You are on page 1of 9

See

discussions, stats, and author profiles for this publication at: http://www.researchgate.net/publication/270791713

MgO cement as suitable conventional binders


replacement in hemp concrete
ARTICLE in POLLACK PERIODICA DECEMBER 2011
DOI: 10.1556/Pollack.6.2011.3.11

CITATIONS

DOWNLOADS

VIEWS

203

42

3 AUTHORS:
L. Kidalov

Eva Terpakova

Technical University of Kosice - Technicka

Technical University of Kosice - Technicka

12 PUBLICATIONS 45 CITATIONS

15 PUBLICATIONS 45 CITATIONS

SEE PROFILE

SEE PROFILE

Nadezda Stevulova
Technical University of Kosice - Technicka
88 PUBLICATIONS 205 CITATIONS
SEE PROFILE

Available from: Nadezda Stevulova


Retrieved on: 06 August 2015

POLLACK PERIODICA
An International Journal for Engineering and Information Sciences
DOI: 10.1556/Pollack.6.2011.3.11
Vol. 6, No. 3, pp. 115122 (2011)
www.akademiai.com

MgO CEMENT AS SUITABLE CONVENTIONAL


BINDERS REPLACEMENT IN HEMP CONCRETE
1

Lucia KIDALOVA, 2 Eva TERPAKOVA, 3 Nadezda STEVULOVA

Institute of Building and Environmental Engineering, Civil Engineering Faculty


Technical University of Kosice, Vysokoskolska 4, 042 00 Kosice, Slovakia
e-mail: 1lucia.kidalova@tuke.sk, 2eva.terpakova@tuke.sk, 3nadezda.stevulova@tuke.sk

Received 1 January 2011; accepted 26 May 2011

Abstract: Development of lightweight composite materials based on organic binder is


oriented on conventional inorganic binders replacement by alternative materials such as MgO
cement. The objective of this paper is lightweight composites preparing with hemp shives and
conventional binders (hydrated lime, cement) replacement by MgO cement. The achieved
experimental results of compressive strength and thermal conductivity of hardened composites
indicate that the use MgO cement based on the milled caustic magnesite is suitable conventional
binders replacement in hemp concrete.
Keywords: Hemp concrete, MgO, Building material

1. Introduction
Sustainable development is target-oriented, long-term (continuous), complex and
synergic process that influences all aspects of life (cultural, social, economic,
environmental and institutional). This development takes places at various levels (local,
regional, national, international) and is directed towards a functional model of a certain
society that sufficiently satisfies biological, material, spiritual and social needs and
interests of people. Its goal is eliminating or essentially limiting interferences that
threaten, damage or spoil conditions and forms of life, respect the environment without
exceeding the tolerable degree, reasonably utilize its resources and protects cultural and
natural heritage [1], [2]. Nowadays the sustainable worlds economic growth and
peoples life improvement greatly depend on the use of alternative products in the
architecture and construction, e.g. coal fly ash [3], wood fibers (recycled newspaper,

HU ISSN 17881994 2011 Akadmiai Kiad, Budapest

116

L. KIDALOVA, E. TERPAKOVA, N. STEVULOVA

recycled brown paper bags) [4] and utilization of natural sources as curaua fibers [5],
all-hemp cellulose [6] etc. Hemp is one of the most interesting renewable natural
materials. For this purpose, hemp concrete is more and more recommended by the ecobuilders because hemp is a renewable plant, recyclable and does not degrade within
time [7]. A hemp stalk can be separated into fibers, located in the bark, and shives,
located in the core of the hemp stalk. Hemp shives are the woody core parts of the hemp
stalk, referring to their appearance and cellular structure, which resembles that of wood.
Hemp is used in the construction industry especially for manufacture of lightweight
composite materials with binder as lime or cement [8]. Comparison of possible benefits
of conventional and natural building materials is given in Table I [7].
Table I
Comparison of possible benefits of conventional and natural building materials
Conventional building
Uses non-renewable resources and
materials
Uses a lot of energy in extraction high
embodied energy
Significant transportation costs
Extraction is often damaging and causes
social problems
Many metals and other polluting
materials are extracted and refined in
poor countries and shipped to rich
Significant energy and chemicals are
used to create energy efficient solutions

