Logic Complete Assignment | Argument | Logic

# By: Ihsan Ullah BBA 5th Evening Roll No 278

What is Proposition?
Proposition is a statement which either asserts or denies something. Or Proposition is group of ideas of which anything is affirmed or denied For ancient thinkers, proposition is the enunciation of truth or falsity.

Types of Proposition
 Categorical: A categorical proposition unites or separates two concepts by means of the linking verb “to be.”  Hypothetical: A hypothetical proposition unites or separates, not two concepts but two enunciations by means of a non-verb copula Examples of Categorical Propositions Some sharks are not dangerous. Every kind act is meritorious.  Examples of Hypothetical Propositions If it is a car, it has a motor. If you are a Pakistani, then you are a native of Pakistan.  Every proposition has quality and quantity Quality: the quality of a proposition maybe affirmative or negative A proposition that has “no” or “not” is negative. This is oftentimes determined by the copula

PROPERTIES OF PROPOSITIONS
 Quantity: the quantity of a proposition is either universal or particular.  The proposition is universal when what is being affirmed or denied of the subject term is its whole extension and particular when what is being affirmed or denied is just part of its extension.

THE FOUR CATEGORICALS
 A – stands for affirmative and universal propositions (All S is P)  Examples: All bachelors are unmarried men. Every butterfly is an insect.  I – stands for affirmative and particular propositions (Some S is P)  Ex. Some Indians are Moslems.  Some Peshawar University students are naughty.

E – stands for negative and universal propositions ( No S is P or All S is not P) Examples: No speaker of Congress in the Philippines has become the president. No bird has four legs. Assam is not a Pakistan province. 0 – stands for negative and particular propositions (Some S is not P or Not All S is P)  Examples: Some senators are not lawyers  Not every journalist gives accurate and well-founded report.               No one who died for his country died in vain. Some students in this class are Pukhtoons. Dr. Qadeer is a national hero. Most congressmen are not giving up their pork barrel.

Three senators are running for the presidency. No one is above the law. The mantis is an insect. Not every plant bears fruits. An argument is a group of propositions in which one proposition is asserted to be true on the basis of the other proposition  An argument is not categorized as true or false but as either logical or illogical, valid or invalid sound or unsound

RECOGNIZING ARGUMENTS
 An argument is a group of propositions in which one proposition is asserted to be true on the basis of the other proposition  An argument is not categorized as true or false but as either logical or illogical, valid or invalid sound or unsound

ARGUMENTS
 The proposition which is claimed to be true is called the “conclusion” while the proposition which serves as support of the conclusion is called “premise.”  Premise-indicators: Some, because, for, given that, as indicated by, if  Conclusion-indicators Therefore, thus, hence, so, accordingly, consequently

PROPERTIES OF ARGUMENTS
TRUTH – refers to the conformity of proposition to reality LOGIC – refers to the connection between the premises and the conclusion SOUNDNESS – property of argument as a whole An argument maybe logical while one or more of its premises are false. For example: All Panjabis are Asians. But yousaf Gillani is a panjabi. Therefore, yousaf Gillani is Asian.  There are arguments whose premises are true but are not logical: Cows have horns. Horses are not cows. Therefore, horses have no horns.     