# Pump calculations

The mechanical balance equation:

∆p P = ∆p + ∆ pPOT + ∆p KIN + ρh f
∆H P = ∆H + ∆ H POT + ∆H KIN + H The equations can be written so that the left side of the equation describes the pump and the right side describes the pipeline:
∆p P = ∆p + ∆ pPOT + ∆p KIN + ρh f = ∑ ∆ p ∆H P = ∆H + ∆H POT + ∆H KIN + H = ∑ ∆H

(1) (2)

(3) (4)

Both equations are functions of the flow rate of the fluid. The pump characteristics is usually given by the pump supplier. From the pump characteristics you can usually determine the head capacity of the pump as a function of flow rate, the efficiency, power of the pump and the net positive suction head of the pump. In order for a pump to work properly in a certain pipeline there are two details that need to be filled: i) the pump mustn’t cavitate, NPSHA ≥ NPSHR (NPSHA= Net Positive Suction Head Available, NPSHR=Net Positive Suction Head Required) ii) the head developed by the pump must be big enough, ∆H P ≥ ∑ ∆ H The net positive head (available) is defined with either equation 5 or 6 depending on which unit is used. NPSHA = p s − pv [Pa] NPSHA = ps − p v [m] ρg (5) (6)

where ps is the pressure in the suction line and pv is the vapor pressure of the fluid. The head required can be calculated from the basic mechanical balance equation and the head developed by pump is given by the pump supplier.

The pump operating point
The amount of liquid pumped in a certain pipeline is obtained from the pump operating & point. The operating point is the intercept of the pump curve ( ∆H p = f (V ) or & & & ∆p p = f (V ) ) and the pipeline curve ( ∑ ∆ H = f (V ) or ∑ ∆ p = f (V ) ).

1(1)

∆H p ∆H p

∑ ∆H

& V
Picture 1. The pump operating point

& V

The affinity equations for centrifugal pump
The affinity equations determine how a change in rotation speed (N) or in the impeller diameter (D) affects in flow rate, developed head (H) and input power (PB). With the help of affinity equations a new characteristic curve for the pump can be calculated and drawn. 1. Change in rotation speed and/or impeller, the same pump
2 & V1 N1  D1    = & V2 N 2  D2   

(7)

PB ,1 PB ,2 H p ,1 H p, 2

N = 1 N  2

   

3

 D1  D  2
2

   

3

(8)
2

N = 1 N  2

   

 D1  D  2

   

(9)

2. Affinity equations for pumps that are geometrically similar but differ in size
3 & V1 N1  D1    & = V2 N2  D2 

(10)
5

PB ,1  N1  =  PB , 2  N 2    H p ,1 H p, 2 N = 1 N  2

3

 D1   D    2
2

(11)

   

 D1  D  2
2

   

2

(12)

NPSH 1  N1   = NPSH 2  N 2   

 D1  D  2

   

2

(13)

Coupling of centrifugal pumps
Two or more pumps can be coupled either in parallel or series.

2(2)

I II III
Picture 2a. Connection in parallel

I

II

III

Picture 2b. Connection in series

For parallel connection, if the pumps are similar in size: & & & & V = V I + V II + V III (14) (15)

H p = H p , I = H p ,II = H p , III
For connection in series, if the pumps are similar in size: & & & & V = V I = V II = V III

(16) (17)

H p = H p , I + H p, II + H p , III

Calculating the power of the pump
The input power of the pump, PB, is obtained with the following equation:
& & PB = mW p = m 1 ∆p p 1 & =m g∆H p ηp ρ ηp

& & 1 ∆p = V 1 ρg∆H & = VρW p = V p p ηp ηp

(18)

and the electric power with the following equation: PE = & & PB mW p & & m ∆p p m ∆p p V ⋅ ∆p p = = = = ηE ηE η Eη p ρ η TOT ρ η TOT (19)

Where Wp is the work done by the pump, η E is the efficiency of the engine, η p the efficiency of the pump and ηTOT the total efficiency (η E ⋅ η p )

3(3)