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solid model

rotor dynamics
A traditional practice in the rotor dynamics analysis is to use beam
models for both the lateral and the torsion analysis. Such an analysis
limits the capabilities for the modern day design of high-speed
machinery.

Veeresh Vastrad
QuEST Global

contents
1.0

Abstract

03

2.0

Understanding Rotor Dynamics in an Everyday Environment

03

3.0

Understanding the Market Need to Adopt Solid Model Rotor Dynamics

04

4.0

Process Description and Product Lifecycle Stages

04

5.0

The Challenge

04

6.0

Method

04-05

7.0

Results

05-07

8.0

Limitation of Solid Model Rotor Dynamics

07

9.0

Conclusion

07

10

Author Profile

08

11

About QuEST Global

09

2012, QuEST Global Services

White Paper Solid Model Rotor Dynamics

Abstract
A traditional practice in the rotor dynamics analysis is to
use beam models for both the lateral and the torsion
analysis. Such an analysis limits the capabilities for the
modern day design of high-speed machinery. The beam
type one-dimensional models require good modeling
techniques to approximate the three dimensional rotors.
An analysis of this type is usually followed for most of the
steam turbine and compressor rotors. The accuracy of
the beam modeling analysis is limited to how best the
mass and stiffness terms in the system are captured. For
a complex geometry such as that of the rotor, it is difficult
to accurately capture these terms in the rotor dynamics
beam model. Solid model rotor dynamics provides an
accurate solution for such problems.
Solid model rotor dynamics analysis is demonstrated
within QuEST through the uses of the ANSYS finite
element code. The solid models allow significant
advantages by eliminating tedious, time-consuming,
equivalent beam modeling procedures.

in the rotor dynamics analysis which are not considered


in the conventional beam element modeling. The spin
softening effect has significant influence on the
backward whirl modes and the stress stiffening effect on
the forward whirl modes. Another significant advantage
of the solid models lies in the fact that all the coupled
modes of shafts, disks, and other mounted parts can be
accounted in one analysis, which otherwise cannot be
handled by the beam models. With the enhancement of
element capabilities introduced in ANSYS, it is now
possible to include the effects of gyroscopes in the solid
element models.
With the provision of applying different speeds to
different elemental components, it is possible to simulate
the rotor dynamics analysis considering the effect of the
casings. This provides an efficient real-life rotor
dynamics simulation of the present day rotors which is
more accurate than the conventional modeling
approach.

A specific advantage of solid models is the inclusion of


stress stiffening, spin softening, and temperature effects

Understanding Rotor Dynamics in an Everyday Environment


Most of the modern day equipments, be it for power
generation applications or for industrial applications,
employ one or the other rotating components called
rotors which are the main elements for the power
transmission. Rotor dynamics is a collective term for the
study of the vibration of these rotors. For the effective
running of these units and to ensure the integrity of the
unit, accurate rotor dynamics analysis is essential. Rotor
dynamics is a system level analysis unlike the vibration
analysis of the individual components.
To meet the weight and the cost requirements, the
present day rotors are made extremely flexible; this
makes rotor dynamics as an essential part of the design.
It involves the prediction of the critical speeds or the safe
operating speed limits for the rotors, based on the
evaluation of natural frequencies and plotting them on
the Campbell diagram. The alternate option is to decide
upon the variables in the design such as bearing
specifications in terms of stiffness, bearing span, and

coupling specifications, to keep the critical speeds away


from the operating regime.
However accurately these rotors are balanced, there will
be some unbalance still left in the system. The response
of the rotor due to the residual unbalance to make sure
that the rotor does not rub against the casing, is an
important aspect of the rotor dynamic analysis.
Most of these rotors can develop excessive stresses in
torsion because of the low torsional natural frequencies
of the system involving the flexible couplings. Therefore,
the accurate prediction of torsional frequencies and the
response of the rotor to the transient torsional
excitations such as an electrical disturbance, are
required. It is an established fact that the casing has an
effect on the dynamics of the rotor. The interaction
between the dynamics of the rotors with that of the
casing is an essential aspect of the rotor dynamics.

