External adaptations of a leaf A queen’s posture in the deepest contemplation, Slanted and regal to gain the elixirs of light
and life Positioned and held to withstand a mighty storm The guardian, the foundation extends and unites Transportation enabled, communication in tow The royal face extended to view the panoramic vista High-lighted and magnified in the gloriously heated light The elixirs of heaven obtained in the heated air, Her delicate frame dancing gently in the breeze The queen subsides and revisits her tasks another day. Petioles: attaches the leaf to the stem Holds the leaf at an angle to receive maximum sunlight Continuous with veins to aid in transport Veins: forms a network through the lamina Transports water and minerals to all parts of the leaf Transports manufactured food from the leaf to storage sites Supports the leaf by helping to hold the lamina out so that the entire surface is exposed to light Lamina: flat and broad to offer large surface area over which carbon dioxide can diffuse and light absorbed. Thin so that carbon dioxide can easily diffuse throughout and that light can penetrate easily Has pores called stomata (1 called stoma) to allow gases to move freely in and out of leaf once light is available.
Photosynthesis Light and nature side by side Blues and air making a bond United, in harmony, they join to form one The green and gold molding their path Destined for greatness, destined to form life Light and darkness together in wrath Together, united a complex substance is formed Losing a friend, as a breath is released How complex, how simple Glucose indeed Who would have thought photosynthesis to be so real? 2H2Olight 4H+ CO2 6CO2+6H20 4H+O2 CH2O+ H20
(Light reaction) (dark reaction) (photosynthesis)
STAGES OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS Photosynthesis occurs in two main stages; one needs light and the other doesn’t need light. Light dependent stage- during this stage, chlorophyll absorbs light energy. This energy is used to split water into hydrogen and oxygen. Light independent stage- this stage does not require light. It occurs whether ore not light is present. During this stage, the hydrogen from the light dependent reaction is used to reduce carbon dioxide to form a simple carbohydrate. This carbohydrate is the converted to form glucose.
The waxy cuticle- this covers the epidermis. It helps to prevent excessive water loss. It is thicker on the top surface of the leaf than at the bottom surface of the leaf. This is because the top surface layer is more exposed to sunlight. The epidermis- this is a single layer of cells lining the leaf. These cells are transparent and allow sunlight to pass through to the cells with chloroplasts. The epidermis protects the leaf from pathogens. Stomata- these are pores which are found at intervals along the epidermis. Whether these pores are open or closed depends on a pair of guard cells which are crescent shaped. One pair surrounds each pore and these can change shape. Their inner wall is thicker the outer wall. Their opening and closing depends on light intensity and whether or not the guard cells gain or lose water. When these cells gain water the internal pressure increases. The thickness along the inner wall allows them to bend so that they curve away from each other, thus widening the space between them. The stomata allow easy diffusion of gases for photosynthesis, respiration and transpiration. They are usually more numerous in the lower epidermis. This is because evaporation occurs more easily at the top layer due to its exposure to sun’s light. The mesophyll layer- between the upper and lower epidermis are the mesophyll layers. The cells in these tissues contain chloroplasts. The two tissues are; the palisade mesophyll and the spongy mesophyll. i) The palisade mesophyll- these cells are found immediately under the upper epidermis facing the sun. The cells fit closely together with very limited air
spaces. The cells contain numerous chloroplasts which can move to make the best use of the available light. The palisade mesophyll is the main photosynthetic layer. The spongy mesophyll layer- these cells have few chloroplast to trap sunlight that had escaped the palisade mesophyll cells. Because the cells fit loosely together, there are many air spaces between them. This layer is used for the movement carbon dioxide and oxygen in and out of cell by way of diffusion.
