A Report on Laboratory exercise about circuits

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A Report on Laboratory exercise about circuits

© All Rights Reserved

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Post-laboratory Report; Submitted: 11 September 2015

Richmond Sim

Ateneo de Manila University

Philippines

richmond.sim@obf.ateneo.edu

Ateneo de Manila University

Philippines

john.mandap@obf.ateneo.edu

storage elements that can no longer be simplified. These circuits can

be described by second order differential equations. Engineering

mathematics skills are required in order to solve for these equations.

In this laboratory experiment, the students simulated a given second

order circuit using a simulation software. The students solved for the

response function of the circuit. They have concluded that if there is

a constant forced response acting on the circuit, the current behaves

like a decaying exponential sinusoid.

Index TermsInductors, Capacitors, Second Order Circuits

I. INTRODUCTION

This laboratory is being done to familiarize the students with

second order circuits. Second order circuits are circuits that

have at least two storage elements namely inductors and

capacitors that cannot be further simplified such that the storage

elements will seemingly become just one. These circuits, when

analyzed, should have a second order differential equation.

Circuits that have more than three storage elements that cannot

be simplified will have a differential equation with order equal

to the number of storage elements.

Since second order circuits should have two independent

storage elements, the circuits can either have inductors, two

capacitors, a conductor and an inductor in series, or a conductor

and an inductor in parallel. It must be important that these

storage elements cannot be simplified. One of the most

common second order circuits are the RLC circuits. These

circuits are circuits that contain a resistors, an inductor and a

capacitor connected either in series or in parallel.

A property of this circuit is its ability to resonate at a

particular frequency. This is particularly important in different

electronic devices such as signal receivers which heavily relies

in receiving different frequencies of different signals. Also, this

concept is important because generally, a lot of electronic

devices use many different storage elements that are second

order or higher circuits.

II. THEORETICAL BACKGROUND

Second order differential equations have a basic form of

2

+ 1

+ () = ()

2

initial conditions: (0) and (0) that can be solved by first

solving the transient response. In solving the transient response,

we make the forced response equal to zero first. By the principle

of superposition, we will be needing to solve for the forced

response separately. To do this, we transform the differential

equation into its s-equation by changing the dn/dtn to sn. Then,

use the quadratic formula to solve for the roots.

If there are two roots, the characteristic equation is

1 1 + 2 2

(eq 1)

thus gives an over-damped curve when graphed.

If there is only one root, the characteristic equation is

1 1 + 2 1

(eq 2)

thus gives a critically-damped curve when graphed.

If there are no real roots, the characteristic equation is

[1 cos() + 2 sin()]

(eq 3)

thus gives an under-damped curve when graphed.

In solving for the forced response, we let the unknown

variable be into the form of a characteristic equation depending

on the forcing factor. So for instance, when the forced response

is a constant, we let the unknown variable be a constant k;

exponential, we let the unknown variable be an exponential and

so on.

The total response therefore is the sum of the transient and

the forced response. Then we solve for the value of the

remaining unknown constants via the initial conditions.

III. METHODOLOGY

A. Materials

The following are the materials needed for the experiment:

(a) Circuit Simulator (LTSpiceIV)

(b) Scientific Calculator

B. Procedure

Using the virtual oscilloscope (LTSpiceIV), we observed the

behavior of the voltage across the 250mF capacitor on the

circuit illustrated in Figure 1 provided that V S and R take

R=1; and VS = -10V, R=6.

From the

graph:

Forced

Response

Function

-5V

Theoretical

Forced

Response

Function

VS

-9V

()

= 1 3

+ 2 3 5

-10V

()

= [1 cos(2)

+ 2 sin(2)]

2

-2V

,

= 2

-10V

()

= 1 2

+ 2 5 6

-6V

,

= 6

with starting external DC supply at 0V and stop time at around

20s. We then solved for the forced response and the natural

response.

Theoretical

Response

Function

, =

5V

IV. RESULTS

The following are the sketch of transient voltage across

C=250mF.

Figure 2. Vs = -9V and R = 5.

+ 4( + ) + ( ) + = 0

Using KVL on the right loop, we have

+ 4( + ) + = 0

+ 4 + 4 + = 0

4 = 4

(1)

= (2)

4

Substituting (2) to (1),

4

4

+ 4 (

+ ) + (

)+

4

4

=0

4

+ 4 + 4 + (

)

4

4

(

)

4

+

=0

4

(

)

4

4

+ (

)+

=0

4

1 1

+

=0

4

4

4 2

4

2

4 +

=0

+ ( + )

+ ( + ) =

the total response when VS=-9V and R=5.

+6

+ 9 = 45

2

be equal to zero.

2

+6

+ 9 = 0

2

2 + 6 + 9 = 0

1 = 3; 2 = 0

It has one real root therefore the characteristic equation is eq.

2 which is critically-damped.

1 3 + 2 3 = ,

We can now solve for the forced response function. We let

the value of be a constant k.

+

+ =

9 = 45

, = = 5

We solve for the total response. By the principle of

superposition,

() = +

1 2 + 2 5 = ,

2

+7

+ 10 = 60

2

, = = 6

Adding the natural and forced response,

() = +

V. DISCUSSION

We select the transient analysis for the provided circuit as

this kind of analysis determines the behavior of the circuit under

signals that are not behaving well and provides us with the

charging and discharging times of any of the storage elements

which in this case are the capacitor and the inductor.

As we see on the graphs of Figure 2, 3, and 4, the natural

response function that we have on the voltage of the capacitor is

an exponential function which is actually expected because the

capacitor charges up to Vc (voltage across capacitor) and

discharges. This is called the natural response because this is the

response of the inductor and the capacitor when it does not

experience external forces.

+

+ =

2 + 2 + 5 = 0

1 = 1 + 2; 2 = 1 2

It has no real roots therefore the characteristic equation is eq.

3 which is under-damped.

[1 cos(2) + 2 sin(2)] =

2

+2

+ 5 = 10

2

, = = 2

Adding the natural and forced response,

() = [ () + ()]

State which is why the sinusoid becomes a straight line later on.

This steady state is the forced response because this is the

response when both the inductor and capacitor experience

external force.

+

+ =

2 + 7 + 10 = 0

1 = 2; 2 = 5

It has two real roots therefore the characteristic equation is

eq. 1 which is ocer-damped.

with the behavior of second-order circuits by looking at the

behavior of the capacitors voltage via transient analysis. This

way, we saw that the behavior acts like an exponential sinusoid

due to the charging and discharging of the capacitor and the slow

shift to DC steady state. This observation is important to note for

constructing circuits because it shows us its stability.

the behavior of the graph. The system goes to steady state faster

when the resistance is smaller. This is seen in Figure 3 vis--vis

Figure 4. Comparing Figure 2 vis--vis Figure 4, we also notice

that the VS affects the voltage of the capacitor in such that the

voltage across the capacitor increases as the (magnitude of) VS

increases.

VI. CONCLUSION

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