2012, QuEST Global Services

White Paper Solid Model Rotor Dynamics

Understanding the Market Need to Adopt Solid Model Rotor Dynamics


The specific need to go for solid model rotor dynamics
arises due to the accuracy of the results observed in
comparison to the test results. The solid element rotor
dynamic models can be used for the entire frequency
range of the system and taking into consideration all the
real-life effects like stress stiffening, spin softening and
so on. The laborious process of breaking the complex
system into a large number of stations, and then the
complexity of the calculation of the stiffness and the

mass of different stations and lumping it at a station, is


not required in the solid model rotor dynamics. All the
assumptions and inaccuracies involved in the
multi-station beam model consisting of the beam, the
mass, and the stiffness elements are eliminated with the
solid rotor dynamic model. Therefore, the results
obtained by the solid model rotor dynamics are more
comparable to the test results than the conventional
beam model results.

Process Description and Product Lifecycle Stages


Solid model rotor dynamics is a method of performing
the rotor dynamics analysis by solid elements instead of
the conventional beam models. Therefore, in the product
development process, there is no change in the stage at

which it occurs. As rotor dynamic analyses are system


level studies, they are performed prior to any structural
design, once the design from the flow and the
aerodynamic considerations is acceptable.

The Challenge
The conventional beam elements are incapable of
simulating the spin softening and stress stiffening
effects. For a complex geometry such as that of the rotor
(for example, the rotor of a cryogenic turbo pump with

inducers), it is difficult to simulate the rotor


characteristics by the beam element approximations.
The solid model rotor dynamics provides an accurate
solution to such problems

Method
To demonstrate the advantages of the solid model rotor
dynamics, a study was undertaken at QuEST by
considering a dual rotor system (Ref 2). A dual rotor
system is generally employed in the aircraft engines to
save space and keep the weight to a minimum by having

a hollow outer spool which mounts the high pressure


compressor and the turbine running at a relatively higher
speed through which an inner spool rotor mounts the low
pressure compressor and turbine rotors. An example is
taken (Ref 1) as shown schematically in Figure 1.
ROTOR 2
1.905 cm
2.54 cm r

26.2795E6 N/m

17.519E6 N/m

17.519E6 N/m

8.7598E6 N/m
ROTOR 1
1.52 cm r

Distances:

1-2 = 7.62 cm; 2-3 = 17.78 cm; 3-4 = 15.24 cm;


4-5 = 5-6 = 7-8 = 9-10 = 5.08 cm; 8-9 = 15.24 cm

Masses

2 = 4.904; 5 = 4.203; 8 = 3.327; 9 = 2.227 kg

Inertials IP

2 = 0.02712; 5 = 0.02034; 8 = 0.01469; 9 = 0.00972 kgm

ID = IP/2

E = 206.9 GPa;

Density = 8304 kg/m

= 1.5

Figure 1: Example of a twin spool rotor

2012, QuEST Global Services

White Paper Solid Model Rotor Dynamics

The above problem was simulated in ANSYS using two


separate modeling approaches. First by the beam
elements (Beam 4 elements in ANSYS) and then by the
solid elements, and finally the results were compared

considering the different effects like stress stiffening and


spin softening. The bearing stiffness properties are
simulated using the Combin 14 elements in ANSYS. The
beam model developed is shown in Figure 2.
Mass 21 elements

Rotor 1

Rotor 2

Y
Z

Combin 14 elements

Beam 44 elements

Figure 2: Beam element model of dual rotor system


An equivalent solid rotor model for the example of Figure
1 is made. The dimensions of this model are given in
Figure 3, which gives the same masses and inertias of
Figure 1. It may be noted that Figure 1 can represent in
a unique manner an equivalent beam model of the solid
model of Figure 3, even though several other solid

models can be derived for the Figure 1 beam model.


This is the main limitation of the beam model analysis,
as an equivalent derived beam model may represent the
dynamics of different solid models. An actual physical
model in solid form eliminates this approximation.

