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Integrated Intelligent Research (IIR)

International Journal of Communication and Networking System


Volume: 04 Issue: 02 December 2015, Page No. 10-15
ISSN: 2278-2427

A survey on the Simulation Models and Results of


Routing Protocols in Mobile Ad-hoc Networks
S.Navitha1, T.Velmurugan2
1

Assistant Professor, Department of Computer Science, A.V.C College, Mayiladudurai, India


Associate Professor, PG and Research Dept. of Computer Science, D.G.Vaishnav College, Chennai-600 106, India
Email: saisaran162@gmail.com, velmurugan_dgvc@yahoo.co.in

Abstract: In mobile ad-hoc networks (MANETs), all nodes are


treated as significant, whether it is host or router. The
capability of each and every node is decided by the traffic
intensity and speed of the network. The nodes are usually
mobiles, which are also called as MANETs components. The
type of the routing protocols decides traffic intensity and speed
of the network and also the performance of the network. There
are a number of routing protocols proposed for MANETs
which marks it fairly difficult to find which protocol is suitable
for different network situations as proposed by their quality of
service contributions. The main aim of this research work is to
characterize the performance of some routing protocols which
are used in MANET scenarios. In order to analyze the
performance of routing protocols, a simulation-based
comparative study is carried out in this research work. Based
on some comparisons alone, it is possible to predict the
performance of routing protocols via simulation results.

of rules which transmit the message packets from source to


destination in a network. The types of routing protocols based
on its structure in MANET as shown in Figure 1.The routing
protocols decide and provide different levels of Quality of
Services (QoS) to different types of applications to the users.
In proactive routing protocols, each node preserves routing
information to every other node in the network. The routing
information is usually stored in a number of different tables.
Whenever the network topology changes, these tables are
periodically updated. So that this type is called as table driven
protocol. The on-demand routing protocols are the reactive
protocols which are designed to reduce the overheads in
proactive protocols by maintaining information for active
routes only. That is, the routes are determined and maintained
for nodes that require sending data to a particular destination.
The combination of previous two is called hybrid protocol.

Key words: Mobile Ad-hoc Networks, Routing Protocols,


Simulation Results, Performance Measure.
I.

INTRODUCTION

Human life totally depends on communication networks


nowadays. Different types of communication networks are
available now-a-days. Particularly, mobile communication
plays a key role in the modern world. Mobile Ad-hoc
Networks are constructed and acted without an infrastructure.
That is, mobile means moving and ad hoc means provisional
without any fixed infrastructure. So, mobile ad hoc networks
are a kind of temporary networks in which nodes are moving
without any fixed infrastructure. On because of its mobility of
there is no centralized administration in MANETs. Therefore,
no fixed base stations for MANETs. The network topology is
dynamic so the nodes can act both as host as well as router to
route information unnecessary for its use. These kinds of
networks are very useful in the real world, but the wired
networks are not feasible in some real life situations. Usually,
wired networks are easily affected by threats and malwares, but
in the case of wireless networks does not capture by
vulnerabilities easily.

Figure 1: Types of Routing Protocols


A number of applications are developed to design such a
perfect routing protocols by several researchers in this field.
Also, different simulation models are created by many persons
to find out an efficient routing protocol. This research work has
to analyze and provide the state of the art of MANET
simulation results, which are carried out by several researchers.
A review of routing protocols for mobile ad hoc networks is
presented by Abolhasan et al. in [1]. They review three types
of routing protocols and provide its characteristics and also
give complexity comparison of all the three categories
MANET protocols. The main goal of this research work is to
suggest which protocols may perform best in large networks.
Different kind of network protocols are studied and
summarized in their work and given in table format. They
conclude that routing in the MANETs is a challenging task and
has received a tremendous amount of attention from
researches.

The performance of MANET depends on the routing protocols


and power consumption. Therefore, it is very important to
construct an efficient routing protocol. The routing protocols of
MANET have classified into three types as proactive, reactive
and hybrid. The other type of routing protocols is designed on
the basis of network organization. Routing protocols have a set
10

Integrated Intelligent Research (IIR)

International Journal of Communication and Networking System


Volume: 04 Issue: 02 December 2015, Page No. 10-15
ISSN: 2278-2427

The organization of this paper is structured as follows.


