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CHAPTER 5 : CELL DIVISION

2 kinds of cell division:

1. Mitosis: division of somatic cells

2. Meiosis: creation of new sex cells

Cell Division Vocabulary

Somatic cell a body cell; a cell whose genes will not be passed on to future
generations.

Germ cell - a cell that is destined to become a gamete (egg or sperm); a cell
whose genes can be passed on to future generations

diploid (2N) a cell with 2 chromosome sets in each of its cells; all body
(somatic) cells

represented by the symbol 2N

Found in somatic or body cells (ex. Skin, digestive tract)

Example : Humans 2N = 46

haploid (N) a cell with 1 chromosome set in each of its cells; all gametes
(sperm, eggs)

represented by the symbol N or 1N

Found in gametes or sex cells sperm & egg

Example: Humans N = 23

MITOSIS
Characteristics of Mitosis

A diploid cell will give rise to a diploid cell

Chromosome number remains the same

The DNA remains identically the same

One cell (2N) gives rise to two cells ( 2N)

the division of the nucleus to produce two daughter cells, each contain
same number & same kind of chromosome as the parent cell
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Occurs in all somatic cells except gametes.

Somatic cells contain 2 sets of chromosomes, 1 set from female parent, 1


set from male parent diploid(2n)

Single set of unpaired chromosome haploid (n)

Each somatic cells produce 2 new diploid cells identical to the parent cell

SIGNIFICANCE OF MITOSIS

For growth, repair & replaces cells that are dead or damaged

A form of asexual reproduction to increase the number of organisms (Amoeba


sp.)

To ensure that the offsprings/new cells are genetically identical to the parent.

Preserves the diploid number of chromosomes

The Cell Cycle

INTERPHASE (G1, S, G2)


G1 : Growth phase 1
The cell growth by producing proteins & cytoplasmic organelles
S : Synthesis
Synthesis of DNA, chromosomes are duplicated & DNA has replicated to form 2
identical sister chromatids joined together by centromere
G2 : Growth phase 2
Cell growth & cell differentiation occur
M PHASE(Cell Division)
Mitosis : nucleus divides
Cytokinesis : division of cytoplasm

STAGE OF MITOSIS
1. Prophase
2. Metaphase
3. Anaphase
4. Telophase
Nucleus divides = cytokinesis (cytoplasm divides)

1. Prophase

Centrioles move apart to opposite poles

The chromosomes coil up, condense & shorten

Two identical chromatids (sister chromatids) appears, attached at centromere

Nuclear membrane breaks down

Nucleolus disappears

Spindle fibres begin to form extend between the centrioles.

2. METAPHASE

The chromosomes move to the cells


equator

The chromosomes line up along the


equator of the cell with the centromeres
attached to the spindle fibres

Each chromatid of the chromosome faces


its own pole

Metaphase ends when the centromeres


divide

ANAPHASE

The centromere of each chromosome


divides into two

The sister chromatids of each


chromosome separate and move to
opposite poles of the cell

The spindle fibres pull the centromere


toward each pole

TELOPHASE

In telophase the nucleus actually divides.

The chromosomes are at the poles of the


cell.

The nuclear envelope re-forms around the


two sets of chromosomes

Cytokinesis

The division of the cytoplasm.

In animal cells, a Cleavage Furrow forms and separates Daughter Cells

In plant cells, a Cell Plate forms and separates Daughter Cells.

APPLICATION OF KNOWLEDGE ON MITOSIS


1. IN CLONING
A TECHNIQUE / the process of producing clones or genetically
identical organisms through asexually reproduction

Contain same genetic content & chromosomal number with one


another as well as with the parent organism
To increase the quantity of the product
To improve the quality, to produce new species & to ensure uniformity
in the traits of the plants

Cloning of animals
1. Reproductive cloning

Producing an entire animal that is genetically identical to the parent animal

The entire animal is produced from a single cell by asexual reproduction


through mitosis.

