You are on page 1of 52

INFS 213 INFORMATION MANAGEMENT

Lecturer: FLORENCE O. ENTSUA-MENSAH (MRS)

CONCEPT OF INFORMATION
DATA | INFORMATION | KNOWLEDGE | COMMUNICATION

Introduction

The conception of information has


changed over the years with the strategic
uses of information systems.
For the modern organization, information
is a resource that is described as parallel
if not more important to land, labour,
capital and entrepreneurship.

MRS. FLORENCE ENTSUA-MENSAH

Information is an elusive concept and


there is a continuing debate about its
meaning and about its relationship to its
correlates such as knowledge and data,
and in business circles, intelligence.

MRS. FLORENCE ENTSUA-MENSAH

In everyday language, data,


information, intelligence and even
knowledge are used
interchangeably.

MRS. FLORENCE ENTSUA-MENSAH

DATA
DATA is a plural of a Latin word Datum
which are facts, records of an event (i.e.
figures) that has occurred or about to
take place.

Data or facts are independent,


unrelated, unlimited in number and
meaningless as it stands.
6

MRS. FLORENCE ENTSUA-MENSAH

DATA
Data is the starting point in providing
information.
It is the facts, figures, values, or even
opinions which are needed to help with
decision making.

MRS. FLORENCE ENTSUA-MENSAH

Examples of Data

No, Yes, No, Yes, Yes, No, Yes, Yes, Yes


70, 65, 86, 73, 61, 43
Red, Amber, Green
The data sets above have no meaning unless
they are placed into a CONTEXT and
PROCESSED into a useable form.

MRS. FLORENCE ENTSUA-MENSAH

INFORMATION
Information can be defined as data that
have been converted into a meaningful
and useful context for specific end users
(OBrien, 2003).

MRS. FLORENCE ENTSUA-MENSAH

INFORMATION
Information must inform, that is, add to
what we already know about an event
or place; it must tell the recipient
something that he/she did not know
before or could not predict.
Information adds to knowledge but
must be relevant to some event, state or
process.
10

MRS. FLORENCE ENTSUA-MENSAH

Processing Data into Information


Organizations and individuals need to be
able to process data to achieve goals.
Example:
Red, Amber, Green
When theses colours are placed in the
context of driving regulations, what
meanings can you assign to each colour?
11

MRS. FLORENCE ENTSUA-MENSAH

Activity 1.1
Raw Data

Yes, Yes, No, Yes, No, Yes, No, Yes,


No, Yes, Yes

Context

Responses to the market


research question Would
you buy brand x at price y?

Processing

Information

Source: (FatMax, 2007)

???

Activity 1.2
Raw Data

70, 65, 86, 73, 61, 43

Context

The scores of students who


sat for INFS213 in 2014.

Processing

Information

???

Some possible responses


We could add up the yes and no
responses to calculate the percentage of
customers who would buy product X at
price Y.
The resulting information could further be presented as a
chart to make it easier to understand.

The students scores can be averaged to


know the general performance of
students.
14

MRS. FLORENCE ENTSUA-MENSAH

KNOWLEDGE
the capability of understanding the
relationship between pieces of information
and what to actually do with the
information Debbie Jones www.teach-ict.com
Knowledge is explained as awareness and
understanding of a set of information and
ways that information can be used to
support a specific task and make a decision
(Stair & Reynolds, 2003).
15

MRS. FLORENCE ENTSUA-MENSAH

Knowledge is the capacity to request,


structure and use information (Mckeown, 2003).
Knowledge is information in context to
produce an actionable understanding
(Rumizen, 2002).

E.g., know-how, experience, beliefs, values,


ideas, intuition,

16

MRS. FLORENCE ENTSUA-MENSAH

Activity 1.3
Revisiting activities 1.1 & 1.2, what
possible knowledge and yet wisdom can
we derive from the information we
arrived at?

17

MRS. FLORENCE ENTSUA-MENSAH

Some possible responses.


Examples of Knowledge
A Marketing Manager could use this
information to decide whether or not to
raise or lower price y.

18

MRS. FLORENCE ENTSUA-MENSAH

THE KNOWLEDGE PYRAMID

19

MRS. FLORENCE ENTSUA-MENSAH

Mckeown (2003) defines it as the


capacity to request, structure and use
information
Smith and Medley (1987) also define it
as human inferences and interpretations
derived from processed information it
is a blend of human experience,
analysis, deduction and assimilation.
20

MRS. FLORENCE ENTSUA-MENSAH

CHARACTERISTICS OF INFORMATION
Relevance
Timeliness
Accuracy
Clarity
Complete
Current
Cost and Value
22

MRS. FLORENCE ENTSUA-MENSAH

Functions of Information
Elimination / Reduction of Uncertainty
Aids Strategic Planning
Communication
Serves as a Memory Supplement
Simplifies Situations and Problems

23

MRS. FLORENCE ENTSUA-MENSAH

VALUES OF INFORMATION
This is the amount/ price a decision
maker will be willing to pay for
information prior to making decision.