Introduction about the chosen topic is discussed in section 1.
Section II reviews some of the simulation results of MANETs
except routing protocols. Results implemented for routing
protocols in MANETs are discussed in section III. Section IV
concludes the survey work by comparing some best simulation
methods via its results.

AODV and proactive routing protocol, DSDV. Research


efforts have focused much in measuring their performance with
unequal distribution of nodes in each group. Simulations have
been carried out using NS-2 simulator. The results indicate that
MANET routing protocol perform well with TCP in
comparison of CBR traffic, when groups are formed by
iRPGM model.

II. SIMULATION MODELS AND RESULTS IN


MANETS

A survey and comparative study of simulators for vehicularad


hoc networks (VANETs) is carried out in a research work by
Francisco et al. in [5]. VANET simulation is fundamentally
different from MANETs (mobile ad hoc networks) simulation
because in VANETs, vehicular environment imposes new
issues and requirements, such as constrained road topology,
multi-path fading and roadside obstacles, traffic flowmodels,
trip models, varying vehicular speed and mobility, traffic
lights, traffic congestion, drivers behavior, etc. This paper
presents a comprehensive study and comparisons of the various
publicly available VANET simulation software and their
components. In particular, they contrast their software
characteristics, graphical user interface (GUI), popularity, ease
of use, input requirements, output visualization capability,
accuracy of simulation, etc. Finally, they concluded that while
each of the studied simulators provides a good simulation
environment for VANETs, refinements and further
contributions are needed before they can be widely used by the
research community.

To implement the routing protocols in MANETs, it is


necessary to send packets in order to test its efficiency.
Always, the performance of nodes is tested in simulation
models of MANET protocols. Network simulation tools are
frequently used to analyze the performance of MANET
protocols and applications. These tools used to model the
applications of MANETs running on mobile devices, the
wireless network protocol stack, radio signal propagation, and
mobility of network users. The simulation models are applied
to the desired layers of network (any layer like physical layer)
based on the current situations. This section analyses about the
simulation models and its results of some of the previous
research work carried out by different researchers.
On the impact of a more realistic physical layer on MANET
simulations results is discussed by S. Illya et al. in [2]. They
proposed an improvement for the physical layer modeling in
outdoor scenarios for network simulator-2. It consists of a
more realistic radio propagation model and a fine-grained
model of wireless transmission errors, which have been
evaluated against real-world dimensions. Their simulations
exhibited significant difference between the real connection
topologies and the topologies obtained with simple models that
are currently offered by MANET simulation tools. The
performance of obtained protocol results might be similar as of
some metrics, however they differ in other. Simulation Based
Energy Consumption Analysis of Routing Protocols for Mobile
Ad-hoc Networks (MANET)is explored by Ali Husain et al. in
their research work [3]. In this paper, they concentrated on the
energy consumption issues of existing routing protocols in
MANET under random waypoint mobility model and whose
connections communicate in a particular traffic model. Routing
in such networks is a challenging task. The various routing
protocols have been proposed since the origin of MANETS in
real world nowadays. This paper is an extensive study of
DSDV and AODV taking various performance parameters.
Effect of these parameters on energy consumption is studied by
the researchers. The simulation results demonstrated that in
energy consumption performance parameter, they conclude
that DSDV has consumed less energy than AODV.

An overview of MANETs simulation is discussed by Hogie et


al. in [6]. This paper provides a State of the Art of MANETs
simulators and associated simulation techniques. First it gives
an overview of the domain. Then it provides a map of the main
characteristics that MANETs simulation tools should feature
and the current support of these. Finally, a description for each
simulator is provided, including an explanation of what make
them appealing solutions. They discussed about three trends of
MANET simulators in detail in this research work.
III. ROUTING PROTOCOLS IN MANETS
The wireless communication technology and mobile ad hoc
networks are creates key impact in every day human life.
Without mobile devices, the current communication will never
happen between peoples. The percentage of mobile users is
increased in day to day basis of recent world. Applications of
MANETs, but not limited to, mostly utilized in several fields in
the real would such as military operations, security,
emergency, and rescue operations. For the communication
purpose between two mobile nodes a route is exactly used. The
routes are actually have some topology in its structure and are
called as routing protocols. Several routing algorithms for
MANETs have been available in the literature. They differ in
the way new routes are found and existing ones are modified.
The designing of such routing protocols are challenging one
and also an interesting area of research in the field of
MANETs. The main goal of an ad hoc network routing
algorithm is to properly and professionally create a route
between a pair of nodes in the network so a message can be
delivered according to the expected QoS parameters. The