2. Therapeutic cloning

Is a branch of medicine concerned with the treatment of diseases.

Parts of a person skin, heart, liver or even just a few cells are duplicated to
produce a clone.

The clone tissue is used to replace a damaged or diseases tissue without the
risk of tissue rejection.

Cloning in plant
1. Tissue culture
Plants can be cloned using tissue culture.
A technique in reproduction which involves the transfer of tissues or
cells from an organism into a suitable culture medium to produce a
whole new organism (identical to the existing organism)
Tissue culture produces genetically identical clones.
Tissue culture techniques
a) A pieces of tissue, called explants, its taken from a parents plant (e.g. carrot
root or stem tissue,)
b) The pieces of tissues are sterilised with dilute sodium hypochlorite solution to
prevent the growth of pathogens (such as bacteria and fungus).
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c) Each sterile tissue piece is placed on to a growth medium (gel containing


nutrients and growth regulators).
d) The tissues cells divided by mitosis to produce a mass of loosely arranged
undifferentiated cells called callus.
e) Callus is stimulated with shoot-stimulating hormone to form multiple shoots.
f) The shoots are separated and each is placed in nutrient medium with rootstimulating hormone to encourage rooting
g) Once the roots grow, the plantlets (little plants) are planted in sterile compost
to grow.

ADVANTAGES
1. Produced in a short time (increase quantity)
2. The good qualities of the plants/ animals can be selected & maintained in the
clones
3. Increases the rate of production & the quality of the product
4. Ensure the continuity of hereditary traits from parent to the clones
5. Can be carried out any time of the year

DISADVANTAGES
1. The resistance of the clones towards diseases & pests is the same. 1 infected
with a disease/pests, all the clones will also affected. Lead to the extinction of
the species.
2. Carried out under controlled environment. External environment changes, the
will be destroyed
3. Prevents natural selection
4. No variation
The effects of uncontrolled mitosis in living things

Mutation is the change in the DNA structure of the cell.

This change in the DNA corrupts the coded genetic instructions for mitosis
control.

This leads to uncontrolled mitosis, which is the non-stop division of cells,


producing a mass of new daughter cells, called tumour.

How cancer occur


-

Mitosis is a process of cell division that creates two identical daughter cells,
each carrying a copy of the original cell's DNA.
Errors in mitosis result in an incorrect DNA copy; the effect of errors on the
health of the organism range from benign to deadly, depending on the amount
and type of errors.
One potential consequence is cancer; all cancer types are traced back to
harmful mutations multiplied by mitosis.

Causes of Cancer
1. Genetic- some forms of cancer like prostate, colon, breast, skin, ovary are
suspected to be inherited from the parents
2. Carcinogens- these are chemicals which affect genetic activity and cause
cancer, e.g. of carcinogen a diesel exhaust, cigarette smoke, hair dyes, soot,
arsenic, benzene and formaldehyde.
3. Radiation- excess exposure to x-ray, gamma-rays and ultra violet rays lead to
increase cancer risk.
4. Age- some cancers are found primarily in young people (e.g. leukemia), while
some cancers (e.g. colon cancers) are found mostly in older adults.
5. Viruses- some viruses (such as the EB and HIV-1) cause cancer.
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MEIOSIS

Human Chromosomes

Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes (46 total)

22 pairs of autosomes

1 pair of sex chromosomes

Half of each pair came from one parent and half came from the other parent

Meiosis

A division of the nucleus to produce 4 daughter cells each containing half the
chromosome number of the parent nucleus.

A type of cell division - occurs in reproduction organs to produce 4 daughter


cells called gametes.

