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Test Questions

Multiple Choice
1. Systematic instruction in which of the following has been found to
create more efficient spellers?
a. Sound segmentation
b. Sound-symbol association
c. Spelling patterns
d. All of the above
2. What can be said about the relationship among reading, writing, and
a. Development in spelling generally coincides with advances in
b. Development in spelling generally coincides with advances in
c. Development in spelling generally coincides with advances in both
reading and writing.
d. None of the above
3. What is the name of the initial stage of spelling development that
occurs at about the time the child learns the alphabet and discovers
that words are composed of letters?
a. The preliterate stage
b. The phonetic stage
c. The precommunicative stage
d. The transitional stage
4. When children have become aware of the left-to-right orientation of
the English language and understand the alphabetic principle, we can
say they are in which stage of developmental spelling?

The prephonetic, or preliterate stage

b. The precommunicative stage

c. The transitional stage

d. The phonetic stage

5. Which of the following is the best definition of a spelling
a. An ability to tell if a spelled-out word looks right
b. A concern for spelling all words correctly
c. A consciousness that we speak in a flow of sounds
d. An understanding of the difference between phonemes and
6. Why is encouraging young students to use experimental spelling a
positive practice for beginning writers?
a. Observations of experimental spellings can tell teachers a good
deal about the students knowledge of soundspelling
b. Attempting to sound out words offers the student important
opportunities to experiment with soundspelling relationships.
c. Coupling experimentation with systematic instruction in the visual
patterns of our language will help students learn to spell correctly.
d. All of the above
7. Which of the following statements best describes an effective spelling
program for early literacy?
a. A program in which students are continually exposed to the
regular patterns of words
b. A program in which students learn the sounds of the letters in the
alphabet and then learn to apply these letters systematically to
c. A program in which teachers help students explore and
understand the patterns and useful generalizations about the
relationships within and between words
d. A program that includes memorization of grade-level lists
appropriate to the age and developmental level of the students to
be taught
8. Which of the following is a true statement regarding an effective
spelling program?

a. All words to be learned should be chosen by the students.

b. All words to be learned should be chosen by the teacher.
c. Students should be taught to always check to see if they know
how to spell a word correctly before writing it down.
d. Whenever possible, students should be involved in spelling the
same words they are learning to read.
9. Which of the following is an appropriate activity for students at the
early phonetic/early letter name stage of spelling development?
a. Word building
b. Contract spelling
c. Paired post-tests
d. Spelling bee
10. Which of the following is a good reason for using contract spelling
with advanced spellers?
a. Students who select their own words have an investment in their
own learning.
b. If chosen from their writing needs, students see the purpose of
their spelling lists.
c. The motivation to succeed is heightened.
d. All of the above
11. Which of the following is NOT a useful instructional strategy for
children needing special help in spelling?
a. Word searches
b. Spelling reflections
c. Word lists and high frequency words
d. Portable keyboards

Fill in the Blanks

1. According to recent research, students writing is also supported by
proficiency in spelling.

2. The matching of letters and letter-combinations with sounds is called

sound mapping.
3. Word hunts, word-building activities, and labeling pictures are all
good activities to use at the early phonetic/early letter name stage to
reinforce soundsymbol correspondence.
4. If students can tell if a word they have spelled looks right, we can
say they have developed a spelling consciousness.
5. When students have mastered the basic principles of English
orthography, we say they have arrived at the conventional spelling
6. In general, students are consistent in their use of the patterns they
devise in their experimental spellings.
7. With guidance, students will soon discover that all 44 or so phonemes
in the English language can be represented by letters or groups of
8. In order to write their words in context, students must be taught a
strategy for what to do when they cannot spell a word.
9. When students are going around the room searching for words that
contain a sound or letter pattern that has just been studied, they are
engaging in a word hunt.
10. The Common Core State Standards appropriately connect spelling to

Essay Questions
1. What explanation would you offer to the mother of a kindergartener
who wonders why you allow her child to misspell so many words on
writing drafts.
I would tell the parent that as teachers we need to be resolute about not
showing children how to spell each word or his or her child will not develop
the strategy of making a first attempt thus their child will lose important
opportunities to experiment with sound spelling relationships. Spelling
involves problem solving and their child should be encouraged to picture
the words in their minds, then make a first attempt at spelling, perhaps
trying it several ways, and then with a resource check the work.
2. Describe in your own words the six concepts that can be derived from
observing experimental spelling. Discuss how knowing letter names

can be a help and a hindrance to children in the initial phases of

Knowing letter names can help a child spell words containing long vowel
sounds but this concept in experimental spelling is not effective for
children trying to spell words with short vowels like bad or win.
Sounding out words with consonant blends for the young writer is
common and is developed with instruction until proper introduction of
spelling patterns is introduced. In the early stages of experimental
spelling, a beginning writer will confuse /t/ with /d/ and will make
mistakes such as writing out budder instead of butter. When dealing
with consonant pairs like cant and wont, a child in the early stages of
experimental spelling will exclude the first letters so that they
mistakenly spell cat and wot. Past tense, plural, and third-person
singular vowels are understood by beginner writers but they need
instruction to visually understand it. Using patterns with in
experimental spelling helps the beginner writers learn how to spell
and practice.
3. List the stages of developmental spelling and provide an example of
each. Why do you think it is important for classroom teachers to be
able to identify approximately the stage that each of their students is
in? There are five stages of developmental spelling. They are the
pre-communicative stage, which is learning the alphabet. Prephonetic stage is left to right orientation emerges. Phonetic stages
refers to basic spelling patterns and families, transitional stage is
becoming aware of visual aspects of words. The stage is the
conventional stage which the learners can apply the rules of
orthography. It is important so that the teacher can assess the
learner and can determine the appropriate developmental spelling
4. Discuss the instructional practices that have been found to be the
most and least effective in creating efficient spellers.
Strategies to create efficient spellers range from creating meaningful
spelling lists and contract spelling as well as word hunts, picture sorts, cut,
paste, and labeling activities. Strategies llike this help build up a students
spelling ability. Common practices to avoid would be penalizing a student
for poor spelling, weekly spelling bees, excessive instruction on spelling,
and repetitive practice of spelling words. These strategies are counterproductive in producing an efficient speller.