Babele. S and R. Jain are discussed about MANET Routing


Protocols with CBR and TCP Traffic using Improved
Reference Point Group Mobility (iRPGM) Model in their
research work [4]. They have analyzed the Packet Delivery
Ratio (PDR), Average End to End delay, Average Throughput,
Normalized Routing Load (NRL) and number of Drop packets
in CBR and TCP traffic model using reactive routing protocol,
11

Integrated Intelligent Research (IIR)

International Journal of Communication and Networking System


Volume: 04 Issue: 02 December 2015, Page No. 10-15
ISSN: 2278-2427

classification of MANET routing protocols are depicted in


Figure 2. Many peoples are done research to test the
performance of some kind of routing protocols. Hereafter, this
section discusses about some best techniques and simulation
results of routing protocols. Performance Evaluation of
Routing Protocols for MANETs under Different Traffic
Conditions is discussed by Arora and Rama Krishna in [7].
This paper presents the performance of three routing protocols
AODV, DSR and WRP for FTP, TELNET and CBR traffic in
terms of packet delivery ratio, throughput, average end to end
delay and routing message overhead. From the extensive
simulation results, it is found that AODV shows the best
performance in terms of delivery ratio, throughput, routing
message overhead, and end-to-end delay. Also, they find that
their results show the superiority of reactive protocols over
proactive protocols.

proposed energy efficient routing algorithm consumes low


energy and gives high throughput. A framework to
systematically analyze the Impact of Mobility on Performance
of routing protocols for Ad-hoc networks is discussed [11] by
Fan Bai et al. They demonstrate the usefulness of suitability by
evaluating various MANET routing protocols, like DSR,
AODV and DSDV. Their results show that the protocol
performance may vary drastically across mobility models and
performance rankings of protocols may vary with the mobility
models used.
Impact of Node Mobility on MANET Routing Protocols
Models is discussed by Bhavyesh Divecha et al. in their
research work [12]. They have carried out a performance of
two mobile networks routing protocols namely Dynamic
Source Routing (DSR-Reactive Protocol) and DestinationSequenced Distance- Vector (DSDV-Proactive Protocol). In
their experiment, they used the scenarios like Random
Waypoint, Group Mobility, Freeway and Manhattan models
for their implementation. They find DSR gives better
performance for highly mobile networks than DSDV. NidhiL
al discussed about an effective approach for mobile ad hoc
network via i-watchdog protocol [13]. He discuss issues
regarding low performance of Watchdog protocol which are
used in the MANET and also proposed an improved Watchdog
mechanism, which is called by I-Watchdog protocol that
overwhelms the limitations of Watchdog protocol and gives
high performance in terms of throughput, delay. He concludes
that I-watchdog protocol gives high performance and supports
a very high number of nodes and provides minimum delay with
enhanced throughput.

Figure 2: Classification of ad hoc routing protocols


Natarajan and Mahadevan carried out a comparative analysis
and performance evaluation of TCP over MANET routing
protocols in their research work [8]. This research work makes
an attempt to evaluate the performance of the three TCP
variants (Reno, New Reno and SACK) under a variety of
network conditions. The simulations results reveal that out of
the three, the SACK variant can adapt relatively well to the
changing network sizes while the Reno performs most robustly
in different mobility scenarios. Exploring Mesh- and Tree
Based Multicast Routing Protocols for MANETs is discussed
by Kumar et al. in their research work [9]. They evaluate the
performance of mesh and tree based multicast routing schemes.
Actually, they are relative to flooding and recommend
protocols most suitable for specific MANET scenarios. In their
analysis and simulation results, they also propose two
variations of flooding namely as scoped flooding and hyper
flooding. They used to reduce overhead and increase reliability
and respectively. Also, they carried out comparative study of
the proposed flooding variations against plain flooding, mesh,
and tree-based MANET routing.

