Indonesia President's speech on climate change at 2009 G-20 meeting

25-09-09 02:40 Publications INTERVENTION BY H.E. DR. SUSILO BAMBANG YUDHOYONO PRESIDENT OF THE REPUBLIC OF INDONESIA ON CLIMATE CHANGE AT THE G-20 LEADERS SUMMIT 25 SEPTEMBER 2009, PITTSBURGH, PA [ 13:00 - WORKING LUNCH ] Bismillahirrahmanirrahim, Dear G-20 leaders, We gather here today in Pittsburgh amidst the early signs of what we hope would be a rebounding world economy but at a critical time for the climate change negotiations. Many of us have just attended the UN High Level Summit on Climate Change in New York and made our respective statements at that important forum. The world opinion is now zooming on us like a laser beam. Many doubt if we can make a breakthrough. Many do not believe that we can. There are very few optimists. And yet others ask whether we should prioritize climate issues when there is an urgent global financial crisis. We are here as leaders not negotiators - that is the job of our officials in the climate change rounds. But even though we are here to negotiate, we must send the right and positive signals to the world, a signal that climate change remains our top priority even as we wrestle with the financial crisis. We must tell the world it IS possible to cure the global economy and save the planet at the same time. I have actively followed - as some of the Leaders here have also - the meetings and discussions of the leaders on climate change in New York in 2007, at the APEC summit in Sydney, at the UN Conference on Climate Change in Bali, at the ASEM Summit in Beijing, at the G-8 Outreach in Japan and at the previous G-20 Summits in Washington DC and London. It has been a very long and intensive process but I am heartened at the fact that, I believe, we are making progress inch by inch. I DO see shifts and changes in our positions towards a positive outcome.

We are seeing this in the developed countries, in the emerging economies, and even the developing countries. I see my presence here more representing the voice of this developing world. I have keenly observed and followed the statements and commitments from fellow leaders. I have also followed the views of our parliaments, scientists, and environmental activists. I am also aware that this G-20 summit is not meant to specifically discuss climate change. So let me offer the 4 points. First, no matter how difficult the challenge before us, let us make history by ensuring that Copenhagen will not fail. We experienced the same situation in Bali, where negotiations ran into a brick wall and was on the verge of collapsing. But because of the unrelenting spirit and enormous energy of the negotiators, including a timely intervention by Secretary General Ban Ki-moon and myself, we finally succeeded in producing the Bali Roadmap and Bali Action Plan. Therefore as leaders, let us give a stronger mandate and a stronger push and clearer directions to our negotiators for the success of Copenhagen. Secondly, let us give a positive and strong signal to the world that apart from our commitments, each of us has national goals, objectives and targets for emission reductions, and that we have a clear and achievable timeline. We have to produce the necessary emission cuts to reach the targets that the scientists say we must. It is possible that in the end we will have an action plan which will be criticized and scrutinized by the world. Some will say that it is too ambitious and hard to reach, while others will say that it is too little too late. Yet others will also doubt about compliance and implementation. But I do believe that it is much better for all of us to have our own targets, timeline and action plan which we can constantly update and improve. The consensus that we are trying to reach must begin with a starting point. There is no consensus if there is nothing to begin with. Third, specifically I would like to convey the aspirations of the developing and underdeveloped world. I am sure all of you know the issues involved. The developing nations are facing a very difficult situation because we are still a long way off from the degree of prosperity that we see in developed countries: such as, poverty, unemployment, disease and hunger. Many ask how can we spend the limited resources that we have on climate change, which in their eyes are caused by pollutions generated in industrial countries from decades ago and should therefore be their responsibility. Even though in these countries, there’s growing climate awareness, we still have a glaring deficit of resources to find the solutions. That is why sometimes we have to set aside our pride, because developing countries do need assistance from developed countries and international agencies ARE needed, be they in terms of financing, technology, capacity building and cooperation, as indicated in the Bali Road map. As a leader from the developing world, I am also sensitive and understand the concerns regarding the provision of these resources. These are concerns regarding the accountability of the receiving state, lack

of a credible action plan and compliance issues. Thus ensuring good governance is equally important and this is high priority for us in Indonesia. We have to move forward based on the principle of “common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities”. Both developed and developing nations must do more and do away with “business as usual” mentality. Developed nations must take the lead, but developing nations must also seriously do their part. My last point is on what Indonesia has done and what we will do because we also want to be part of the solution. Indonesia of course faces problems and challenges in our national development : growth, unemployment, poverty, infrastructure building, education and health care. But we have decided and established a National Climate Change Action Plan with the targets of 2020 and 2050. We are devising an energy mix policy including LULUCF (Land Use, Land Use Change, and Forestry) that will reduce our emissions by 26 percent by 2020 from BAU (Business As Usual). With international support, we are confident that we can reduce emissions by as much as 41 percent. This target is entirely achievable because most of our emissions come from forest related issues, such as forest fires and deforestation. We are also looking into the distinct possibility to commit a billion ton of CO2 reduction by 2050 from BAU. We will change the status of our forest from that of a net emitter sector to a net sink sector by 2030. We will continue our fuel efficiency policy. We have undertaken dramatic cuts of our fuel subsidy – a policy that was very shocking politically and socially, but was very necessary. Since 2005 we have raised fuel prices by 165%. At the same time we allocated the fuel subsidy to protect the most vulnerable through better targeted subsidies such as cash transfer and food subsidy. This was a necessary balance, even if it meant we had less spending to stimulate growth. In the next 10 years, we are also making our public transportation to be more environmentally friendly including developing mass rapid transit. As to our vast marine resources, Indonesia will see to it that they contribute to climate stability through sustainable and integrated coastal and ocean management. Accordingly, Indonesia, along with six other neighboring countries, has initiated the Coral Triangle Initiative, an effort to preserve the wealth of marine resources that are widely regarded as the Amazon of the Oceans. And last May we hosted the World Ocean Conference in Manado, which called for the mainstreaming of ocean issues in the negotiations toward the Copenhagen climate deal. The combined effect of these forestation and coral reef management will help us become low carbon economy or even carbon neutral economy. We are also actively developing renewable energy, particularly geo-thermal and energy mix.

