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Thomson Broadcast DVB-T2 solutions

Transmitter

  • - Elite 11/100

  • - Futhura

  • - Gapfillers / Repeaters

  • - Transmitter upgrade available for Optimum, Ultimate

Exciter

  • - Supporting MPLP up to 64 PLP’s

  • - DVB-T / DVB-T2 dualcast exciter

  • - Full DVB-T2 code rates / IFFT sizes

  • - Full Time interleaver implementation

  • - T2 MI SFN

  • - Dual IP Gigabit pro MPEG FEC inputs

  • - Low PAPR using Tone Reservation

  • - Easy remote upgrade and operation

  • - Full DVB-T2 control via front panel

  • - DVB-T2 modes : custom settings or V&V profile selection

  • - SNMP v2, HTTP control

  • - Adaptive non linear correction

  • - Adaptive linear equalization

  • - Embedded GPS

  • - High stability low phase noise OCXO

Thomson Broadcast DVB-T2 solutions Transmitter - Elite 11/100 - Futhura - Gapfillers / Repeaters - Transmitter

DVB-T2 system implementation and DVB-T2 Lite extension

Comprehensive understanding of the DVB-T2 system

July 2014

Jérôme DAVID - Strategic Marketing Manager

Bruno Le Breton R&D Manager

   
 

Thomson Broadcast contribution to DVB-T2 standard

 

Thomson Broadcast has a continued involvement in DVB activities since

early 90’s. Thomson Broadcast has

contributed to DVB-T2 standardization from 2006 until now. Thomson Broadcast longstanding experience in RF domain and in broadcast distribution network was particularly involved in the process of selecting techniques for PAPR reduction and has chaired T2 MI modulator interface specification

activities.

References

Air Interface

EN302755

Specification

Network distribution Specification

TS102773

DVB blue Book

DVB A133

Implementation

TS102831

Guidelines

   
   
Thomson Broadcast contribution to DVB-T2 standard Thomson Broadcast has a continued involvement in DVB activities since

Key facts :

  • Channel robustness close to theoretical Shannon limit

  • Up to 50% more bandwidth than 1st generation standard

  • Better Transmission quality/efficiency/reliability with PAPR

  • Larger and better SFN capabilities with distributed MISO scheme

  • Mobile / fixed network capabilities with MPLP

  • Future proof solution with Future Extension Frame concept

  • Flexible Time interleaver

  • Robustness adjustable per PLP for one or more services

  • Native IP based network distribution

DVB-T2 is the world’s most advanced digital terrestrial transmission system offering highest efficiency, robustness and flexibility. It introduces the latest modulation and coding techniques to enable highly efficient use of valuable terrestrial spectrum for the delivery of audio, video and data services to fixed, portable and mobile devices. These new techniques give DVB-T2 a 50% increase in efficiency over any other DTT system in the world. DVB-T2 will coexist for some years with DVB-T transmission.

Similarly to the first generation standard (DVB-T, ISDB-T, DAB), DVB-T2 uses OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplex) modulation, with a large number of sub- carriers delivering a robust signal, the new specification offers a range of different modes making it a very flexible standard.

DVB-T2 uses the LDPC (Low Density Parity Check) codes offering excellent performance in the presence of high noise levels and interference.

Transmission quality and reliability is improved by the introduction of advanced clipping functions, named PAPR techniques.

Service Specific coding based on Multi-PLP (Physical Layer Pipes) mechanism is provided to separately adjust the robustness of each delivered service within a channel to meet the required reception conditions for mobile, indoor and fixed reception in the same channel

Transmission diversity method, known as Alamouti coding, extends the coverage in small-scale single-frequency networks.

Finally, DVB-T2 group has defined a method called FEF (Future Extension Frame) which can be implemented over an existing DVB-T2 network. DVB-T2 offers a higher data rate, more robust signal, flexibility and scalability than any other existing transmission standard. For example, in the UK a DVB-T channel typically has a data rate of 24 MBit/s, whereas a DVB-T2 channel can carry 36 MBit/s, while keeping the robustness equal.

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DVB-T2 Key Concepts

A complex standard?

Thomson Broadcast DVB-T2 highlights

Thomson Broadcast DVB-T2 highlights

DVB-T2 standard is built upon more than 30 building blocks. All of these are extensively simulated and tested against reference golden streams issued by V&V (Validation and Verification) standardization group.

