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KINESIOLOGY 46 Beginning Judo

Study Guide
The Philosophy of Judo
Modern judo was founded by Professor Jigoro Kano in 1882. A descendent of the
martial art of jujitsu, judo means the gentle way - the gentleness describing the
abstinence from weapons and the way, or philosophy, describing the control of force.
Rather than emphasizing brute strength against brute strength, judo stresses the
importance of using an opponents strength to ones advantage, for example, pulling an
opponent when they push and pushing an opponent when they pull. This is what is meant
by the gentle way - meeting forces with gentleness. Another similar philosophical
thought is softness can overcome hardness. This was Jigoro Kanos emphasis on the
strategy of giving way. Instead of meeting an opponent head-on, one gives way using
the opponents own strength to defeat them self. Kano took a great interest in executing
martial skills in the most energy efficient way. His development of modern judo
therefore was based on the premise of maximum efficiency with minimal effort.
Today judo continues to be one of the most popular sports in the world. Recent
information provided by the International Judo Federation (IJF) indicated that 178
National Federations over 5 continents are currently practicing judo. Since its
inauguration into the Summer Olympic Games in Tokyo (1964), the popularity of judo
has grown and has attracted worldwide attention as a competitive international sport.
The Techniques of Judo
1. Ukemi (Falling Techniques)
- back fall
- shoulder roll
2. Nagewaza (Throwing Techniques)
- Ogoshi (Hip Throw)
- Ippon seionage (Shoulder Throw)
- Osoto-gari (Leg Throw)
3. Osaewaza (Pinning Techniques)
- Kesagatame (head and arm)
- Yokoshihogatame (side pin)
- Kamishihogatame (backwards pin)
4. Shimewaza (Choking Techniques)
- Okuri eri jime
- Kata ha jime
- Nami juji jime
- Sankaku jime
5. Kansetsuwaza (arm lock techniques)
- Juji gatame
- Ude garami

Judo Terminology
Training Terminology
Tori person executing a throw, pin etc.
Uke person being thrown, pinnedetc.
Uchikomi repetition training
Randori free practice
Competition Terminology


Hajime begin or attack

Matte stop
Osaekomi pin in effect

Ippon full point

Wazari point; almost ippon (additive)
Yuko almost wazari (non-additive)
Koka almost yuko (non-additive)

Shido equivalent to koka
Chui equivalent to yuko
Keikoku equivalent to wazari
Hansokumake disqualification from match
Judo Competition Summary
The premise of judo competition is to score an ippon or full point against your
opponent within the designated time limit. Matches typically have a 5 minute limit. An
ippon can be accomplished by throw, pin, choke, or arm bar techniques. Throwing
techniques are judged and scored according to the degree of effectiveness (form and
speed). Pinning is accomplished by controlling an opponent on their back for 25 seconds.
Smaller points may be awarded for a pin depending on how long the pin is in effect. Arm
lock and choking techniques score ippon by submission from your opponent (two taps) or
when the referee feels the opponent is in submission. Penalties are also implemented to
encourage fair play and safety. Penalties may be enforced in a number of situations
including stalling and execution of illegal techniques. Matches are judged by one main
judge and two side judges. In cases where a match ends in a tie, the side judges help
decide the winner. Side judges may also override the main judges scores and penalties.