Maximum price one should pay for


knowing the actual value of an
uncertainty before the decision on a
course of action.
24

MRS. FLORENCE ENTSUA-MENSAH

Three Main Reasons Why Information


is considered Valuable are:

Strategic Resource
Competitive Advantage
Decision Making

25

MRS. FLORENCE ENTSUA-MENSAH

What makes Information a


Valuable commodity
Source of the information
Ease of Assimilation
Accessibility
Frequency of the Information

26

MRS. FLORENCE ENTSUA-MENSAH

Adding Value to information

27

MRS. FLORENCE ENTSUA-MENSAH

Information and
communication

MRS. FLORENCE ENTSUA-MENSAH

28

COMMUNICATION
Communication can be defined as a
process of exchanging information,
imparting ideas and making oneself
understood by others.
It also includes understanding others in
return.
(Seitel, 2004)

THE COMMUNICATION PROCESS

SOURCE / MESSAGE

30

CHANNEL/MEDIUM

MRS. FLORENCE ENTSUA-MENSAH

DESTINATION /
RECEIVER

CHANNELS OF COMMUNICATION
Communication generally involves the
exchange of information, thoughts, ideas
and emotions.
This process that involves a sender who
encodes and sends the message, which is
then carried via the communication channel
to the receiver where the receiver decodes
the message, processes the information and
sends an appropriate reply normally via the
same communication channel
32

MRS. FLORENCE ENTSUA-MENSAH

CHANNELS/COMPONENTS OF COMMUNICATION

Communication requires a sender, a


message, and an intended recipient
The one who formulates the idea/information
is the Sender or The Encoder
The means through which the
idea/information is transmitted is the channel/
message
The one who receives and translates the idea
is the decoder/recipient

The receiver sends feedback if the


message has been well understood.
However, during the process, there
may be some noise or distortion of
the message being sent and
consequently, the appropriate
feedback may not be obtained
34

MRS. FLORENCE ENTSUA-MENSAH

Noise could range from lack of clarity of the


message, to irrelevant or excessive volumes
of information, or incomplete information.
Feedback is critical to the process of
communication. A communicator must get
feedback from a receiver to know what
messages are or are not getting through

Goals of Communication
Inform
Motivate
Persuade
To build mutual understanding.

36

MRS. FLORENCE ENTSUA-MENSAH

TYPES OF COMMUNICATION

Oral Communications
Written Communication
Electronic Communication
Visual Communication

37

MRS. FLORENCE ENTSUA-MENSAH

Oral Communications
Oral communications refer to
spoken, verbal or word of mouth
transmission.
Example; Face to face
communication, Telephonic
Communication . . .
38

MRS. FLORENCE ENTSUA-MENSAH

Oral Communications

Contd

Advantages:
It is characteristic of its immediacy and personal touch, which
might be difficult to capture in other forms of communication.

Disadvantages:
Since it is spoken, there is no written record of what has been
said which can lead to disputes.
Also in oral communication the persons involved do not have
sufficient time to think through the answers they give. So they
could arrive at some decision which they may not have
suggested with hindsight.

Written Communication
Written communication refers to the written
words and can be communicated in writing
and sent by e mail, snail mails or
memoranda (either printed or handwritten).
Examples are: Orders, Instructions, Letters,
Memos, Reports, Policy manuals,
Information Bulletin, Complaint System,
Suggestion System, etc.
40

MRS. FLORENCE ENTSUA-MENSAH

Written Communication

Contd

Advantages:
they provide a permanent record of events which can
not be disproved.
It can be a potential record, capable of extended life
and of being used again and again.

Disadvantages:
it takes time to produce and they tend to be formal
and distant.
They can also cause problems with interpretation.
Instant feedback is not possible.

Visual Communication
Visual communication in part or whole relies on
vision. It is described as the transmission of ideas
and information in forms that can be read or
looked upon.
It includes: signs, typography, drawing, graphic
design, illustration, colour and electronic
resources
t also explores the idea that a visual message
accompanying text has a greater power to
inform, educate, or persuade a person or
audience.
42

MRS. FLORENCE ENTSUA-MENSAH

Visual Communication

Contd

Advantage
They can simplify messages with numbers in
them and be used to illustrate techniques
and procedures
Disadvantage
At times, they may be difficult to interpret
without the reinforcement of the written
and spoken word.
43

MRS. FLORENCE ENTSUA-MENSAH

MRS. FLORENCE ENTSUA-MENSAH

44

Electronic Communication
Is generated and received electronically.
This communication can be accessed by
electronic mail (E-mail), videoconferencing,
instant messaging
Advantages/disadvantages:
Speed of access; as well as the unlimited access to global
information.
Enhances communication and instant feedback.
It is machine dependent.
Power dependent

To sum it up
All the types of Information could be as
important as each other.

It is always important to consider your


intended recipient before you choose your
communication type.
You can also combine the type for clarity
46

MRS. FLORENCE ENTSUA-MENSAH

Combination of VISUAL and WRITTEN

47

MRS. FLORENCE ENTSUA-MENSAH

Think about this


Which type of communication can the
Braille system be categorized under?

Any Questions so far?

48

MRS. FLORENCE ENTSUA-MENSAH

The five (5) Cs of Communication


Clear
Complete
Concise
Correct
Courteous
49

MRS. FLORENCE ENTSUA-MENSAH

BARRIERS TO COMMUNICATION
Differences in People

Differences in personal, Cultural, Educational, ...


Status differences
Personal biases
Fear and Emotional overtone

Language

50

MRS. FLORENCE ENTSUA-MENSAH

Breaking the Barriers of Communication


With your understanding so far, how do
you think some of the barriers of
communication can be surmounted?

51

MRS. FLORENCE ENTSUA-MENSAH

Any Questions?

52

MRS. FLORENCE ENTSUA-MENSAH