Natural building
Uses renewable materials which can be grown
and provide cash to farmers
Uses materials need little energy to extract

External air pollution caused by


manufacturing processes
Internal pollution due to the use of toxic
additives like solvents

Virtually no external pollution

Waste manufacturing and installation is a


normal part of processes
Damage to eco systems at end of life
disposal

Should use local materials


Uses materials such as clay which is of low
impact
Materials are extracted and processed locally
Generally little energy used

Natural materials rarely cause health


problems if handled properly and are not
treated with toxic fire retardants, etc.
Little waste if care is taken
End of life can be recycled or returned to the
earth and decompose naturally

The use of hemp lime composites for building began with the conservation of
historic buildings where it became necessary to replace old wattle and daub infill
materials in medieval half-timbered buildings. The potential of this material for new
buildings was recognized and has been developed in France and Canada [9], [10].
Nowadays hemp concrete is widely used in buildings because it is environmentally
friendly material suited to the context of sustainable development [7]. Based on these
benefits, goal of our research was utilization of MgO cement as suitable conventional
binders replacement in lightweight composite preparing and testing of their mechanical
properties and selected physical properties.

Pollack Periodica 6, 2011, 3

MgO CEMENT AS REPLACEMENT IN HEMP CONCRETE

117

2. Materials and methods


The type of natural renewable materials used in this study was hemp shives as waste
from the production of hemp fibers (supplied from Hungarohemp Rt, Nagylak,
Hungary). The density of dried hemp shives was 115 kg/m3 and granulometric
composition of hemp shives is given by cumulative granulometric curve in Fig. 1.
100
90

Cumulative percentage [%]

80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0

2.5

5.65

6.7

8.55

13

18

22.5

32.5

50

Particle size [mm]

Fig. 1. Cumulative granulometric curve of hemp shives

Portland cement (CEM I 42.5 R) and MgO-cement as alternative binder were used.
MgO-cement consists of MgO obtained by low temperature decomposition of natural
magnesite (CCM 85, SMZ a.s. Jelava, Slovakia), silica sand (atn, Slovakia) with the
dominant component of SiO2 (95-98%) and sodium hydrogen carbonate (NaHCO3) p.a.
Particle distribution of MgO was below 1 mm and chemical composition of MgO is
summarised in Table II. Granulometric composition of caustic magnesite and silica sand
are given in Table III.
Table II
Chemical composition of caustic magnesite
Component
MgO
CaO
Fe2O3
SiO2

Content [wt.%]
min 84
max 5.5
max 7.5
max 1.0

Pollack Periodica 6, 2011, 3

118

L. KIDALOVA, E. TERPAKOVA, N. STEVULOVA


Table III
Granulometric composition of caustic magnesite and silica sand

Mass yield [wt. %]

Fraction [mm]

MgO
18.25
34.75
30.00
13.50
3.50

0.5 - 1
0.50 - 0.25
0.25 - 0.125
0.125 - 0.063
- 0.063

Silica sand
14.75
63.00
19.75
2.00
0.50

The effect of MgO milling has been investigated in order to reduce its particles size.
Dry milling was carried out in laboratory vibratory mill VM-4 with in times of 5 - 60
minutes. The particle size analysis of the milled products was carried out on the laser
granulometer Helos with dry dispersion unit Rodos (Sympatec, Germany). The specific
surface area of powders was determined by the standard B.E.T. method using the
equipment Gemini 2360 (Sy-lab, Austria). Mass yield of fractions under 5 m (Q-5),
mean particle diameter (dm) and values of specific surface (SBET) of milled products of
MgO are given in Table IV.
Table IV
Mass yield of fractions under 5 m, mean particle diameter and specific surface of milled
products of MgO
Milling time [min]
0
5
15
30
60

Q-5
[wt. %]
53.02
48.88
42.22
38.73

dm
[m]
337
6.85
7.08
8.31
8.44

SBET
[m2.g-1]
12.92
15.08
15.04
14.94
14.83

Product of milling after 5 min was chosen as the most available for next research
because specific surface area during long termed milling time decreases by aggregation
of fine particles and mean particle diameter increases. The composition of mixtures is
characterized in Table V. Content MgO-cement in experimental mixture without
Portland cement was 29 vol% and with Portland cement was 24 vol%.
The mixtures were prepared in the labour mixer type ZZ 150 SH with horizontal
rotary drum with capacity 150 l. The standard steel cube forms with dimensions
100mmx100mmx100mm (Fig. 2) were used to preparation of samples. Each form was
rammed on the vibration plate VSB 40 for the 3 min. Next day the composites were
taken out of the forms and cured under laboratory conditions according to standard rules
(samples were exposed on the air and in order to keep the humidity, the samples were
isolated by a PE sheet). After 7 and 28 days of hardening, the specimens were tested on
the compressive strength (equipment ADR ELE 2000) and after 28 days of hardening
were tested thermal conductivity coefficient (ISOMET MODEL 104) and absorbability.
Testing of absorbability was based on determination of weight increase of tested
Pollack Periodica 6, 2011, 3

MgO CEMENT AS REPLACEMENT IN HEMP CONCRETE

119

samples during their full immersion in distillate water, which were stored for 2 hours at
a constant temperature of 20C. Than the specimens were taken out from water and all
surface was particularly dried with a clean dry cloth.
Table V
The composition of experimental mixtures
Mixture

Composition of mixture [vol. %]


SiO2
MgO
NaHCO3

Hemp
shives

unmilled

milled

40
40
40
40

8
9.5
-

8
9.5

1
2
3
4

8
9.5
8
9.5

8
9.5
8
9.5

PC

Water

5
5
-

31
31
31
31

Fig. 2. Experimental composites, Left: samples of mixture 3 (up) and 4 (down) in form; Right:
samples of mixture 4 after moulding

3. Results and discussions


Density values of composites after 7 and 28 days hardening are presented in Fig. 3,
values of thermal conductivity and absorbability are presented in Table VI.
Table VI
Thermal conductivity coefficient and absorbability of hardened composites
Mixture
1
2
3
4

Thermal conductivity
coefficient [W.m-1.K-1]
0.230
0.117
0.122
0.111

Absorbability
[%]
22.80
26.02
25.50
21.38

Pollack Periodica 6, 2011, 3

L. KIDALOVA, E. TERPAKOVA, N. STEVULOVA

Density [kg/m3]

120

1250
1200
1150
1100
1050
1000
950
900

7 days
28 days

Mixture
Fig. 3. Density values of composites after hardening of 7 and 28 days

The obtained data show that the density of 7 days hardened specimens is increasing
and of 28 days hardened specimens significantly decreases with percentage reduction of
cement. As regards the determination of thermal conductivity coefficient, the mixtures 1
and 3 show the highest values according to hydration products forming in structure of
composite what confirms also highest values of density after 28 days of hardening. It
was found that the samples show convenient values in comparison to other building
materials such as polystyrene or other insulating materials e.g. value of thermal
conductivity coefficient of straw is 0.1 W.m-1.K-1. According to their thermal insulation
testing composites for example in the form of blocks can be used to build low-energy
houses. These results are also comparable to measurements for building material of
lime-hemp concrete [11], [12]. The highest values of absorbability had the samples 2
(without cement) and 3 (with cement). Porosity of the composites was not measured,
but we can assume that due to a different type of binder are carried out strengthening
processes that could be reflected in different values of water absorption. The results of
compressive strength of 7 and 28 days hardened composites are presented in Fig. 4. As
it can be seen, compressive strength value of mixture 4 (Portland cement replacement
by MgO-cement based on dry milled MgO) exceeds values of others samples and
measured values of compressive strength of composites are comparable with published
values of strength characteristics of lightweight composites with hemp shives and lime
hydrate as a binder [13].

4. Conclusion
Results showed the possibility of preparing composites with use of hemp shives and
MgO-cement as a binder. Magnesium oxide-cement binder system based on optimal
milled caustic magnesite appears to be a suitable replacement for conventional binders
in lightweight composites, which could lead to promising new environmentally products
such as non-load bearing building materials.

Pollack Periodica 6, 2011, 3

Compressive strenght [MPa]

MgO CEMENT AS REPLACEMENT IN HEMP CONCRETE

121

3
2.5
2

7 days

1.5

28 days

1
0.5
0

Mixture

Fig. 4. Compressive strength values of composites after 7 and 28 days hardening

Acknowledgements
The authors are grateful to the Slovak Grant Agency for Science (Grant No.
1/0498/09) for the financial support of this work.

References
[1]

[2]
[3]
[4]
[5]
[6]
[7]
[8]

urica T., Sikov A., Slimk J. Some aspects of research and development of building
materials, In: International Workshop Material Design and System Analysis - Integration of
Economic and Environmental Aspects into the Development Phase, Karlsruhe, Germany,
Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Chap. C1, 2006, pp. 14.
Sliwinski J., Hager I., Tracz T., Zdeb T., Zych T., Hela R., Bodnrov L., Sikov A. New
generation cement concretes: Ideas, design, technology and applications, Vol. 3. Cracow
University of Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering, 2010, p. 24.
Harbulakova O. V., Estokova A., Stevulova N. The investigation of concrete
biodeterioration in sewer pipes, case study, Pollack Periodica, Vol. 5, No. 1, 2010,
pp. 8795.
Pehanich J. L., Blankenhorn P. R., Silsbee M. R. Wood fiber surface treatment level effects
on selected mechanical properties of wood fiber-cement composites, Cement and Concrete
Research, Vol. 34, 2004, pp. 5965.
d Almeida A. L. F. S., Melo Filho J. A., Toledo Filho R. D. Use of Curaua fibers as
reinforcement in cement composites, Chemical Engineering Transactions, Vol. 17, 2009,
pp. 17171722.
Ouajai S., Shanks R. A. Preparation, structure and mechanical properties of all-hemp
cellulose biocomposites, Composites Science and Technology, Vol. 69, 2009,
pp. 21192126.
Le Tran A. D., Maalouf C., Mai T. H., Wurtz E., Collet F. Transient hydrothermal
behaviour of a hemp concrete building envelope, Energy and Buildings, Vol. 42, 2010,
pp. 17971806.
Bruijn P. B. Hemp concretes, Paulien de Bruijn, Alnarp, 2008.

Pollack Periodica 6, 2011, 3

122
[9]

[10]
[11]
[12]

[13]

L. KIDALOVA, E. TERPAKOVA, N. STEVULOVA


Woolley T. The role of low impact building materials in sustainable construction, The
potential for hemp, Proceedings of the Sustainable Building, 13-18 September 2004, Africa
Conference, Stellenbosch, South Africa, 2004,
http://www.sustainablesettlement.co.za/event/SBE2004/papers/SB014.pdf (last visited 5
October 5 2010.
Ronchetti P. The barriers to the mainstreaming of lime-hemp: A systemic approach, MSc
Dissertation, Dublin Institute of Technology, School of Spatial Planning, Department of
Environment and Planning, 2007.
Evrard A. Sorption behavior of lime-hemp concrete and its relation to indoor comfort and
energy demand, PLEA 2006 - The 23rd Conference on Passive and Low Energy
Architecture, Geneva, Switzerland, 6-8 September 2006, pp. 15.
Kidalova L., Terpakova E., Stevulova N. Use of magnesium oxide - cement binder in
composites based on hemp shives, The Twelfth Annual Conference, Programme and the
Book of Abstracts, 6-10 September 2010, Yucomat Herceg Novi, Montenegro, Belgrade,
Institute of Technical Sciences of the Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts, 2010,
pp. 158.
Bydovsk J. Utilization of rapidly renewable raw materials in building materials, 12th
International Scientific Conference, (in Czech), Brno, Czech Republic, 20-22 April 2009,
pp. 4346.

Pollack Periodica 6, 2011, 3