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At a first glance, DVB-T2 is a complex standard. It is made of a lot of new building blocks and all of them must be carefully adjusted. These new advanced signal processing techniques such as rotated constellation, ACE (Active Constellation Extension) and TR (Tone Reservation) PAPR reduction techniques, MISO (Multiple Inputs Single Output), Flexible time interleaver, FEF, scalable frame structure are good examples of how to bring added value to a broadcast technology.

…4 main guidelines for a comprehensive understanding of DVB-T2 possibilities

Capacity increase, Flexible system design, Efficiency improvements and Mobility have driven DVB partners in DVB-T2 standardization process.

Thomson Broadcast DVB-T2 highlights

Thomson

DVB-T2

exciter

implements All SPLP modes basic

parameter configuration:

  • - All IFFT sizes

  • - All guard intervals

  • - All constellation

  • - LDPC code rates and

All

code

types

  • - interleaver

All time

support: I-JUMP,

Dynamic, FEF

modes

Static,

Thomson Broadcast Man Machine

interface is designed to be intuitive.

Thanks to its front panel, user can

select DVB-T2 transmission

parameter directly using the front

panel. Configuration is easy based on

preset modes taken from settings used

in V&V validation group. Automatic

parameter check forbids any

unauthorized configuration. Exciter

provides 3 different network type

configuration: MFN-TS is dedicated

to MPEG TS legacy network, MFN-

T2 MI is used for MPLP via a gateway

and SFN T2 MI is used for SFN

operations.

Capacity increase

  • In DVB-T2, benefiting from higher modulation order (256QAM) and more efficient DVB-S2, LDPC FEC, up to 50% capacity gain is achieved compared to DVB-T performances

Thomson Broadcast DVB-T2 highlights Thomson DVB-T2 exciter implements All SPLP modes basic parameter configuration: - All

Figure 1: 256 QAM modulation

Thomson Broadcast DVB-T2 highlights Thomson DVB-T2 exciter implements All SPLP modes basic parameter configuration: - All

Figure 2: baseband frame

  • Beyond a simple constellation change, the number of pilots used to perform channel equalization can be adjusted allowing further bitrates optimization. User can expect up to 8% gain.

Pilot ratio

DVB-T

DVB-T2

Continual pilot

8.5%

4%

  • Higher FFT size means shorter guard interval ratio for a given SFN cell network.

Guard interval

DVB-T 8K

DVB-T2

duration

with 32K

224

us

25%

6,25%

112

us

12.5%

3,12%

  • Bandwidth extension: Less guard band carriers are used enabling a +2.6% bitrate gain

Thomson Broadcast DVB-T2 highlights Thomson DVB-T2 exciter implements All SPLP modes basic parameter configuration: - All

Figure 3: Bandwidth extension

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Thomson Broadcast DVB-T2 highlights

PAPR support

Thomson Broadcast exciter

implements PAPR natively improving

Quality / Efficiency / Lifecycle of the

transmission network. For instance,

efficiency is improved by more than

1% and power gain is above 0.4dB.

ACE techniques can be used in other

standards since Thomson Broadcast

proposed this PAPR technique in

order to be backward compatible

with others systems such as DVB-T or

DAB.

While Tone

Reservation

is

highly

efficient

for

higher

order

QAM

constellations,

ACE

is particularly

efficient for low order constellation

such as QPSK or 16QAM modulation

schemes. It makes ACE a good

solution for

reducing PAPR in

existing mobile networks relying on

QPSK or 16QAM modulation

scheme.

Beyond PAPR technique power

gain, when using either PAPR

Tone Reservation or Active

Constellation Extension, transistor

lifecycle is dramatically improved by

reducing transistor ageing effect

Efficiency increase with Tone reservation or ACE

  • Lower PAPR achieved with tone reservation or Active Constellation Extension. The goal of these techniques is to achieve better RF performances and increase overall efficiency of the RF power amplifiers. With this technique, the purpose is to achieve Peak to Average Power Ratio below 10dB

Thomson Broadcast DVB-T2 highlights PAPR support Thomson Broadcast exciter implements PAPR natively improving Quality / Efficiency

Figure 4: PAPR reduction

  • More efficient SFN networks with distributed MISO

Flexible and robust system based on innovative frame structure

  • New T2 frame structure: A T2 frame is based on P1 preamble, P2 preambles followed by data symbols. P1 preamble is used for fast parameters detection and raw equalization while P2 preamble symbols are used to discover the subsequent T2 frame parameters.

