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SH 2600, HT 2007

I. Grading system

The grading standard is based on the European Credit Transfer and Accumulation

System abbreviated as ECTS. The grading marks and their description are summarized in

the following table.

ECTS N

A

7

B

6

C

5

D

4

E

3

Fx

2

F

1

Verbal

Excellent

Very Good

Good

Satisfactory

Sufficient

Insufficient

Insufficient

Description

(90 100)%

(80 90)%

(70 80)%

(60 70)%

(50 60)%

(40 50)%

< 40%

The mid-term written exam is elective but bonus giving if passed with the mark C or

greater with the bonus being an extra point in the final examination. It comprises 6

problems and runs for 2 hours. The topics for the mid-term written exam are as follows:

Nuclear reactions

Geometric cross section of nuclei

Radioactive decay, half-life, radioactivity

Relationship between mass density and number density

Reaction rates

Neutron flux

Neutron micro and macro cross sections

The final written exam is compulsory. It comprises two theoretical questions and two

problems and runs for 2 hours. The topics for the final exam are as follows:

1)

2)

3)

4)

5)

6)

7)

8)

9)

10)

11)

12)

13)

Fission

Radioactivity

Neutron physics

Neutron slowing-down

Thermal neutrons

Neutron diffusion

Neutron multiplication factor

Space distribution of neutron flux

Reactor kinetics

Reactor dynamics

Reactor safety

Reactor fuel and waste

Energy and environment

1) Fission

1. Explain why energy liberates during fission and fusion processes.

2. Explain why neutrons liberate and why radioactive nuclei emerge during fission

processes.

3. Explain why 235U fissions with thermal neutrons while 238U does not.

2) Radioactivity

1. Specify the relation between decay constant, half-life and mean life time for

radioactive isotopes.

2. Natural radioactivity. Radioactive decay chains.

3. Explain the origin of decay heat in a nuclear reactor and show approximately how

it looks like after the reactor shut-down (e.g. after scram).

3) Neutron physics

1. Show a diagram of an energy spectrum of fission neutrons.

2. Show a diagram of energy dependence of the 235U and 238U neutron fission cross

sections.

3. Specify an equation which gives the reaction rate between neutrons and nuclei.

4. Formulate en equation which gives probability that a neutron passes a distance

(path) of x cm in medium without interacting with a nucleus (equation for a

neutron free flight or free path).

4) Neutron slowing-down

1. Specify how much energy a neutron can loose in a single collision with a nucleus.

2. Specify an expression which gives a number of collisions needed to slowdown a

neutron from a high energy E0 to a low energy Eth.

3. Explain why a slow-down process should be accomplished with a lowest possible

number of collisions.

4. Explain the meaning of the concept neutron age or Fermis age.

5. Show a neutron spectrum in a slowing-down energy interval.

5) Thermal neutrons

1. Show the neutron spectrum in a thermal energy interval, i.e. spectrum of thermal

neutrons.

2. Show the neutron absorption cross section of thermal neutrons for major LWR

isotopes (235U, 238U, H2O).

6) Neutron diffusion

1. Propound a neutron diffusion equation and explain meaning of different terms of

this equation.

2. Specify what kind of simplifications and/or approximations are necessary to

derive the diffusion constant and how it may be corrected with more detail theory

(i.e. transport approximation).

3. Describe a neutron diffusion process and explain the meaning of a diffusion

length.

4. Specify the source term in a case of a single-energy-group theory and for a

combined slowing-down and one-group approach.

5. Specify the boundary conditions to be observed while solving neutron diffusion

equation.

7) Neutron multiplication factor

1. Propound the four factor formula and explain meaning of the parameters in this

formula.

2. Specify an expression to determine the non-leakage factor.

3. Specify the equation for buckling in cylindrical geometry. Explain its meaning.

8) Space distribution of neutron flux

1. Specify the equation for a neutron flux in a cylindrical reactor with a fixed

material composition without a reflector.

2. Show the axial power distribution of BWR at start-up conditions (initial

enrichment).

9) Reactor kinetics

1. Propound the reactor kinetic equations taking into account delayed neutrons.

2. Present the neutron density variation with a fast, respectively slow change of

reactivity.

3. Present a simplified formula for the neutron density time dependence involving

the multiplication factor.

4. Present an expression for determination of the prompt neutron life-time. Compare

these values for fast and thermal neutrons.

5. Quantify margins against prompt criticality.

1. Which physical processes determine reactor dynamics?

2. Which factors are affected by reactor poisoning?

3. Derive the equation for 135Xe concentration and show how Xe-poisoning varies

after:

A fast start-up of an non-poisoned reactor.

A fast power increase respectively power decrease.

11) Reactor safety

1. Safety aspects of different reactor types.

2. Describe safety barriers in LWRs.

3. Your scenario for a reactor accident.

12) Reactor fuel and waste

1. Describe uranium and thorium nuclear fuel cycles.

2. Describe the main problems related to nuclear wastes.

3. Actinides in nuclear wastes.

4. Advanced reactors and actinide burners.

13) Energy and environment

1. Assess the options for the future energy supply. Environmental and economical

aspects of the future energy sources.

2. Has nuclear energy any future?

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