Rad = 10.626 cm
Length = 1.7 cm

Rad = 9.7344 cm
Length = 1.38 cm

Rad = 9.682 cm
Length = 0.978 cm

Rad = 9.9954 cm
Length = 1.66 cm

Figure 3: Example of a twin spool rotor

Results
For the beam model of Figure 2, a vibration analysis was
carried out including the Gyroscopic effects, and the
Campbell diagram was generated. The analysis results

were compared with the theoretical work mentioned in


the reference. Below is the Campbell diagram for the
beam model.

Figure 1: Example of a twin spool rotor

2012, QuEST Global Services

White Paper Solid Model Rotor Dynamics

3000
Mode 1B

WHIRL SPEED (rad/s)

2500

Mode 1F
Mode 2B
Mode 2F

2000

Mode 3B
Mode 3F

1500

Tmode 1B
Tmode 1F
Tmode 2B

1000

Tmode 2F
Tmode 3B
Tmode 3F

500

1 *REV (omega1)
1 *REV (omega2)

500

1000

1500

2000

2500

3000

ROTOR 1 SPIN SPEED (rad/s)

Figure 4: Campbell diagram for the beam model with gyroscopic effects
Solid lines in the diagram are from the beam analysis
results and the dotted lines are from the theoretical work.
The split of the forward and the backward whirl modes is
clearly observed.
Now for the solid model of the same rotor as shown in
Figure 3, a vibration analysis was carried out including
the effects of gyroscopes and spin softening. The
Campbell diagram was constructed from the results and

compared with the theoretical work as shown in Figure


5. From the results observed it clearly shows that due to
the effect of spin softening, both the forward whirl and
the backward whirl frequencies decrease with speed.
The effect of decrease in frequency with the increase in
speed is more for the backward whirls than the forward
whirls. The beam models are incapable of capturing
such effects.

3000
Mode 1B

WHIRL SPEED (rad/s)

2500

Mode 1F
Mode 2B
Mode 2F

2000

Mode 3B
Mode 3F

1500

Tmode 1B
Tmode 1F
Tmode 2B

1000

Tmode 2F
Tmode 3B
Tmode 3F

500

1 *REV (omega1)
1 *REV (omega2)

500

1000

1500

2000

2500

3000

ROTOR 1 SPIN SPEED (rad/s)

Figure 5: Campbell diagram for the solid model with gyroscopic and spin softening effects
One more analysis was carried out with the solid model
of Figure 3, considering the combined effect of stress
stiffening and spin softening. The Campbell diagram was

constructed from the results and compared with the


theoretical work as shown in Figure 6.

2012, QuEST Global Services

White Paper Solid Model Rotor Dynamics

3000
Mode 1B

WHIRL SPEED (rad/s)

2500

Mode 1F
Mode 2B
Mode 2F

2000

Mode 3B
Mode 3F

1500

Tmode 1B
Tmode 1F
Tmode 2B

1000

Tmode 2F
Tmode 3B
Tmode 3F

500

1 *REV (omega1)
1 *REV (omega2)

500

1000

1500

2000

2500

3000

ROTOR 1 SPIN SPEED (rad/s)

Figure 6: Campbell diagram for the solid model with gyroscopic, spin softening and stress stiffening effects
From the above Campbell diagram results it can be
observed that because of the stress stiffening effects,
the frequency of the forward whirl modes increases with
the speed, however, the backward whirl modes continue
to decrease in frequency with the increase in speed and

eventually disappear after a certain speed. The


conventional beam models fail to capture these real-life
effects of spin softening and the stress stiffening of the
rotors.

Limitation of Solid Model Rotor Dynamics


The only limitation with the solid model rotor dynamics is
the computational time and the hardware resources. To
solve the large model, more computational resources in
terms of the hardware requirements are needed in

comparison to the beam models. With advancements in


the computational resources, this is not a concern any
more.