Thomson Broadcast DVB-T2 highlights PAPR support Thomson Broadcast exciter implements PAPR natively improving Quality / Efficiency

Figure 5: Frame structure

  • T2 frame is based on the same DVB-T frames using guard interval OFDM data symbols

Thomson Broadcast DVB-T2 highlights PAPR support Thomson Broadcast exciter implements PAPR natively improving Quality / Efficiency

Figure 6: Guard interval

  • MPLP mode offers a Service specific robustness while SPLP mode can be used in existing distribution network based on MPEG2-TS

  • Time interleaver combined with Cell interleaver can be adjusted for each PLP and the depth of the interleaver can be adjusted on 1 or several consecutive frames. This makes time interleaver really robust against impulse noise.

  • Rotated constellation combined with cell interleaver improves signal robustness in corner reception scenarios by de-correlating I & Q components of regular grey mapping scheme.

Thomson Broadcast DVB-T2 highlights PAPR support Thomson Broadcast exciter implements PAPR natively improving Quality / Efficiency

Figure 7: Rotated constellation

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Thomson Broadcast DVB-T2 highlights

The design of the Thomson Broadcast

exciter has taken into account from the

beginning the need of resources for

the evolution of the DVB-T2 standard.

T2-Lite is a software evolution

compatible with the existing hardware

T2-Lite

The mobile configuration of the DVB-T2 standard, also called T2-Lite, uses a limited number of available modes which are optimized for mobile transmission and minimize the requirements for the receiver.

  • Maximum bitrate of 4 Mb/s per PLP

  • Limitation of the FFT size to exclude 1K and 32K carriers mode

  • Allows only short FEC frames (Nldpc = 16200)

  • Limitation of the size of the time interleaver memory to approximately half the size of normal DVB-T2 transmission

  • Reduces set of combinations of FFT size, guard interval and pilot pattern. PP8 pilot pattern is not allowed

  • Prohibition of the use of rotated constellations in 256-QAM and addition of two new more robust code rates (1/3 and 2/5),

Code rate

 

Modulation

 

QPSK

16 QAM

64 QAM

256 QAM

1/3

 
  • X

2/5

 
  • X

1/2

 
  • X

3/5

 
  • X

2/3

 
  • NA

3/4

 
  • NA

  • : Combination authorised

    • X : Combination authorised but without rotated constellation

NA : Not authorised

The mobile services may be transmitted as a stand-alone signal but may also be transmitted on the same radio frequency channel with other DVB-T2 services. This can be achieved thanks to the Future Extension Frame (FEF) feature of the standard. In this case, the mobile transmission will be ignored by normal DVB-T2 receiver and the standard DVB-T2 transmission, also called T2-base, is ignored by the mobile receiver

Thomson Broadcast DVB-T2 highlights The design of the Thomson Broadcast exciter has taken into account from

Figure 8: Example of composite T2-base and T2-Lite signal

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The following table provides an overview of the comparison of the main characteristics of the different

The following table provides an overview of the comparison of the main characteristics of the different standards:

 

DVB-T2

DVB T2-Lite

DVB-T/H

FEC

LDPC + BCH

LDPC + BCH

CC + RS

Code rate

1/2, 3/5, 2/3, 3/4, 4/5, 5/6

1/3, 2/5, 1/2, 3/5, 2/3, 3/4

1/2, 2/3, 3/4, 5/6, 7/8

 

QPSK, 16QAM,

QPSK, 16QAM,

QPSK, 16QAM,

Constellation

64QAM, 256QAM

64QAM, 256QAM

64QAM

Guard Interval

1/128, 1/32, 1/16,

1/128, 1/32, 1/16, 19/256, 1/8, 19/128,

1/32, 1/16, 1/8, 1/4

19/256, 1/8, 19/128, 1/4

1/4

FFT size

1K, 2K, 4K, 8K, 8K ext., 16K, 16K ext., 32K, 32K ext.

2K, 4K, 8K, 8K ext., 16K, 16K ext.

