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- Shallow Foundations Terminology
- Application Bernoullis Equation
- Probability
- The Mole and Avogadro's Number
- Hydrographic Survey (Marine Survey) By D.M Siddique
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- Stirrup Design
- Manning Formula
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- project report
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- Highway
- Two Level

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We can study the behaviour of a specific element of the fluid

of fixed mass

Closed

system

space

Control

volume

Closed

system

Constant

Mass

The Closed System is Moving with the

flow

C.S

Control

volume

Constant Volume

The Control Volume is

Fixed

11/18/2013

Relation between a system and control volume for any extensive property

dX

xd x(v.n)ds

dt sys t c.v

c. s

Where X is any extensive property

and x is the property per unit

mass

X

m

X m

X m

x 1

m m

dm

d (v.n)ds

dt sys t c.v

c. s

But for system m= constant

0 d (v.n)ds

t c.v

c. s

Mass decrease or

increase in C.V

Net mass

crossing C.S

Unsteady term

11/18/2013

Assumptions

Steady flow

Uniform flow

d 0

t

c .v

Or invisced flow

(v.n)ds vA)

exit

vA)inlet

c. s

Incompressible flow

const. in ex

m VA

Qinlet Qexit .

m Q

Note

(v.n )

Must be :

i.e Relative velocity

2-Normal to the area

(v.n) v * n * cos

At inlet

180 (v.n)inlet v

n

v

At exit

n

v

(v.n) exit v

11/18/2013

2 = 1

11/18/2013

2 = 6

- 4

11/18/2013

Prob. (1)

Oil (SG =0.91) enters at section 1

at a weight flow of 250 N/h to

lubricate a thrust bearing. The

steady oil flow exits radially

through the narrow clearance

between thrust plates. Compute

(a) the outlet volume flux in mL/s

and (b) the average outlet

velocity in cm/s.

Assumptions

1-Steady flow

2-Uniform flow

Q1 Q2 Q

.

W 1 gQ

3-Incompressible flow

v1 A1 v2 A2

250

1000 * 0.91* 9.81* Q

3600

11/18/2013

Q 7.779 *106 m3 / s

Q 7.779 mL / s

Q v1 A1 v2 A2

7.779 *10 6

v2

D2 h

v2 0.01238 m / s 1.2 cm / s

Prob. (2)

The V-shaped tank has

width b into the paper and is

filled from the inlet pipe at

volume flow Q. Derive

expressions for (a) the rate

of change dh/dt and (b) the

time required for the surface

to rise from h1 to h2.

Assumptions

1-Unsteady flow

2-Uniform flow

d

d Qin

dt

c .v

3-Incompressible flow

Qin

d

d

dt

c .v

11/18/2013

Qin

d

dt

1

L*h

2

But

Ab

tan

2h

L

h2

A

tan

1 2h

A *

*h

2 tan

d h 2b

Q

dt tan

dh Q tan

dt

2bh

b

dh

2h

tan

dt

5

To get the time

2

Q tan

dt hdh

2b 0

h1

Q tan

h22 h12

t

2b

2

(h22 h12 )b

t

Q tan

11/18/2013

6

3

Prob. (3)

An incompressible fluid flows

past an impermeable flat plate,

with a uniform inlet profile u =

Uo and a cubic polynomial exit

profile

3 3

u U

2

Where

compute the

volume flow Q across the top

surface of the control volume.

Assumptions

1-Steady flow

3-Incompressible flow

AU ubdy Q

0

3 y

bU bU

2

0

y 3

dy Q

bU bU 34 8 Q

bU bU 85 Q

Q 83 bU

11/18/2013

6

3

Prob. (4)

The shown tank admits water at

20C and 75 N/s weight flow

while ejecting gasoline at 60 N/s.

If all fluids are approximately

incompressible, how much air in

N/h is passing through the vent?

In which direction?

Assumptions

Since the size of the tank is constant I.e V= const.

Q

1-Steady in volume flow rate

in

Qout

2-Uniform flow

3-Incompressible flow

Q1

W1

w g

Q1 7.66 *103 m3 / s

W2

w g

Q2 8.994 *103 m3 / s

Q2

Q1 Q2

Q3 is in

Q1 Q3 Q2

Q3 1.334 *103 m3 / s

P

air 1.204 kg / m3

RT

.

.

W air air gQ3 W air 56.75 N / hr

10

11/18/2013

Prob. (5)

The open tank shown contains water at

20C and is being filled through section

1. Assume incompressible flow. First

derive an analytic expression for the

water-level

change dh/dt in terms of arbitrary

volume flows (Q1, Q2,Q3) and tank

diameter d. Then, if the water level h is

constant, determine the exit velocity V2

for the given data V1= 3 m/s and Q3 =

0.01 m3/s..

Assumptions

1-Unsteady flow

2-Uniform flow

3-Incompressible flow

If h is constant

11

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