A Research on multicast routing protocols for mobile ad-hoc


networks is carried out by LuoJunhai et al in their work [14].
They provide a comprehensive understanding of multicast
routing protocols and organize an existing ideas and work to
facilitate multicast routing design for MANET. Also, they
present the taxonomy of the multicast routing protocols and
their properties and design features. This paper aims to aid the
MANET researchers and application developers in selecting
appropriate multicast routing protocols for their work. A Study
on Routing Protocols for Delay Tolerant Mobile Networks is
carried out by Haigang Gong and Lingfei Yu [15]. They
introduce delay tolerant mobile networks and discuss the
characteristics of the same type of networks. They find that the
intermittent connectivity of DTMNs influences the routing
performance significantly. Also, they provide architecture of
the DTMN network for the first time.
Scalable data lookup and replication protocol for mobile ad
hoc networks (SCALAR) is a new approach for mobile ad-hoc
network, which is proposed by Emre Atsan and znur zkasap
in their research work [16]. SCALAR is a virtual backbone
based solution, in which the network nodes hypothesis a
connected dominating set based on network topology graph.
SCALAR is the first work applying virtual backbone structure
to operate a data lookup and replication process in MANETs.
Theoretical message-complexity analysis of the proposed
protocols is given in this paper. Extensive simulations are

Amala Shiny and Nagarajan did a research work on the energy


efficient routing protocol for mobile wireless sensor network in
their work [10].An ad hoc on demand multipath routing
protocol for finding multiple paths to handover the data from
source node to terminus node is used for their research work.
They compared the performance of ad hoc on demand
multipath routing protocol with ad hoc on demand distance
vector routing protocol. Their simulation result shows that the
12

Integrated Intelligent Research (IIR)

International Journal of Communication and Networking System


Volume: 04 Issue: 02 December 2015, Page No. 10-15
ISSN: 2278-2427

performed to analyze and compare the behavior of SCALAR,


and it is shown to outstrip the other solutions in terms of data
accessibility, message overhead and query deepness. It is also
established as an efficient solution for high-density, high-load,
large-scale mobile ad hoc networks.

comparison. He conclude that, AODV routing protocol is best


suited for general mobile ad-hoc networks as it consumes less
bandwidth and lower overhead when compared with DSDV
routing protocol.
Statistical Model Checking of Ad Hoc Routing Protocols in
Lossy Grid Networks discussed by Dal Corso, Alice et al. [23]
. In this paper, they suggests strongly inspired by a recent
comparison of AODV and DYMO on arbitrary 5-node
networks, in the ideal case of perfect communication. In that
analysis ,they conclude that the DYMO protocol does not seem
to perform better than the ten years older AODV protocol and
also some of the negative results about the performances of
DYMO are due to the fact that 5-node networks might be too
small (or scarsely connected) to allow DYMO to beneficiate of
path accumulation. An overview of MANETs simulation is
carried out by Hogie, Luc, Pascal Bouvry et al. in [24]. This
paper provides State of the Art of MANETs simulators and
associated simulation techniques. First it gives an overview of
the domain. Then it provides a map of the main characteristics
that MANETs simulation tools should feature and the current
support of these. Finally, a description for each simulator is
provided, including an explanation of what make them
appealing solutions.

