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Overview: The presentation that I have developed is a music video about immigration to the United States at the end of the 19th and beginning of the early 20th Century. Previously this presentation was created as a power point slide show that was accompanied by a lecture, this method was not very exciting and required the students to take complete a handout during the presentation. With this being a topic that works with the stories of a number of ethnic groups there is bulk of information for students to know. With many students not completing required readings or being able to put the information into a sequential order, the use of the music video will cover these points using an audio/visual approach with limited captions to explain the immigrant experience. Students will be subjected to documents (images, cartoons, and statistics) from this time period to give as real depiction of immigration during this time as possible. Audiences: The audience of students that will view this music video have a variety of learning styles, many though are struggling readers and the use of limited captions will help them progress through the material that is being presented. These students often are unprepared and lack background knowledge that allows them to participate in a classroom discussion. Teachers that view this will have the opportunity to utilize it as part of their unit on the immigrant experience in America at this time. Learning Objectives: Completing this activity will allow students to consider why immigrants for more then 150 years have wanted to come to America in search of a new life while understanding why the government has passed legislation that places limits on who was eligible to come to the United States. This will then allow students to identify the reasons why immigrants left their homelands for the United States from the various areas that they came from and explain the major pieces of legislation that were passed restricting entrance to the United States in the 1920s. This will help students to complete a Role, Audience, Format, Topic (RAFT) assignment where they create their own fictional character and their personal account of coming to America and settling in during this time period. In assuming the role of an immigrant the students will gain an understanding of how these people lived and what they experienced as foreigners in a strange land. Problem/Solution: Most students do not complete their readings outside of class that will prepare them for in class activities, this music video will condense the information that students need to participate in class activities and will further supplement the readings that are completed by other students. Evidence: Evidence: 1. Sequential organization and display. Support: The use of storytelling will allow for the plight of the immigrants entering America will be a succinct tale that is easy to follow. 2. Statistical information Actual immigration statistics will help to provide real provided about immigration. numbers about those entering America during this time
and beyond. 3. Primary source documents (images, cartoons) that depict the immigrant experience. 4. Detailed captions. Primary sources provide a real example of what these immigrants experienced for a “better life” in America. These show the conditions and feelings of the time for those supporting and against mass immigration. Captions will bridge the information from the images with the immigrant experience.
Anecdotes: In presenting the immigrant experience during this time period was important as students today think of those coming into this country illegally through Mexico when the subject of immigration is brought up. Due to this being a media story that is discussed repeatedly by the press, many students make comments of bias about the issue of immigration without thinking about the story of their ancestors of when and why they came to America. This is further touched upon by the fact that many do not understand the past legislation that has been enacted by the government to deal with the immigration issue. Thus creating a presentation that looks at the history of immigration to the United States as recently as 80 years ago is important for students to understand what has been done before and how it relates to today’s situation. Format: The decision to use a music video with images from the time period and limited captions to help explain the immigrant experience came from the idea of a picture being worth a thousand words. Rather then have a lecture explaining the purpose and history behind each image, they would be allowed to speak for them. Students would be guided by the raw emotion of each image and the brief captions that would guide the story along with the soundtrack. Sequencing: Using the music video format was a relatively easy decision as the art of storytelling often blends the use of images and sound to create powerful tale that captures the audiences’ attention. As stated by Vernallis (2004) “images are cut to the beat…Music video works by establishing one-to-one correspondences between music and image, and every moment of connection carries equal weight.” (p 179) This connection in the brain allows for each image to have a meaning that may not be reached through a direct lecture from the presenter. When introducing a topic in class engaging the students in the material is very important. Too often students are given a task to read out of a text the information that the teacher wants them to have as background information for when they enter class, this method is not very exciting to the students. According to Medina (2008) “If you are trying to get information across to someone, your ability to create a compelling introduction may be the most important single factor in the later success of your mission.” (p 116) In creating an interesting story the presenter will then capture the audiences attention. “One important reason that stories are so powerful is that information delivered through stories is more memorable. Linking information together strengthens memory, and stories link information in multiples way. Also, stories engage the emotions, and this too aids memory.” (Abela, 2008, p 65) Graphics:
Using documents from this time period creates a connection to human emotion as the people are real and not doctored like in a movie. The use of these images allows for students to see immigration in reality rather then through an artist’s recreation. As stated by Duarte (2008) “Employ Actual Photos: Stock imagery often fails because it lacks content. Real photos may not always be easy to look at, but they possess credibility and import that staged images do not. (p 79) The political cartoons from this era also depict the different viewpoints that existed on the subject and how people approached the issue. Displaying the graphs about immigration for the entire country and the different ethnic groups was done visually to create a better retention of the data. According to Duarte (2008) “People’s retention of data increases when they can “see the numbers.” Various icons bring the information to life.” (p 79) Creating the statistical images that show the changes in immigration numbers relies upon the ideas of Tufte (2006) “the essential point is to make intelligent and appropriate comparisons. Thus visual displays, if they are to assist thinking, should show comparisons.” (p 127) Text: Since part of the purpose of this presentation is to limit the amount of text that students are required to read prior to class the intended goal was to be brief. Applying the ideas of Duarte (2008) “Ask yourself whether your message can be processed effectively within three seconds. The audience should be able to quickly ascertain the meaning before turning their attention. (p 140) This