You are on page 1of 51



Project Supervisor:
Chairman, Department of Electrical Engineering


Group Members:

2008/CUP/ELECT- 0903


2008/CUP/ELECT- 0895


2008/CUP/ELECT- 0917


2008/CUP/ELECT- 0904


2008/CUP/ELECT- 0898

Department Of Electrical Engineering

CECOS University of IT & Emerging sciences Peshawar, Pakistan


In the name of Allah, the most Gracious, the most Merciful

He who taught by way of the pen. He has taught humanity what they did not know
Al-Quran [surah al-Alaq: 3-5]

He taught Adam the names of all things and He taught man that which he
know not
Al-Quran [surah al-Baqarah: 31]




Submitted By:

This Thesis is submitted in Partial fulfillments for the requirement of Bachelors

Degree of Electrical Engineering

Project Supervisor:
Col(R) Ashfaq Ahmad
Chairman, Department Of Electrical Engineering
CECOS University of IT & Emerging Sciences Peshawar, Pakistan


This is to certify that the work contained in this thesis SCROLL SMS ON DOT MATRIX
USING GSM was carried out by
Muhammad Adil Jan
Muhammad Arsalan
Rizwan Ullah
Muhammad Usman

Under my supervision and that in my opinion, it is fully adequate, in scope and quality for the
degree of B. Sc. Electrical Engineering from CECOS University of IT & Emerging Sciences.

Project Supervisor:

FYP Coordinator:
Eng. Khalid Rehman

Chairman, Department of EED






Dedicated to our beloved Parents who provided us every opportunity to

achieve our goals and to our teachers who tried their level best to convey us
the knowledge and our all friend who support and love us.



We are highly thankful to Almighty Allah who enabled us to conduct this project and write this
final report.
We are highly indebted to Col(R) Ashfaq Ahmad Chairman, Department of Electrical
Engineering CECOS University of IT & Emerging Sciences Peshawar, for his supervision
knowledge, support and persistent encouragement during our final year project. Other faculty
members including Sir Naveed Jan, Sir Abid Haider, and Sir Khalid Rehman have helped us
and provided us with valuable advice during this period, we are very thankful to them.
Last but not the least; we would like to acknowledge our parents for their inspiration and moral
support throughout our study at CECOS University Peshawar.


1.1 Functionality of project
1.2 Division of project
1.3 Block Diagram
1.4 Schematic Diagram

2.1 Introduction
2.2 Feature of Microcontroller
2.3 Pins description

3.1 GSM Module
3.2 AT Command set
3.3 UN2803APG
3.4 SN74HC164N
3.5 ATMEL 24C08A
3.6 Display panel
3.7 Soldering
3.8 PCB preparation
3.9 Summary

4.1 Introduction to Software
4.2 Flow Chart




The effort which we done in t eam work t hat is t he result of our t eachers and
specially our parents blessing and prayer. The knowledge and use of that know in its perfect
place which we get from first day to last day form our institute.
Someone quotes that engineer is an inventor he invents something new form available sources,
we follows the same quotes use the existing facilities as our platform use that and take step
toward new thing.
We begin effort during start of the year at the end we got success and produce new thing. This
project explores the development of "Scroll SMS Message on DOT MATRIX Using GSM
MODULE". The purpose of this project is to build a display dot matrix board which could be
controlled using At commands of GSM based mobile phone. Display of SMS on dot matrix
which is displaying module consisting of LED`S & Comprises of discrete chips we use a
technique with controlling device i-e microcontroller.
The microcontroller is interfaced with Mobile phone through AT Commands. It can send request
to that controlling device in the response it can read from mobile and transfer it to
microcontroller and microcontroller send that data towards dot matrix.
It having many and many features which we can add and use for different applications e-g we
can use it for display mostly but with different aspect like Advertisement. Traffic information &
instruction, Stock Exchanges, Colleges, Universities and also for Bill Boards. In feature we can
add memory that will use for data storing and also video display processor with it and use that
dot matrix as Graphic Board.
The advantage of this project is that display boards are already exist in our surrounding but that
shows context sentences if user want to change or edit the text he programmed the programmer
once again and burn new code in it while changing programmer some time many of the
electronic components damage due to this we decide to add new features which make it
advanced and able to display variable text (means when user wants he changed).By interfacing
modem with it.
In our hypothesis report we demonstrate our project at every aspect which will be help full for
every user either professional or new, when he read it he will able to perform operation on it.




