’s Law

From experiment: Equal volumes of different gases compared at the same temperature and pressure contain equal numbers of molecules.

At fixed pressure and temperature, the volume of a gas is directly proportional to the amount of gas. V∝n V = constant x n at STP, 1 mole gas = 22.4 L STP:

**Ideal Gas Equation
**

When two of the three variables pressure (P), temperature (T) and amount (n) are held constant, we have seen

Key relationships: • V ∝ 1/P, Boyle • V ∝ T, Charles • V ∝ n, Avogadro Equation: V ∝ nT/P Proportionality constant ≡ R V = nRT/P or PV = nRT Ideal gas constant: R = PV/nT substitute at STP for 1 mole gas R = (1 atm)(22.414 L)/(1 mol)(273.14 K) = 0.08206 L atm mol-1 K-1

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