application was intended in linking the images with the purpose of the story by using very simple captions that guide the plot. The font used was chosen for its simplicity and clean look and easily read. As put by Abela (2008) “do not spend any time worrying about fonts; just pick a readable one and stay with it.” (p 102) Layout: Creating the layout of this presentation was difficult as there was so much information that could be passed on to the learners through lecture or notes. Rather then use bullet points to bore the audience, the presentation concentrates on using images that appeal to the learners. Since this will be used as informational to educate the audience about immigration to America as “”purely informational” presentations have a very hard time attracting and keeping audience attention (which is why they need the vibrant imagery and the emotional appeal of ballroom styles).” (Abela, 2008, g 107) Since this story moves along in a linear manner, it was desired to create a panorama style that moved the plot along in a continuous manner. Thus the use of the panorama “will create an illusion that the content is all in the same scene.” (Duarte, 2008, p 190) By limiting the movement on each page there was less emphasis on the bells and whistles of the presentation so the content did not lose its importance. Measurement: In looking at the effectiveness of this presentation, previous classroom assessment activities will be used and the scores compared with those of students that completed the same manner in the traditional lecture and reading method. Data comparison between the two will help to evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of each delivery method and to determine a process that will allow for optimal student achievement. Peers were asked to review the draft based upon the following questions: I am struggling for what type of song to play for the background of this "music video", any suggestions would be helpful. The intent is to make this cover immigration to the US
during the late 19th Century through the 1920s. Song suggestions? Should I focus on one ethnic group and follow their path to and through America? Make it like a family's journey? Would captions be okay to use to give subtle clues about some of the anti immigration laws of the time? Should there be a connection to the anti-immigration movement of today compared to then (Nativists vs. Militiamen)? Any other suggestions? The reviews from peers suggested matching the mood of the images and how it related to the life of the immigrant. Therefore there needed to be a wide variety of emotions captured through the music including; hope, fear, frustration, and excitement to properly convey the message. The reviews were mixed if only one ethnic group or family should be portrayed in this story and since this is a time of mass immigration it was decided to give a general overview of the issue as it related to the immigration restrictions that enacted by the government. The use of captions was encouraged as the images were reviewed well for the story that each conveyed. Since this is a brief presentation, it was suggested to leave out the ties between Nativists and Militiamen in today’s world. Overall, the suggestions helped to provide focus on the main points and to keep the presentation brief.
Abela, A.V. (2008). Advanced presentations by design: creating communication that drives action. San Francisco, CA: Pfeiffer. Duarte, N. (2008). Slide:ology. Sebastopol, CA: O'Reilly Media. Medina, J. (2008). Brain matters. Seattle, WA: Pear Press. Tufte, E.R. (2006). Beautiful evidence. New York: Graphics Press.
Worksheet A.1a. Audience Personality Type
Audience High School Students Personality Type Introvert, many students do not like presenting information to the class as they are fearful of public speaking. When it comes to reading many students do not complete the required passages as it relates to class activities and are not able to participate in discussions. Judger, these individuals will have the opportunity to use this in their classrooms as part of their lesson planning for a unit on immigration.
High School Teachers
Worksheet A.1b. Audience Personality Implications
Presentation Implications Provide all or part of presentation in advance X Plan for lots of discussion and Q&A X Make sure to include all relevant facts and detains in presentation or appendix x Provide overview up-front Identify principles, costs, and benefits State implications for each person or group of stakeholders involved List all alternatives considered
Worksheet A.2. From-To Think-Do Matrix
From-To Think-Do Matrix FROM THINK TO
Why have immigrants wanted to come to the United States in the past 150 years?
What and why has the United States placed limitations on immigration for different ethnic groups?
Identify the major centers of immigration Identify and explain the major along the west and east coasts of the immigration legislation of the 1920s/ United States.
Worksheet A.3. Audience Problem
The audience faces a couple of problems that affect both the Students and teachers and that is the one of reading. Many students do not complete reading assignments which hampers their background knowledge when they come to class, this in turn has an effect on the teachers and their ability to lead effective class discussions. With many students struggling to comprehend what they read at times, this presentation will create a brief story that clarifies the many facets of education.
Students have a large number of ethnic groups to learn about that immigrated to the US Large amount of reading involved in learning about each of these groups and their stories of coming to the US. Creation of a music video allows for the sequential instruction of information. Provide students with smaller introductory readings that are further emphasized in the video. Sequentially designed handouts that highlight and illustrate the information in the music video.
Worksheet A.4. Audience Problems Worksheet A.5. Solution Evaluation
Evaluation Criteria Clarity of Information Option 1 Music Video with handouts Simplified presentation of information Story of immigration to the US is presented in a orderly manner in one source. Option 2 Class lecture and notetaking Students required to complete reading of information on own time. Number of ethnic groups to keep track of in a variety of sources
Primary Source images (pictures and cartoons) from the time period. Use of Camtasia to display immigration stats. Group instruction that supplements
Limited to what is provided in the texts and presented in class slide shows.
Large amounts of individual work that may not be completed on student’s time.
Worksheet A.6. List of Evidence
5. Sequential organization and display. 6. Statistical information provided about immigration. 7. Primary source documents (images, cartoons) that depict the immigrant experience. 8. Detailed captions.
Worksheet A.7. Stakeholder Analysis
Whose help will we need for our recommendations to be implemented? What must each of them think or do for our recommendations to be successful? Where do they stand on this? What do we need to do to close the gap? Teachers Students
Edit and make revisions to the instructional design.
Supportive as it will be made available for all students and teachers to use in the future. Editing and revisions to make this successful and subsequent materials that are more detailed for those wanting to expand the capabilities of the music video.
They need to complete a presentation creating a fictional account about an ethnic immigrant and their experience in the US. Unsure as they will have to complete this activity to earn class credit. Provide students alternative assignments that allows them to demonsrate their understanding of knowledge.
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