We introduce our project which is SCROLL SMS ON DOT MATRIX USING GSM
MODULE. Our project is based on hardware but our project lies in controlled category
because there is a controlling device which is functioning like the heart of our system the
controlling device is actually a Microcontroller. There is a possibility in system to use any
microcontroller that is optional but we use Atmel microcontroller because we have knowledge
about it. Every designer can use microcontroller according to his own choice or requirement
(memory wise). We use the microcontroller according to our requirement that is AT89C52 we
use it because it having 256 byte ram and 8 Kbytes rom which is suitable for our work. And
fulfill our desires.

The world is moving towards wireless display because of some reason like wire complexity, its
maintenance, and its cost etc. Before it people use display mechanism by involving the computer
system, and the data which fed in microcontroller were be static and displaying a constant text, if
someone want to change it they change its microcontroller and the system disturbs, mostly error
occurs in system, and also components can damaged.

For reducing our complexity we divide the system in some stages. Our system is composed on
different stages first system starts from power, the power require for the system is different from
the power require for displaying module we use one power supply but we can divided into two
sources now the heart of system microcontroller is interfaced with mobile and through leveling
IC and on the other side it interfaced with shift register, with sink (i-e ULN 2803) and decoder.


Functionality of our Project:

It is function like that, first system is start when it get power, microcontroller send the request to
GSM cell phone through AT commands these are Attentions commands and used for
communication with HyperTerminal source we use HARDWARE VERSION 1001012 that are
the standards of some mobile, the software protocol use for this is to make this as GSM modem
but it modem functionality is limited as compare to GSM real modem but in our system c41v
functioning very well.
In the response mobile send data, the receiving message to microcontroller can shift toward shift
registers and the receiving data can be display on display module.
If we check its commercial demand, then we saw its importance we can also enhance this in
feature with amazing addition. It working is so simple it, it can use the existing GSM Network
not pitch or disturbing the format or server request for sms but it totally depend on Mobile.
For our simplicity we divided the project into two main parts i-e software and hardware.
First we prepare hardware for it; the hardware was just like the basic trainer board.
When hardware complete then we starts works on software we take start from syntax flow
diagram which helps us in programming.


Block Diagram:

Figure 2.1


Our Project Division:

As the block diagram describe that the system is not in a single part but it
consists on many four main parts i-e transmitter, GSM receiver, Controlling device, and Display
module but it also to much complex system for simplicity we rearrange the same divide and due
to some minor changes the whole project become simpler. The division consists on power
supply, controlling device, GSM receiver interface, leveling stage, and led display panel.
Here the system based on GSM network therefore the transmitter will be of
GSM network we have option for selecting transmitter which is suitable for GSM network either
we use GSM transmitter or GSM cell phone.

In system, our operation and function start from here just like transmitter we
have also option here for selecting receiver which is suitable, recommended and compatible for
receiving GSM text, because our system receive text message and translate it, which is
compatible with microcontroller, receiver will be either GSM modem or GPRS modem which is
compatible for GSM features, like GM 28(GSM modem) and GSM cell phone like Alcatel,
Motorola, Sony Ericsson etc






The AT89C52 is a low-power, high-performance CMOS 8-bitmicrocomputer with
8K bytes of Flash programmable and erasable read only memory (PEROM). The device is
manufactured using Atmels high-density nonvolatile memory technology and is compatible
with the industry-standardMCS-51 instruction set and pin out. The on-chip Flash allows the
program memory to be reprogrammed in-system or by a conventional nonvolatile memory
programmer. By combining a versatile 8-bit CPU with Flash on a monolithic chip, the Atmel
AT89C52 is a powerful microcomputer which provides a highly-flexible and cost-effective
solution to many embedded control applications.
The AT89C52 provides the following standard features: 8K bytes of Flash,256 bytes of RAM, 32
I/O lines, two 16-bit timer/counters, five vector two-level interrupt architecture, a full duplex
serial port, and on-chip oscillator and clock circuitry. In addition, the AT89C52 is designed with
static logic for operation down to zero frequency and supports two software selectable power
saving modes. The Idle Mode stops the CPU while allowing the RAM, timer/counters, serial
portand interrupt system to continue functioning. The Power-down Mode saves the RAM
contents but freezes the oscillator disabling all other chip functions until the next hardware reset
Port 2 pins that are externally being pulled low will source current (IIL)because of the internal
pull-ups. Port 2 emits the high-order address byte during fetches from external program memory
and during accesses to external data memory that uses 16-bit addresses (MOVX @ DPTR). In
this application, it uses strong internal pull-ups when emitting 1s. During accesses to external
data memory that uses 8-bit addresses (MOVX @ RI), Port 2 emits the contents of theP2 Special
Function Register. Port 2 also receives the high-order address bits and some control signals
during Flash programming and verification.