The site of photosynthesis is the: chloroplast The photosynthetic organ is the: leaf The photosynthetic tissue is the: palisade maesophyll Organisms that make their own food by the conversion of light in to chemical energy is: autotrophs Organisms that depend on other organisms for food are called: heterotrophs Organisms that feed off dead organisms are called: saprophytes The raw materials of photosynthesis are: water, carbon dioxide The conditions for photosynthesis are: sunlight, chlorophyll The products of photosynthesis are: glucose, oxygen The organic product of photosynthesis is: glucose
END OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS NOTES
PLANT NUTRITION MINERALS AND PLANTS Mineral Nitrogen ( absorbed as nitrates) Magnesium Iron Calcium Potassium Function makes proteins, DNA, and many other compounds Used to make chlorophyll Effect of Deficiency Small yellow leaves and poor growth
Sulphuur Phosphurus (absorbed as phosphates)
Yellowing between the veins Used to make chlorophyll Yellowing between the veins of young leaves Used to make cell walls Poor and stunted growth, yellowing of leaves, death of terminal buds Maintains the salt balance in cells needed Leaves develop yellow/ for the effective functioning of enzymes brown colouring that involved in photosynthesis and wither. respiration. Death of plant Used to make some proteins Developing leaves are yellow, thin and small Used to make some proteins, DNA, and Poor growth of plants, cell membranes. small, red brown leaves. Essential in energy production in cells. TABLE SHOWING MINERALS NEEDED BY PLANTS
ENZYMES Activation energy (EA )- the energy required for a reaction to proceed. Catalyst- it is a chemical that alters the speed at which a reaction takes place without the chemical being destroyed or altered in the process. Catalysts lower the activation energy of reactions. If a catalyst were not present, the speed at which our bodily reactions take place would be too slow to maintain life. Temperature increase the rate at which reactions take place but it cannot be increased greatly as it is detrimental to the cell. Iron is also a catalyst. Enzymes are organic, cell made; catalysts and they are the catalyst that is found in living systems. The initial materials used to make a product is called the substrate; that otherwise would have been referred to as the reactant or the raw material. A B+C
Where A is the substrata and B and C are the respective products.
The enzyme is always bigger than the substrate. The enzyme binds with the substrate to form an enzyme substrate complex. The enzymes weaken the bonds in the substrate. Usually enzymes end with ‘ase’ Pepsin is an exception- breaks down proteins Carbohydrase- carbohydrates Lipase-lipids and fats Protease- proteins Properties of enzymes 1) They are proteins- globular proteins They are polypeptide chains folded around each other to form globular proteins. This means that they have a three dimensional form, formed from the bonding of the polypeptide chains. Polypeptide chains are made up of many amino acids bounded by peptide bonds.
2) They are specific to a particular type of substrate. Each type of enzyme can act on only one type of substrate; for example, lipase can only break down fats and can not break down starch. When the polypeptide chains are folded to form the globular structure, certain amino acids are bonded together to form an active site having a specific shape to match that of the substrate. It is at the active site that the substrate molecules are broken down to form products. The term used to describe the activity of enzymes and their specific nature is the LOCK AND KEY MECHANISM. 3) Enzymes can be used repeatedly. This is because they are not altered. 4) Enzymes have an optimum temperature. Enzymes work best at a particular temperature; that is, at a particular temperature an enzyme can break down a maximum number of substrate molecules to form products. This can be illustrated using a graph. As the temperature increase from zero degrees celius to the optimum temperature, the substrates and enzymes vibrate and move until collision, the substrate complex is then formed. The kinetic energy is increased. Too much heat denatures the enzyme causing the active site and enzyme to change its shape. It is therefore destroyed. Enzymes do not die because they were never living. Proteins change their shape due to heat. As the temperature increases the kinetic energy of the substrate and enzyme molecules also increase. The increase in kinetic energy causes the molecules to vibrate and move more, thus they collide more frequently and form enzyme substrate complexes. Consequently the rate of reaction increases and more products are formed. At optimum temperature the kinetic energy of the molecules is the greatest. This means that they are vibrating at their fastest, maximum enzyme substrate complex molecules are formed thus producing the maximum amount of products. Above the optimum temperature the rate of reaction decreases. This is because the molecules within the enzymes vibrate too much, thus distorting the shape of the enzymes. As a result, the shape of the active site is changed and enzymes are denatured. At very low temperatures, enzymes are inactive. The optimum temperature for human enzymes is 37 degrees Celsius. 5) Some enzymes are reversible/can be used reversibly. A+B C
Some enzymes catalyse a reaction in both directions. 6) Enzymes have an optimum pH where they work best.