2K, 4K, 8K

Scattered pilots

1%, 2%, 4%, 8% of total

1%, 2%, 4%, 8% of total

8% of total

Continual pilots

0,35% of total

0,35% of total

2,6% of total

RF Bandwidth

1.7, 5, 6, 7, 8, 10 MHz

1.7, 5, 6, 7, 8, 10 MHz

5, 6, 7, 8 MHz

Max. TS Bandwidth

  • 50 Mb/s

36,37 Mb/s

  • 32 Mb/s

Typical TS

  • 40 Mb/s (MFN)

   

Bandwidth

  • 33 20 Mb/s (Mobile /

Mb/s (SFN)

  • 24 Mb/s (Fixed)

(8MHz channel

  • 26 Mb/s (Mobile / fixed /

fixed / portable)

  • 10 Mb/s (Mobile)

raster)

portable)

And the following figure reminds the DVB-T2 version history

The following table provides an overview of the comparison of the main characteristics of the different

Figure 9: Version history

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DVB-T2 introduction scenarios Thomson Broadcast DVB-T2 highlights DVB-T2 and multi services Unique PLP solution Thomson Broadcast
DVB-T2 introduction scenarios
Thomson Broadcast
DVB-T2 highlights
DVB-T2 and multi services
Unique PLP solution
Thomson Broadcast is going beyond
common implementation by
providing up to 64 PLP in parallel
DVB-T2 and T2-Lite application
where 16 PLP is currently state of the
art. This allows unequalled flexibility
in tailoring different services for an
existing network.
For instance, you could provide in a
single
channel
16
mobile services
requiring up to 10Mb/s and allowing
3
to
4
HD
services in the same
broadcast channel.
DVB-T2 and new services
Moreover PLP management in
Thomson exciter is dynamic so
it allows live reconfiguration. This is
supporting future statistical PLP
management in order to optimize
robustness in the channel.
Moving DVB-T to DVB-T2 – Dual Cast Concept
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DVB-T2 application is primarily dedicated to fixed HD /3D terrestrial networks over existing DVB-T networks but it contains everything

The Multiple Physical Layer Pipes (MPLP) concept gives the possibility to have specific robustness for different services on a single DVB-T2 channel. Each PLP may have its own modulation, code rate and interleaving. This offers the opportunity, for example, to broadcast on an unique channel HD services with high bit rate dedicated for fixed reception, SD services with lower bit rate for indoor reception, and radio or mobile TV services with very low bit rate.

Using MPLP to broadcast services dedicated to fixed reception and to mobile in the same T2 multiplex is limited by the fact that the FFT mode and the pilot pattern cannot be adjusted during the same T2 signal. Fixed reception services is transmitted with large FFTs and sparse pilot patterns to optimize the bit rate. On the other hand, reception in mobile scenarios requires the utilization of smaller FFTs and more dense pilot patterns to follow the rapid variations in the time and frequency domain. T2-Lite standard gives a solution for this problem, with the possibility to transmit the signal in the FEF parts. In this manner, the FFT, guard interval and pilot patterns are optimized for mobile reception using the T2-Lite signal, and in the same time, these parameters are optimized for fixed reception using the T2-base signal. Of course, the T2-Lite signal can be used as a stand-alone signal which occupies the full frequency channel.

About the content aspect, DVB-T2 will be introduced for new services such as HD and Ultra-HD programs. Ultra-HD debate is not yet over but we can expect that higher bandwidth will be required to broadcast Ultra-HD services even for frame compatible format. DVB-T2 is designed to carry HD/ Ultra-HD services and offer the best signal efficiency (5.6bit/Hz in UK) even more with SFN diversity transmission (MISO). In order to deploy 3D content efficiently, it is necessary to work with DVB Ultra-HD TV specification where Ultra-HD TV program and 2D services can share the same broadcast channel at different time of the day. In this case, Ultra-HD TV set must be capable to switch between 2D and Ultra-HD application. Ultra-HD TV specification defines some scenario and signalization over the MPEG to allow flexible Ultra-HD transport. For instance, Ultra-HD side by side requires broadcasting a full HD definition service with a minimum rate of 8Mb/s. In the UK, this will lead up to 4-5 Ultra-HD services or full HD services.