Meiosis takes place in the gonads (sexual organs)

For humans, these are the ovaries and testes

The process of meiosis produces egg and sperm cells

Two gametes come together by fertilization

The haploid sperm and egg join to form a diploid zygote

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Meiosis Phases

Meiosis I
Prophase I
Metaphase I
Anaphase I
Telophase I

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Meiosis II
Prophase II
Metaphase II
Anaphase II
Telophase II

Interphase

Before Meiosis (just like before Mitosis) the cell must prepare for division:

Cells increase in size

DNA is replicated

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Necessary proteins
and RNA are
synthesized

During this phase, chromosomes are not yet visible.

Meiosis: Prophase I

Chromosomes become visible

Nuclear envelope disappears

Centrioles head to opposite poles and spindle forms

Homologous chromosomes (one pair of sister chromatids


from the mother and one from the father) pair up to form
a tetrad

The tetrad pairs up so tightly that crossing over occurs

Crossing over happens when parts of the homologues


chromosomes switch places after overlapping

Crossing over increases genetic variation

Crossing over happened : non-sister chromatids exchange segments of DNA


new combination of genes on a chromosome

Chiasmata the points at which segments of chromatids cross over

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METAPHASE I

The paired chromosomes are lined up at the equator of the cell

One chromosome of each pair faces each pole of the cell

the chromosomes attached to the spindle fibres at their centromere

The centromere does not divide

ANAPHASE I

The paired chromosomes separate from one another & move to opposite
poles

The spindle fibres pulled one chromosome of each pair to each pole

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TELOPHASE I

The chromosomes arrive at the poles.

Each pole has a haploid daughter nucleus (contain one set)

The spindle fibres disappear, the nuclear membrane & nucleolus reappears in
each nucleus.

Chromosomes uncoil

Cytoplasm divides into two cells

Cytokinesis occurs

No interphase, no replication of chromosomes

Meiosis: Prophase II

Chromosomes become visible

Spindle forms

If nuclear membrane reformed after Telophase I, it will break down now

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Metaphase II

Chromosomes lined up at the equator


of the cell facing opposite poles

Each sister chromatid is attached to


the spindle fibres at the centromere

Anaphase II

The sister chromatids together split

Chromatids separate

Spindle fibres pull each chromatid


to opposite poles

Centromere are divided

Telophase II

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Chromatids reach the poles &


become new chromosomes

Nuclear membrane & nucleolus


form again at each chromosome

Chromosomes become extended


& not visible

Cytokinesis occurs & 4 haploid


daughter cell are formed.

THE COMPARISON BETWEEN MEIOSIS I & MEIOSIS II

MEIOSIS I

SIMILARITIES

Consist of 4 stages : P,M,A,T

Involve division of nucleus & cytokinesis

MEIOSIS II

DIFFERENCES
Occur

Synapsis

Not occur

Yes

Cross over

No

MI-paired
homologous
chromosomes line
up at the equator

Metaphase

MII each
chromosome with
sister chromatids
line up at the
equator

AI paired
homologous
chromosomes
separate & move
to opposite poles

Anaphase

AII the sister


chromatids separate
& move to opposite
poles

2 haploid cells are


formed

At the end

4 haploid cells are


formed

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THE COMPARISON BETWEEN MITOSIS & MEIOSIS


MEIOSIS

SIMILARITIES

Division of cells

The chromosomes replicates only once

MITOSIS

DIFFERENCES
In reproductive organ

Place occur

In somatic cell

Parent cell divides twice

Number of divisions

Parent cell divides once

Four haploid daughter cells

Number of daughter
cells

Two diploid daughter cells

Occurs during prophase I

Synapsis of
homologous
chromosomes

Not occurs

Occurs twice

Number of cytokinesis

Occurs once

Occurs during prophase I

Crossing over of
chromatids of
homologous
chromosomes

Not occurs

Half of number of
chromosomes of the parent
cell (haploid)

Number of
chromosomes in
daughter cells

Genetically identical to the parent


cell

Genetically non-identical to
the parent cell & each other

Genetic composition of
daughter cells

Genetically identical to the parent


cell

Occurs once during


interphase before meiosis I

DNA replication

Occurs during interphase before


mitosis begins

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