Conclusion
A specific advantage of the solid models is the inclusion
of stress stiffening and spin softening effects in the rotor
dynamics analysis which are not considered in the beam
models. The spin softening effect has significant
influence on the backward whirl modes and the stress
stiffening effect on the forward whirl modes. Another
significant advantage of solid models lies in the fact that
all the coupled modes of shafts, disks, and other
mounted parts can be accounted in one analysis which
otherwise cannot be handled by the beam models. The
study was carried out with a simple dual rotor system
with the simplified mass and inertia representation of the
rotors. The simulation of a real-life complex geometry of
the rotor by the beam model is a tedious, error prone,

and time consuming job. Solid model rotor dynamics


offers a time effective and accurate solution to the
real-life rotor dynamic problems.
References
1) Rajan, M., Nelson, H. D. and Chen, W. J., Parameters
Sensitivity in the Dynamics of Rotor-Bearing Systems, J
Vib. Acoust. Stress and Rel. Des., Trans. ASME, vol.
108, 1986, p. 197
2) Rao, J. S., Sreenivas, R. and Veeresh, C. V., 2002,
Solid Model Rotor Dynamics, Paper presented at the
Fourteenth U.S. National Congress of Theoretical and
Applied Mechanics, Blacksburg, VA, 23-28 June 2002

2012, QuEST Global Services

White Paper Solid Model Rotor Dynamics

Author Profile
Veeresh Vastrad

Veeresh Vastrad is specialized in the structural analysis of


Mechanical & Gas Turbine Structures. He has extensive experience
in Finite Element Method analysis, linear and nonlinear structural
analysis, vibrations and rotor dynamics. He is amply proficient with
ANSYS and the various rotor dynamics tools.
Veeresh has a Bachelor of Engineering degree in Mechanical
Engineering from Karnataka University, (Dharwad) and a Master of
Science degree in Mechanical Engineering from Manipal University.
He has approximately 11 years of experience at QuEST in the gas
turbines, industrial, and aerospace component structural analysis
areas. Veeresh is credited with the following achievements:
QuEST Technical Excellence Champion (2011) for succeeding in
reducing the internal defects against desired targets, and for
diligent effort in training and mentoring the stress team
Co-author of the Solid Model Rotor Dynamics paper along with Dr.
J. S. Rao which was presented at the 14th U.S. National Congress
of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, (Blacksburg, VA) June
23-28, 2002
Employee of the Month, (May 2002) for the value addition
provided to the customer on the project
First Prize winner for the presentation on the Solid Model Rotor
Dynamics using ANSYS paper at the ANSYS Users Symposium,
(Bangalore) December 6, 2001
At QuEST, his role includes:
Meeting the compliance requirements of the technical review
process
Appraising the technical deliverables by the stress
team
Managing the knowledge management repository
Evaluating the competency levels of the stress team
Maintaining the competency at the required level
Identifying the training needs of the team and
coordinating the training program In addition, he is
also actively involved in mentoring the new recruits
on the job-specific requirements.
Email : veeresh.vastrad@quest-global.com

2012, QuEST Global Services

White Paper Solid Model Rotor Dynamics

About QuEST Global


QuEST Global is a focused global engineering solutions
provider with a proven track record of over 17 years
serving the product development & production
engineering needs of high technology companies. A
pioneer in global engineering services, QuEST is a
trusted, strategic and long term partner for many Fortune
500 companies in the Aero Engines, Aerospace &
Defence, Transportation, Oil & Gas, Power, Healthcare
and other high tech industries. The company offers
mechanical,
electrical,
electronics,
embedded,
engineering
software,
engineering
analytics,
manufacturing
engineering
and
supply
chain
transformative
solutions
across
the
complete
engineering lifecycle.

QuEST partners with customers to continuously create


value through customer-centric culture, continuous
improvement mind-set, as well as domain specific
engineering capability. Through its local-global model,
QuEST provides maximum value engineering
interactions locally, along with high quality deliveries at
optimal cost from global locations. The company
comprises of more than 7,000 passionate engineers of
nine different nationalities intent on making a positive
impact to the business of world class customers,
transforming the way they do engineering.

http://quest-global.com
2012, QuEST Global Services