Where legacy DVB-T transmission exists, it is easy to introduce DVB-T2 for new services. Current DVB-T2 set-top boxes are also able to perform DVB-T modulation enabling a smooth transition to new services over a network. A user purchasing a DVB-T2 set top box or TV set can also watch legacy DVB-T transmissions. On the network side, the transition from a DVB-T channel to DVB- T2 is simplified when dual cast operation is available in the exciter because network operator only has to manage a single network instead of managing 2 different networks. DVB-T and DVB- T2 spectrum characteristics are closed because they share the same channel raster and both of them are based on OFDM transmission with guard intervals.

When system is transitioned to DVB-T2 and PAPR is implemented, it is possible to increase the

When system is transitioned to DVB-T2 and PAPR is implemented, it is possible to increase the coverage by 0.4dB compared to the same DVB-T coverage for the same performance (MER = 34dB at transmitter output). Combined with signal compression improvement, it is possible to move MPEG2 services to MPEG4 and bundle them in new multiplexes. This can free up new frequencies to deploy new services as VOD or 3D services.

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How is DVB-T2 implemented?

Thomson Broadcast DVB-T2 highlights

   

Thomson DVB-T2

exciter

implements IP

interface

using

pro

MPE FEC. When used additional

large buffers are

used to

ensure a

robust IP interface.

robust IP interface.

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Figure 10: DVB-T2 transmission chain example co-existing with DVB-T distribution network

Broadcasters can easily get started with a DVB-T2 transmission. DVB-T2 can be initially implemented on a primary DTV transmitter, leveraging existing capital expenditures on the RF transmitter, filtering, transmission line, and broadcast antenna. In MFN network, DVB-T2 Thomson Broadcast transmitters can be operated with the existing MPEG distribution network over ASI or Gigabit Ethernet using the SMPTE2022-1 pro MPEG FEC standard. When T2 network is operated in SFN network or if service protected MPLP variable is used, it is necessary to use T2MI interface to send video streams to the transmitter. In this situation, a T2 MI (Modulator Interface gateway is needed at the head-end to parse signals into T2-MI packets. A field-proven transmitter must be tested with several Gateway manufacturers and solution must be highly robust to any kind of jitter (packet jitter or time source jitter) as very large hardware buffers size are available in the exciter to process IP input or MPEG-2 TS.

How is SFN implemented? Thomson Broadcast DVB-T2 highlights Thomson Broadcast played an active role in the
How is SFN implemented?
Thomson Broadcast
DVB-T2 highlights
Thomson Broadcast played an active
role in the definition of the T2-MI
(Modulator Interface).
T2 Modulator Interface standard is
part of DVB-T2
validation and
verification group.
The standard describing DVB-T2
Modulator Interface is labeled TS
102773
Figure 11: T2 Modulator Interface protocol stack
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T2 SFN networks setup are similar to SFN DVB-T networks but they require a T2-MI gateway and time reference equipments. All networks implementing SFN or / and MPLP must follow the T2-MI stack protocol.

T2 Modulator protocol stack is relying on existing and proved MPEG-2 TS and MPEG2-GSE. MPEG-2 GSE is a generic purpose encapsulation protocol dedicated to efficient IP distribution of video services to the T2-MI gateway. The output interface of the gateway to the distribution network is either IP encapsulated or directly in ASI format.

Thomson Broadcast DVB-T2 highlights

Thomson DVB-T2

exciter

interoperability has been verified by

BBC R&D.

Beyond V&V verification and

validation, Thomson Broadcast

contributes to European Celtic

Engines project and is leading DVB-

T2 SFN interoperability activities

inside this project.

Thomson Exciter implements SFN

test modes easing interoperability

verification between exciters

DVB-T2 offers more scalability than a DVB-T network. It offers larger guard intervals. Same infrastructure basis than a legacy network can be re-used provided that equipments in the legacy distribution network are transparent to the transport stream. However it requires a gateway to perform timestamp insertion and Physical Layer Pipe multiplexing.

Thomson Broadcast DVB-T2 highlights Thomson DVB-T2 exciter interoperability has been verified by BBC R&D. Beyond V&V

Figure 12: DVB-T2 transmitter setup dedicated to SFN

Setting up a DVB-T2 SFN network requires different stages:

  • Modulator interoperability verification, especially when different modulator brands are used

  • Modulator gateway system interoperability

  • Program Feed Transparency: bit-synchronous requirement for SFNs means that program feeds have to pass transport streams transparently, without any modification to packet order.