And finally, I wish to thank our partners for their cooperation and partnership in advancing the climate and forestry agenda such as Australia, Germany, Norway, Republic of Korea, Japan and France. This, I think, is a constructive model of cooperation and can be expanded and emulated by other developing countries. I thank you. VICTORIA - Hutan pegunungan Australia dianggap terbaik di dunia dalam memerangkap karbon, demikian menurut sebuah studi terbaru. Salah satu tim peneliti mengatakan, perundingan perubahan iklim kedepan harus memberi lebih banyak perhatian terhadap perlindungan hutan jenis itu. Pakar lingkungan, Brendan Mackey, salah satu anggota dalam studi dari Australia National University (ANU), dan koleganya melaporkan penemuan mereka pada Proceeding National Academy of Science terbitan hari ini. "Saat ini setiap orang berkonsentrasi pada bagaimana mengurangi emisi dari penggundulan hutan dan degradasi di negara berkembang," ujar Brendan. Tapi tujuan penelitian ini adalah, kita tidak bisa melupakan emisi dari hutan alami negara-negara maju, seperti Australia," katanya menekankan. Dalam kajian pertama terhadap hutan tersebut, Brendan dan anggota tim peneliti lain membandingkan jumlah karbon per unit kawasan yang terkunci di dalam 132 hutan seluruh dunia. Hutan-hutan itu merentang dari Amazon, di hutan tropis lembab, hingga hutan pinus pegunungan (Eucalyptus regnan) di Pusat Dataran Tinggi Victoria. Mereka mengkalkulasi total biomasa karbon yang terkunci di material tumbuhan hidup dan mati, serta lapisan tanah di tiap hutan. Brendan dan timnya menemukan jumlah karbon tertinggi disimpan di dalam hutan di Pusat Dataran Tinggi Victoria, yang mengelola 1.900 ton karbon secara alami dalam setiap hektarnya. Hutan dengan kepadatan karbon tertinggi itu berada di hutan pegunungan yang tidak pernah ditebang selama lebih dari 100 tahun. Bahkan menurut data peneliti, hutan tersebut telah hidup selama sedikitnya 350 tahun. Ia mengatakan hutan serupa namun dengan kepadatan karbon lebih rendah ditemukan di hujan temperatur lembab di Selandia Baru, Chili, dan Pantai Pasifik Amerika Utara. Melalui perbandingan, rata-rata hutan tropis dapat mengambil 200 dan 500 ton karbon dalam setiap hektar lahan. "Pemahaman umum adalah hutan tropis menyimpan lebih banyak karbon karena mereka secara biologi lebih produktir, dan memiliki banyak tumbuhan hidup," ujar Brendan. Namun ia mengatakan, peneliti sebelumnya telah luput pada fakta jika setengah karbon di dunia terkurung di hutan bertemperatur rendah, seperti hutan pegunungan yang berguguran atau memiliki material kayu mati. Dalam hutan tropis, material kayu mati sangat cepat terurai dan karbon dioksida dilepaskan dalam proses tersebut ke atmosfer melalui penguapan. Sementara, berkebalikan, hutan bertemperatur rendah cukup hangat untuk mendorong tingkat pertumbuhan tanaman dengan baik, namun material kayu mati diurai lebih lambat, sehingga biomasa

mati kaya karbon bertahan lebih lama. Mackey mengatakan penemuan itu menguatkan peran utama hutan dalam menyimpan karbon dan menekan dampak buruk perubahan iklim. Ia menyatakan penelitian itu terutama menggarisbawahi pentingnya melindungi hutan dengan kepadatan karbon tinggi di negara maju. Brendan menekankan, pada perundingan perubahan iklim di Kopenhagen mendatang, peraturan tersebut harus memperbarui . Dalam Protokol Kyoto, negara-negara tidak diminta untuk menghitung hilangnya karbon melalui penggundulan dan penyempitan hutan di kawasan hutan aslim mereka. Industri perhutanan berargumen, menebang hutan-hutan tua sangat penting untuk mengurangi resiko kebakaran hutan, yang akhirnya melepaskan emisi CO2. Namun Brendan mengatakan, sebagian besar karbon yang berada di biomasa kayu dan lapisan tanah tidak akan terbakar oleh api. "Justru penebangan hutan malah meningkatkan resiko kebakaran dengan membuka kanopi hutan, meningkatkan jumlah bahan bakar pada lantai hutan, dan mengeringkan pepohonan," ujarnya Ia memaparkan pula selip pemahaman lain, yakni hutan muda memerangkap lebih banyak karbon ketimbang hutan tua. Ia sebaliknya menjelaskan, hutan yang semakin tua memiliki tingkat memerangkap karbon tinggi. Sehingga lebih penting untuk menghitung secara pasti jumlah karbon yang disimpan di sebuah hutan. Karboon sendiri mudah terlepas cepat ketimbang tertahan. Brendan mengatakan cara terbaik untuk mempertahankan hutan karbon adalah melindungi hutan tua yang telah ada. "Jika anda mengambil hutan-hutan tua dengan 1.900 ton karbon di dalamnya, untuk ditebang, akan membutuhkan ratusan tahun untuk menumbuhkan hutan dengan jumlah karbon yang sama," paparnya. (discovery/itz)

Hutan Pinus Pegunungan mampu memperangkap karbon lebih banyak

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful