Academic Congress Primer | Governance | Philippines

This academic congress intends to identify the current issues, map the various approaches that have been

tried in the past, provide some assessment of their gains and failures and draw out possible actions that must be done by the next

administration. It is intended to empower the general public by making these issues transparent. It is not solely addressed to the candidates for the 2010 elections. At the end of the forum, the public should be able to draw their own measurable objectives and milestones that can be achieved within the next six years hence allowing them to craft questions which they can ask from their candidates and make wise choices. The forum should draw responses from the political candidates that will go beyond mere

generalities or rhetoric.

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First Day – February 1, 2010, Monday Morning Opening Sessions Message: “The Imperatives for Philippine Society within the Next Generation” (President Emerlinda R. Roman, University of the Philippines) Discussion: “What Should Truly Matter to Filipinos?” (Prof. Randolf S. David, Department of Sociology, University of the Philippines-Diliman) Afternoon Session 1: Jobs and the Cost of Doing Business in the Philippines (Former Dean Raul V. Fabella, School of Economics, University of the Philippines-Diliman) Panel Presenters Dr. Cielito F. Habito Department of Economics, Ateneo Manila University Dr. Cayetano W. Paderanga, Jr. School of Economics, University of the Philippines-Diliman To create jobs we need to reduce the cost of doing business. What are these costs, how do we compare, what do we do about them? "In order for jobs to be created, investments have to be made. In turn there must be reasonable prospects for profit. In the Philippines job creation has been slow because the investment rate is very low. One big reason is that the cost of starting and running a business is also very high with the cost of power, transport cost and cost of security and remediation through the courts. This is especially true of firms competing with foreign goods. We look at these costs and suggest remedies." "Most of the poverty and unemployment is in the rural and agricultural sector. To create jobs in the rural areas, we have to make our agriculture and agri-based industries very dynamic. One way is to lower transportation cost, reduce input cost and allow larger firms to participate via sanctioning larger land ownership."

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Session 2: Debt and Deficits (Dean Emmanuel S. De Dios, School of Economics, University of the PhilippinesDiliman) Panel Presenters Dr. Felipe M. Medalla School of Economics, University of the Philippines-Diliman Dr. Benjamin E. Diokno School of Economics, University of the Philippines-Diliman Prof. Leonor M. Briones National College of Public Administration and Governance, University of the Philippines-Diliman The panel on debt and deficits will critically examine what is right and what is wrong with the state of public expenditures and revenues. It will assess what room, if any, exists for fiscal expansion beyond 2010. A concrete proposal will be put forward regarding the level and pattern of spending, with priority-areas being delineated. The panel will identify urgent, high-impact, and readily implementable reforms to raise revenue effectively and equitably. Potential threats to continuing fiscal stability will be identified. Finally, the political economy of the budgetary process involving the executive, legislature, and local governments will be explained and directions for reform indicated.

Second Day – February 2, 2010, Tuesday Morning Session 3: Backrooms, Battlefields, and Backhoes: The Mindanao Conundrum (Dr. Eduardo C. Tadem, Asian Center, University of the Philippines-Diliman) Panel Presenters Dean Julkipli M. Wadi Institute of Islamic Studies, University of the PhilippinesDiliman Prof. Rudy B. Rodil Department of History, Mindanao State University-Iligan Institute of Technology

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Dr. Eduardo C. Tadem Asian Center, University of the Philippines-Diliman Mr. Francisco J. Lara Jr. Ph.D. Candidate, London School of Economics and Political Science In contrast to the belief that growth and development have bypassed Mindanao, its socio-economic development shows that the region has been a primary contributor to the country’s productive capacities. But the wealth generated has only resulted in a more distressed socio-economic condition for Mindanao than for the nation as a whole, an enigma exacerbated by internal colonialism—the transfer of wealth from the south to the nucleus of political-economic power in the north. The relation of the Philippine State and the Bangsamoro polity has often been subjected to a ―Sisyphean ordeal,‖—each time a new development emerges, e.g., a vision of social order, political arrangement, or policy reform, it is always followed and often times countered by subsequent development, leaving the whole relation in tatters while the vision is left to cascade into dramatic irrelevance. Of equal concern is the plight of Mindanao’s 35 Lumad tribes— indigenous communities who live outside Moro areas. Severely marginalized as a result of state resettlement programs, they now assert their own identity and right to self-determination by focusing on securing ancestral domain claims, a right that government and the other Mindanao sectors must recognize to allow the Lumads to create and develop their own social spaces. Finally, the Maguindanao massacre can be understood by looking at the interface between two types of armed challenges— ―vertical armed challenge against the state,‖ (i.e., MNLF and the MILF), and ―horizontal armed challenges‖ symbolized by ―interand intra-clan and group violence.‖ An ―exclusionary political economy developed through contest and violence‖ has impoverished Muslims. Growth has been artificial while ―the exploitation of lootable or non-lootable resources opens up new arenas of conflict, and a rise in violence.‖

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Afternoon Session 4: Building Blocks to the Universal Enjoyment of the Right to Health (Prof. Mary Lou L. Alcid, College of Social Work and Community Development, University of the Philippines-Diliman) Panel Presenters Dean Alberto G. Romualdez Jr. Graduate School for Health Sciences, Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila Dr. Edelina Padilla-Dela Paz College of Medicine, University of the Philippines Dr. Elizabeth R. Paterno College of Medicine, University of the Philippines Former Dean Fatima A. Castillo College of Arts and Sciences, University of the PhilippinesManila Every one has the right to the highest attainable standard of physical, mental, reproductive and sexual health, and an enabling environment to guarantee its enjoyment. This frames the panel’s analysis of persisting and widening health inequities in the Philippines with adverse consequences on the poor, women and other marginalized sectors. The panel examines health care system with focus on the organization and governance of health services, cost of medicine and other health supplies, the training and distribution of health professionals, and health financing. Moreover, it interrogates the contentious terrain of reproductive health using the gender justice lens. Working on the thesis that the health of the Filipino nation will not progress until meaningful improvements in the health of its most disadvantaged sectors are achieved, proposals to reform the current health care system NOW are discussed. Primary health care as key to democratizing health care and partnership development amongst stakeholders are underscored. Session 5: Fundamentalisms and Secularism (Dr. Sylvia Estrada-Claudio, Center for Women’s Studies, University of the Philippines-Diliman)

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Panel Presenters Dr. Sylvia Estrada-Claudio Center for Women’s Studies, University of the PhilippinesDiliman Prof. Ibarra M. Gutierrez III College of Law, University of the Philippines A discussion of current challenges to the Philippines as a secular state. Panelists will focus on the question of religion, constitutional provisions on secularism and violations in law and practice. Religious fundamentalist attacks on the political process and political candidates will be dissected. Secularism will also be "unpacked" as a concept in order to surface certain broad principles for governance.

Third Day – February 3, 2010, Wednesday Morning Session 6: The Diaspora of Filipinos: Strategic Issues, Concerns, And Alternatives (Prof. Mary Lou L. Alcid, College of Social Work and Community Development, University of the Philippines-Diliman) Panel Presenters Prof. Mary Lou L. Alcid College of Social Work and Community Development, University of the Philippines-Diliman Dr. Virgel C. Binghay Director, Center for Industry Productivity & Competitiveness, School of Labor and Industrial Relations, University of the Philippines-Diliman Dr. Jorge V. Tigno Department of Political Science, University of the PhilippinesDiliman Maria Angela C. Villalba Executive Director, Unlad Kabayan Migrant Services Foundation

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At least ten percent of the 91 million Filipinos are overseas on a permanent or temporary basis in pursuit of a better quality of life for themselves and their families. While freedom of movement is a fundamental human right, the continuing reliance of the government on overseas employment as an economic strategy, if not a de facto policy, for more than three decades and its concomitant social costs are critical development issues. More so in the context of neoliberal globalization that virtually subsumes human rights to market considerations, and institutionalizes framing of labor migration within trade in services. The panel shall provide the terrain on current discourse on the diaspora of Filipinos, both land and sea-based, and give voice to strategic issues and concerns from the perspective of migrants. It will highlight engagement by migrant organizations in governance, particularly the exercise of the right to suffrage, and the building of socio-economic alternatives to overseas employment.

Session 7: Property Reform and Related Issues (Prof. Elmer M. Ferrer, College of Social Work and Community Development, University of the Philippines-Diliman) Panel Presenters Prof. Maria Dolores R. Bernabe College of Social Work and Community Development, University of the Philippines-Diliman Dr. Ernesto M. Ordoñez Chair, Agriwatch, Inc. Prof. Jay L. Batongbacal Asian Center, University of the Philippines-Diliman The persistence of structural inequities, market imperfections and weaknesses in governance in Philippine society calls for approaches to social development beyond conventional delivery of social services. It demands for approaches that address equitable opportunity and social justice. Property reform as a strategy to social development hopes to empower people to be

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more responsive, democratic and accountable for their own development. The panel presentations will examine the state of current property reform programs in the agricultural and coastal and marine sectors, identify current challenges, and propose institutional, policy and resource requirements that must be met in order to undertake an effective property reform program in the country. Afternoon Session 8: Rethinking Urban Policy: Spatial, Economic and Institutional Aspects (Dr. Toby Melissa C. Monsod, School of Economics, University of the Philippines-Diliman) Panel Presenters Former Prof. Ernesto M. Serote School of Urban and Regional Planning, University of the Philippines-Diliman Dean Danilo A. Silvestre School of Architecture, University of the Philippines-Diliman Dr. Cayetano W. Paderanga Jr. School of Economics, University of the Philippines-Diliman Thirty years ago, less than 40% of the population was considered urban. Thirty years from now, more than 70% will be. An urban area may be a city or municipality in its entirety or a central district/poblacion or barangay alone, and is officially considered urban based on a minimum population density or the presence of establishments and structures of a specific type and predominant occupation (non-agriculture). Urban development is the creation of the built environment; urban land use planning, the regulation of location, intensity and direction of development of the built environment. How is urban policy currently practiced? To what degree did it contribute to the scale of Typhoon Ondoy’s impact in Metro Manila and contiguous provinces? What lessons can be learned for emerging cities and metropolitan areas across the country? The panel examines the efficiency of urban policy, its formulation and implementation, and what local officials can but often fail to do as urban planners and managers.

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Session 9: Science and Technology (Dr. Fidel R. Nemenzo, Institute of Mathematics, University of the Philippines-Diliman) Panel Presenters Dean Caesar A. Saloma College of Science, University of the Philippines-Diliman Dean Rowena Cristina L. Guevara College of Engineering, University of the Philippines-Diliman Dr. Roger D. Posadas Technology Management Center, University of the PhilippinesDiliman It is widely recognized that science and technology are essential to economic progress. Thus dismal public investment in research and development in science and technology (S & T) is among the reasons cited why the Philippines, once considered the region’s second strongest economy, now lags behind many of its neighbors. Many Filipino scientists and engineers have joined the exodus of talent overseas, as our weak industry is not able to provide enough jobs and has no need for Research and Development (R & D). What is the state of S & T in the country? What are the main problems and challenges faced by the S & T community and how can these be addressed? How should we measure scientific productivity and technological innovation and how can these be harnessed and integrated into national development strategies? The discussions in this panel will address these questions and suggest a way forward.

Fourth Day – February 4, 2010, Thursday Morning Session 10: Confronting Trade, Markets, and Regulation (Dean Marvic M.V.F. Leonen, College of Law, University of the Philippines)

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Panel Presenters Dr. Rene E. Ofreneo School of Labor and Industrial Relations, University of the Philippines-Diliman Dr. Maria Joy V. Abrenica School of Economics, University of the Philippines-Diliman Dean Marvic M.V.F. Leonen College of Law, University of the Philippines Our economic reality is constantly shaped by rules-based systems. This is true at the global level through formal treaties such as those within the World Trade Organization or those that create new preferential trade agreements. This is also true at the local level through constitutional provisions, statutes and regulations. How the next administration will intervene at the global and the domestic level to facilitate or address the weaknesses of ―market forces‖ will continue to shape the lives of all Philippine societies. The panel will explore issues relating to how the Philippines may, internationally or domestically, relate to the market. It discusses various frameworks and questions which the next administration may have to deal with.

Session 11: Philippine Foreign Relations (Dr. Eduardo T. Gonzalez, Asian Center, University of the PhilippinesDiliman) Panel Presenters Former Dean Aileen S.P. Baviera Asian Center, University of the Philippines-Diliman Prof. Herman Joseph S. Kraft Department of Political Science, University of the PhilippinesDiliman In the past, Philippine foreign policy has, at times, been criticized as reactive and lacking a strategic framework to guide the definition of the nation’s interests and goals. The current fluidity of the international environment makes it imperative that a policy assessment be conducted with the end in view of

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helping re-define many of our key interests in relation to this environment, and examining critical interventions for policy makers to undertake. This panel hopes to make an important contribution in identifying challenges as well as opportunities, especially in key issues arising from US primacy, human security, regional integration trends, and the emergence of new Asian powers China and India. Afternoon Session 12: Climate Change and Disaster Risk Reduction: Trends, Challenges, Lessons, And Response Options (Prof. Lenore P. Dela Cruz, College of Social Work and Community Development, University of the Philippines-Diliman) Panel Presenters Dean Antonio G. M. La Viña Ateneo School of Government, Ateneo de Manila University, Dr. Alfredo Mahar Francisco A. Lagmay National Institute of Geological Sciences, University of the Philippines-Diliman Dr. Emmanuel M. Luna College of Social Work and Community Development, University of the Philippines-Diliman Over the last decade, the Philippines ranked 10th in the Global Climate Risk Index. Without doubt, climate change is one of the most important challenges to social development and human security of our time. One of the impacts of climate change is the increasing frequency and intensity of weather-related disasters such as tropical cyclones, floods and droughts. Evidence suggests that the impact of climate change will be felt first and hardest by the poor. Disasters bring about loss of lives, damage to properties and other assets, and costly reversals of development gains. This makes climate change and disaster risk reduction a strategic economic and moral imperative for the Philippines. The panel presentations will argue that addressing this imperative requires multi-dimensional, multi-disciplinary, multi-scale and multi-stakeholder responses at the policy, program and practice levels.

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Fifth Day – February 5, 2010, Friday Morning Session 13: Addressing Impunity (Prof. Theodore O. Te, College of Law, University of the Philippines)

Panel Presenters Prof. Ibarra M. Gutierrez III College of Law, University of the Philippines Former Dean Raul C. Pangalangan College of Law, University of the Philippines Rep. Lorenzo R. Tanada III Chair of the House Committee on Human Rights, House of Representatives Former President Francisco Nemenzo University of the Philippines This panel will address the culture of impunity that has prevailed in the country with extrajudicial killings and enforced disappearances of media practitioners and political activists. While not losing focus on the high incidences of extrajudicial killings and enforced disappearances during this administration, a historical examination of our nation’s experience with impunity will also be made in the hope that we may learn from the past to truly chart a meaningful future. More than just being a discussion on legal remedies, the panel will identify causes of impunity, weaknesses in political, judicial, and even social structures that allow the culture of impunity to flourish. Practical as well as urgent changes to law, policy and practice that address impunity will be put forward. Session 14: Election and How to Choose Leaders (Dean Alex B. Brillantes Jr., National College of Public Administration and Governance, University of the Philippines-Diliman)

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Panel Presenters Former Dean Jose V. Abueva National College of Public Administration and Governance, University of the Philippines-Diliman Prof. Leonor M. Briones National College of Public Administration and Governance, University of the Philippines-Diliman Dr. Ebinezer R. Florano National College of Public Administration and Governance, University of the Philippines-Diliman Dr. Edna E.A. Co National College of Public Administration and Governance, University of the Philippines-Diliman Reforms in governance have always been considered primordial if we are to address the pervasive problem of poverty and improve the lives of our people. The discussion and debates on what reforms to undertake have become more relevant and heated with the coming election of leaders of the country at the national and local levels. More specifically, from a public administration and governance perspective, reforms must be targeted and implemented at three levels: institutions, behavior and leadership. Indeed, it is imperative to reform institutions. Institutional reforms include reforming structures, processes, procedures, including the electoral process. Governance reforms must also include a long term and comprehensive agenda to change the paradigm mindsets, behavior and even value system of the actors in governance, be they in government, the private sector or even civil society. Finally, governance reforms also must include reforms in leadership. Conventionally, the traditional manner by which leaders are chosen is through elections. The whole question here is how have elections worked – or not worked – in the Philippine context. And what kinds of leaders have emerged from the conventional electoral processes.

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Consistent with the abovementioned framework, and proceeding from leadership as a handle, the discussions emphasize reforms in institutions and processes and paradigms. More specifically, the panel will also address proposed reforms in the electoral process, which operationalizes a major principle of governance, that of participation. It will also address proposed reforms in the demand side of the electoral process, specifically in terms of educating the citizenry and changing their paradigms that serve as the basis for the selection of leaders, at the national and local levels.

Afternoon Session 15: Labor–Revisiting Constitutional Guarantees (Prof. Patricia R.P. Salvador Daway, College of Law, University of the Philippines) Panel Presenters Prof. Patricia R.P. Salvador Daway College of Law, University of the Philippines Faculty Regent Judy M. Taguiwalo University of the Philippines Former Dean Merlin M. Magallona College of Law, University of the Philippines Dep. Administrator Hans Leo J. Cacdac Ateneo de Manila Law School, Ateneo de Manila University The constitutional provisions on Social Justice and Human Rights guarantee seven cardinal rights to workers. In theory, these rights afford full protection to workers but the question of application remains. Are these rights a reality or a mere illusion? The panel thus proposes to examine these rights vis-àvis their actual application in the workplace. Highlighting issues and concerns raised by workers in selected industries, the employer sector’s level of compliance with national legislation concerning workers’ rights will be reexamined. The panel will then explore some problems arising from the context of the global migration processes. These problems are viewed in their interrelation with the country’s foreign policy as a whole.

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Finally, the panel will look into labor policy reforms for the 21 st century, in the light of labor market realities and reshaping of the world of work, focusing on labor relations and contractualization.

Closing Remarks by Chancellor Sergio S. Cao, University of the Philippines-Diliman

Session 16: Energy Security (Third week of February) Synthesis by the Chief Rapporteurs (Dr. Maria ynthia Rose Banzon-Bautista, Department of Sociology, University of the Philippines-Diliman and Dr. Maria Serena I. Diokno, Department of History, University of the Philippines-Diliman)

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Sponsors
Office of the President, University of the Philippines Office of the Chancellor, University of the Philippines College of Law College of Engineering College of Science College of Social Sciences and Philosophy College of Social Work and Community Development National College of Public Administration and Governance School of Economics Asian Center Center for Integrative and Development Studies Center for Women’s Studies Diliman Interactive Learning Center Institute of Islamic Studies Third World Studies Center

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