Review of Various Routing Protocols and Routing Models for


MANETs is discussed by Tanvi. A et al.in [17]. In this paper,
they studying the various routing protocols and mobility
models associated with the MANETs. The similarities and
differences between mobility models that randomly select
directions and mobility models that randomly select specific
locations should be analyzed very clearly. Xiaoyan et al.
explores about various routing protocols for its performance of
scalability in their implementation [18]. In this article they will
survey the routing protocols that address scalability. The article
will compare the scalability properties and operational features
of the protocols and discuss challenges in future outing
protocol designs. They have reviewed a broad range of routing
protocols designed for ad hoc networks. All protocols address
the challenges of scalability.
The IMPORTANT framework for analyzing the Impact of
Mobility on Performance Of Routing protocols for Adhoc
Networks is discussed by Fan Bai et al. in [19].In this paper,
they can be explained by the interaction of the mobility
characteristics with the connectivity graph properties. Finally,
they attempt to decompose the reactive routing protocols into
mechanistic building blocks to gain a deeper insight into the
performance variations across protocols in the face of mobility.
In this paper, we proposed a framework to analyze the impact
of mobility pattern on routing performance of mobile ad hoc
network in a systematic manner. Modeling Path Duration
Distributions in MANETs and Their Impact on Reactive
Routing Protocol is carried out by Fan Bai, Narayanan
sadagopan et al in [20]. In this paper they suggest that at
moderate and high velocities the exponential distribution with
appropriate parameterizations is a good approximation of the
path duration distribution for a range of mobility models. This
approach examined the detailed statistics (including pdfs) of
link and path duration across a rich set of mobility models. For
small velocities, these pdfs were observed to have a
multimodal distribution across some of the models used. This
observation showed the impact of the traffic pattern on the path
duration pdf.

Social network analysis for routing in disconnected delaytolerant manets discussed by Daly, Elizabeth M et al in [25]. In
this paper, they presents a multidisciplinary solution based on
the consideration of the so called small world dynamics which
have been proposed for economy and social studies and have
recently revealed to be a successful approach to be exploited
for characterising information propagation in wireless
networks. In the course of our research we have not come
across a similar application of social network analysis.
The SimBet routing metric is comprised of both a nodes
egocentric betweenness centrality and a nodes social
similarity. They demonstrated through simulation using real
trace data that SimBet Routing achieves delivery performance
comparable to Epidemic Routing, without the additional
overhead they also demonstrated that SimBet Routing succeeds
in finding a route where PRoPHET fails due to the low
connectivity of the sending and receiving nodes. A Novel
Review on Routing Protocols in MANETs is done by Kaur,
Robinpreet, and Mritunjay Kumar Rai et al. in [26]. This paper
concentrates on routing techniques which is the most
challenging issue due to the dynamic topology of ad hoc
networks. There are different strategies proposed for efficient
routing which claimed to provide improved performance.
There are different routing protocols proposed for MANETs
which makes it quite difficult to determine which protocol is
suitable for different network conditions as proposed by their
Quality of service offerings. This paper provides an overview
of different routing protocols proposed in literature and also
provides a comparison between them.

Routing with adaptive path and limited flooding for mobile ad


hoc networks discussed by Yun-Sheng Yena, Hung-Chieh
Chang in [21].To improve network performance, they design a
novel routing protocol called RAPLF (Routing with Adaptive
Path and Limited Flooding) for mobile ad hoc networks.
Simulation results show that our protocol has better
performance especially in packet delivery rate and flooding
overhead when compared to similar protocols. A work based
on the Routing Protocols in Mobile Ad-hoc Networks was
done by Krishna Gorantala et al [22]. In this paper they
concentrate mainly on routing protocols and their functionality
in Ad-hoc networks with a discussion being made on two
selected protocols DSDV and AODV, ending with their

The table 1 gives the performances and other simulation based


results of various routing protocols. It is easy to identify the
behaviors and other parameters of the protocols from the table.
13

Integrated Intelligent Research (IIR)

International Journal of Communication and Networking System


Volume: 04 Issue: 02 December 2015, Page No. 10-15
ISSN: 2278-2427

Table 1: Results and Performance Comparison


Reference
Numbers
[1]

Authors
Abolhasan.

[2]

Illya. S and Kurt Rothermel

[3]

Ali Husain, Saurabh Shukla,


Om Prakash Agrahari,
Babele. S and R. Jain,

[4]
[5]
[6]
[7]

Francisco M. J., Chai


KeongToh,
Hogie. L, Bouvry. P and F.
Guinand,
Arora V,and C. Rama Krishna,

[8]

Natarajan, K., and G.


Mahadevan

[9]

Kumar. V, Katia Obraczka,


and Gene Tsudik,

[10]

Shiny. V.A. Amala and V.


Nagarajan
Fan Bai, Narayanan
Sadagopan
Bhavyesh Divecha, Ajith
Abraham,
NidhiLal,

[11]
[12]
[13]

[14]

Methods Used

Results

Reactive, Proactive and


Hybrid
Network simulation -2

Suggest which protocols may perform best in large


networks
Simulations exhibited significant difference between the
real connection topologies
DSDV has consumed less energy than AODV.

