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11/18/2013

Analyzing fluid flow


We can study the behaviour of a specific element of the fluid
of fixed mass

Closed
system

We can define the system to be studied as a fixed region in


space
Control
volume

Closed
system
Constant
Mass
The Closed System is Moving with the
flow

C.S

Control
volume
Constant Volume
The Control Volume is
Fixed

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Relation between a system and control volume for any extensive property

dX

xd x(v.n)ds

dt sys t c.v
c. s
Where X is any extensive property
and x is the property per unit
mass

X
m

Conservation of Mass (Continuity Equation)

X m
X m
x 1
m m

dm

d (v.n)ds

dt sys t c.v
c. s
But for system m= constant

0 d (v.n)ds
t c.v
c. s
Mass decrease or
increase in C.V

Net mass
crossing C.S

Unsteady term

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Assumptions

Steady flow

Uniform flow

d 0
t
c .v
Or invisced flow

(v.n)ds vA)

exit

vA)inlet

c. s
Incompressible flow

const. in ex

Continuity Equation Becomes

vA)inlet vA) exit

m VA

Qinlet Qexit .

m Q

Note

The velocity in the term

(v.n )

Must be :

1-Is measured relative to an observer setting on the control surface


i.e Relative velocity
2-Normal to the area

(v.n) v * n * cos
At inlet

180 (v.n)inlet v

n
v

At exit

n
v

(v.n) exit v

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min mout m stored

min mout m stored


2 = 1

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min mout m stored

min mout m stored


2 = 6

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11/18/2013

Prob. (1)
Oil (SG =0.91) enters at section 1
at a weight flow of 250 N/h to
lubricate a thrust bearing. The
steady oil flow exits radially
through the narrow clearance
between thrust plates. Compute
(a) the outlet volume flux in mL/s
and (b) the average outlet
velocity in cm/s.
Assumptions
1-Steady flow

2-Uniform flow

Q1 Q2 Q
.

W 1 gQ

3-Incompressible flow

v1 A1 v2 A2

250
1000 * 0.91* 9.81* Q
3600

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Q 7.779 *106 m3 / s

Q 7.779 mL / s

Q v1 A1 v2 A2

7.779 *10 6
v2
D2 h

v2 0.01238 m / s 1.2 cm / s

Prob. (2)
The V-shaped tank has
width b into the paper and is
filled from the inlet pipe at
volume flow Q. Derive
expressions for (a) the rate
of change dh/dt and (b) the
time required for the surface
to rise from h1 to h2.
Assumptions
1-Unsteady flow

2-Uniform flow

d
d Qin
dt
c .v

3-Incompressible flow

Qin

d
d
dt
c .v

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Qin

d
dt

1
L*h
2

But

Ab

tan

2h
L

h2
A
tan

1 2h
A *
*h
2 tan
d h 2b

Q
dt tan

dh Q tan

dt
2bh

b
dh
2h
tan
dt

5
To get the time
2
Q tan
dt hdh
2b 0
h1

Q tan
h22 h12
t
2b
2
(h22 h12 )b
t
Q tan

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3

Prob. (3)
An incompressible fluid flows
past an impermeable flat plate,
with a uniform inlet profile u =
Uo and a cubic polynomial exit
profile
3 3

u U
2

Where
compute the
volume flow Q across the top
surface of the control volume.
Assumptions
1-Steady flow

2-Uniform flow at inlet only

3-Incompressible flow

AU ubdy Q
0

3 y
bU bU
2
0

y 3

dy Q

bU bU 34 8 Q
bU bU 85 Q
Q 83 bU

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3

Prob. (4)
The shown tank admits water at
20C and 75 N/s weight flow
while ejecting gasoline at 60 N/s.
If all fluids are approximately
incompressible, how much air in
N/h is passing through the vent?
In which direction?

Assumptions
Since the size of the tank is constant I.e V= const.

Q
1-Steady in volume flow rate

in

Qout

2-Uniform flow

3-Incompressible flow

Q1

W1
w g

Q1 7.66 *103 m3 / s

W2
w g

Q2 8.994 *103 m3 / s

Q2

Q1 Q2

Q3 is in

Q1 Q3 Q2
Q3 1.334 *103 m3 / s
P
air 1.204 kg / m3
RT
.
.
W air air gQ3 W air 56.75 N / hr

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11/18/2013

Prob. (5)
The open tank shown contains water at
20C and is being filled through section
1. Assume incompressible flow. First
derive an analytic expression for the
water-level
change dh/dt in terms of arbitrary
volume flows (Q1, Q2,Q3) and tank
diameter d. Then, if the water level h is
constant, determine the exit velocity V2
for the given data V1= 3 m/s and Q3 =
0.01 m3/s..
Assumptions
1-Unsteady flow

2-Uniform flow

3-Incompressible flow

If h is constant

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