  • Bit rate jitter must remain low. Large Bit rate jitter from distribution network may cause SFN disruption.

Distribution

Bit rate Jitter

Network Delay

Sat. DVB-S/S2

+/- 200ns

250 ms

Off Air

+/-750ns

30 ms / hop

ATM over SDH

Up to 200 ns

Depending on the size of the network

MPEG over IP

+/-20ms

30ms / switch

Figure 13: Typical delays experienced in SFN distribution

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Installing a DVB-T2 SFN network requires having specific SFN test modes to verify timing adjustment between

Installing a DVB-T2 SFN network requires having specific SFN test modes to verify timing adjustment between transmitters. Once done, a transmitter in a SFN network can be modeled using a triplet (P: power, d: delay, f: frequency). It is important to determine where the 0delay area is fa lli n g . In the following example, we can observe that the 0delay area is falling concomitantly to a 0dB echo area. This will result in destructive interference in the 0delay area.

Installing a DVB-T2 SFN network requires having specific SFN test modes to verify timing adjustment between

Figure 14: Example of destructive interference situation in a DVB-T2 SFN

One solution is to change the delay of one transmitter to make sure that this situation will not occur.

Installing a DVB-T2 SFN network requires having specific SFN test modes to verify timing adjustment between

Figure 15: Non destructive “0delay” situation in a DVB-T2 SFN

Once the SFN network is setup, main issues come from the timing drift or disruption in the GPS signal reception or in transport stream. In SFN networks, transmitters must be carefully monitored and it is important that the exciter has embedded capabilities to detect such events separately in order to take the proper preventive or corrective action. Furthermore, on main strategic sites, it is desirable that the transmitter offers at operator wish permanent transmission in case of time reference loss or perturbation of the distribution network.

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How is T2-Lite implemented? The first solution consists to separate the distribution of the T2-Base and
How is T2-Lite implemented?
The first solution consists to separate the distribution of the T2-Base and T2-Lite signals.
The recommended operational configuration is the following:
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T2-Lite signal can be used as a stand-alone signal. In this case, the implementation is the same that for other DVB-T2 transmission. But T2-Lite signal can also share a unique channel with a T2-Base signal. In this case, there are two possibility for the network configuration.

How is T2-Lite implemented? The first solution consists to separate the distribution of the T2-Base and

Even if this solution could be useful for preliminary laboratory tests or pilot networks, it is not optimized for network implementation and maintenance:

  • Two gateways are used. They need to be set-up simultaneously and the time synchronization between them is critical.

  • As two different streams are necessary for T2-Base and T2-Lite signals, four inputs are mandatory at the exciter level to offer input redundancy

How is T2-Lite implemented? The first solution consists to separate the distribution of the T2-Base and

In this case, only one gateway manages the T2-Base and T2-Lite signals and a single T2MI stream is sent to the transmitter.

The MISO concept Interest of MISO (Multiple Inputs Single Output) Figure 16: MISO co-sited Figure 17:
The MISO concept
Interest of MISO (Multiple Inputs Single Output)
Figure 16: MISO co-sited
Figure 17: Performance Gain
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In this mode, DVB-T2 is broadcasted on 2 different antennas. Hence, DVB-T2 signal is split in main and complimentary components feeding the antennas. Main advantage is that the receiver will benefit from an increased C/N if the receiver is able to see both signals. If the receiver is not able to see one of the 2 signals, its performance remain equal to SISO (Single Input Single Output antenna).

For instance, current DVB-T2 UK transmission is based on a LDPC code rate of 2/3. With MISO, it might be possible to use LDPC code rate 3/4 leading to a bit rate gain of 5 Mb/s.

Network Constraint and distributed MISO If both transmissions were to be co-sited, the cost would be

Network Constraint and distributed MISO

If both transmissions were to be co-sited, the cost would be prohibitive from the network operator point of view. That is the reason to introduce distributed MISO where complimentary signals are sent from two different existing nearby sites. In this situation, the C/N gain can be up to 3dB and be converted into higher bitrates.

Network Constraint and distributed MISO If both transmissions were to be co-sited, the cost would be

Figure 18: MISO in Distributed transmission

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