DSDV and AODV


Reactive AODV &
proactive DSDV.
VANET simulation
software
MANETs simulation
tools
AODV, DSR and WRP
for FTP, TELNET and
CBR
Three TCP variants
(Reno, New Reno and
SACK)
Mesh and tree based
multicast routing
schemes
Demand multipath
routing protocol
DSR, AODV and
DSDV
DSR-Reactive and
DSDV-Proactive
i-watchdog protocol

[15]

LuoJunhai, Xue Liu, Ye


Danxia
Haigang Gong and Lingfei Yu

multicast routing
protocols
DTMN

[16]

EmreAtsan and znurzkasap

[17]

Arora, Tanvi, AmanpreetKaur,

Scalable data lookup


and replication
protocol
Various routing
protocols

[18]
[19]

Xiaoyan. H, KaixinXu, and


Mario Gerla,
Fan Bai.Narayanan sadagopan

Various routing
protocols
Reactive routing
protocols

[20]

Fan Bai.Narayanan sadagopan

Reactive routing
protocols

[21]

Yun-Sheng Yen, Hung-Chieh


Changb

A novel routing
protocol called RAPLF

[22]

Gorantala, Krishna

DSDV and AODV

14

MANET routing protocol perform well with TCP in


comparison of CBR traffic
Widely used by the research community.
Provides a map of the main characteristics that MANETs
AODV shows the best performance in terms of delivery
ratio, throughput, routing message overhead, and end-toend delay
Out of the three, the SACK variant can adapt relatively
well to the changing network sizes
Flooding variations

The energy efficient routing algorithm consumes low


energy and gives high throughput.
Performance rankings of protocols may vary with the
mobility models used.
DSR gives better performance for highly mobile
networks than DSDV
I-watchdog protocol gives high performance and
supports a very high number of nodes and provides
minimum delay with enhanced throughput.
In selecting appropriate multicast routing protocols for
MANET researchers
Provide architecture for first time
Efficient solution for high-density, high-load, large-scale
mobile ad hoc networks.
Randomly select directions and mobility models that
randomly select specific locations should be analyzed
very clearly
All protocols address the challenges of scalability.
Analyze the impact of mobility pattern on routing
performance of mobile ad hoc network in a systematic
manner
High velocities the exponential distribution with
appropriate parameterizations is a good approximation of
the path duration distribution
Better performance especially in packet delivery rate and
flooding
AODV routing protocol is best when compared with
DSDV routing protocol.

Integrated Intelligent Research (IIR)

[23]

International Journal of Communication and Networking System


Volume: 04 Issue: 02 December 2015, Page No. 10-15
ISSN: 2278-2427

] Dal Corso, Alice, Damiano


Macedonio, and Massimo
Merro
Hogie, Luc, Pascal Bouvry,
and Frdric Guinand
Daly, Elizabeth M., and Mads
Haahr
Kaur, Robinpreet, and
Mritunjay Kumar Rai

AODV and DYMO

DYMO to beneficiate of path accumulation

MANETs simulation
tools
SimBet routing

Provides a map of the main characteristics thatMANETs

IV. CONCLUSIONS

[9]

This research work have presented and discussed the


classification of routing protocols in mobile ad hoc networks
and provided some comparisons between various types of
them. Also, it is discussed the simulation models resulted by
different researchers for the implementation of MANET
routing protocols. The simulation models are viewed and
extracted pertain to the parameters like the average relative
speed of the mobility model, the transmission range of the
mobile nodes and the average number of hops in the path.
Based on the observed information, the models created by the
implementers depend on the packets they utilized for their
research analysis. In most of the cases, Ad-hoc On-demand
Distance Vector (AODV) routing protocol is identified as a
best routing protocol in that particular type. From many
persons approaches and their research perspectives, it is
identified that the reactive protocols are perform well over the
proactive protocols in the current real world environments.
Mostly, the performance of routing protocols depends on the
applications utilized by the users and based on their
approaches.

[10]

[24]
[25]
[26]

Different routing
protocols

[11]

[12]

[13]

[14]

[15]

[16]

[17]

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