Cost effective
Low Power
Highly flexible
High performance


FEATURES of 89C52 Microcontroller:-

1.Compatible with MCS-51 Products

2.8K Bytes of In-System Reprogrammable Flash Memory
3.Fully Static Operation: 0 Hz to 33 MHz
4.Three-level Program Memory Lock
5.256 x 8-bit Internal RAM
6.32 Programmable I/O Lines
7.Three 16-bit Timer/Counters
8.Eight Interrupt Sources
9.Programmable Serial Channel
10.Low-power Idle and Power-down Modes
11.4.0V to 5.5V Operating Range
12.Full Duplex UART Serial Channel
13.Interrupt Recovery from Power-down Mode
14.Watchdog Timer
15.Dual Data Pointer
16.Power-off Flag
17.Fast Programming Time
18.Flexible ISP Programming (Byte and Page Mode).


PIN CONFIGURATION of 89S52 Microcontroller:-

The diagram of 89s52 is shown below. It has 40 pins and 20 pins on either side of it.

Figure 3.1


Pin Numbers & Their Description:

The table shown below shows the explanation of every Pin used in Microcontroller.

Pin Number



P1.0 - P1.7 - Port 1

RST - Reset

10 17

P3.0 - P3.7 - Port 3


XTAL2 - Crystal


XTAL1 - Crystal


GND - Ground

21 28

P2.0 - P2.7 - Port 2


PSEN - Program Store Enable


ALE - Address Latch Enable


EA - External Access Enable

32 - 39

P0.7 - P0.1 - Port 0


Vcc - Positive Power Supply



Port 0 has 8 pins and it starts from pins 32-39 or 40 pin microcontrollers. It can be utilized
as input and output purposes. Each pin of Port 0 is connected with 10 K ohm pull up resistors to
work with externally.
Port 1 of 89S52 microcontroller has total of 8 pins starts pins 1 through 8. This Port 1 of
89S52 can also be used for input and output purposes like other Ports of 89S52. It doesnt need
any pull up resistor it has already inbuilt resistors internally. While working with Port 1 we don't
need any pull up resistors, because these are inbuilt and starts working when we switch on the
Port 2 also has 8 pins and starts count from pins 21- 28 on 40 pin microcontrollers and can
be used as input and output. It doesnt require any pull up resistors. Port 2 can also be used to
connect all types of external devices like sensors, LCDs, boards, led etc. This is a bidirectional
port and it can get and send data over 8 pins like other Port of 89S52 Microcontrollers.

Port 3 of 8 bit microcontroller works with 8 pins like other ports of 89C52 Microcontroller
and other family members. From pins 10 through 17 on microcontrollers. Port 3 contains some
special functions like interrupts and counters. Port 3 can be used a dual role in a 89s52
microcontroller to interfacing the external world and eeprom or any external memory devices
like other ports of 89S52 Microcontroller and its variant family members.



A high on this pin for two machine cycles while the oscillator is running resets

the device. This pin drives high for 98 oscillator periods after the Watchdog times out.
The DISRTO bit in SFR AUXR (address 8EH) can be used to disable this feature. In the default
state of bit DISRTO, the RESET HIGH out feature is enabled.

Port Pin Alternate Functions : P3.0 RXD (serial input port) P3.1 TXD (serial
output port) P3.2 INT0 (external interrupt 0) P3.3 INT1 (external interrupt 1) P3.4 T0 (timer 0
external input) P3.5 T1 (timer 1 external input) P3.6 WR (external data memory write strobe) P3.7
RD (external data memory read strobe)6 1919D-MICRO-6/08 AT89S52.

PSEN (Program Store Enable): is the read strobe to external program memory. When the
AT89S52 is executing code from external program memory, PSEN is activated twice each
machine cycle, except that two PSEN activations are skipped during each access to external data
memory. EA/VPP (External Access Enable). EA must be strapped to GND in order to enable
the device to fetch code from external program memory locations starting at 0000H up to
FFFFH. Note, however, that if lock bit 1 is programmed, EA will be internally latched on
reset. EA should be strapped to V CC for internal program executions. This pin also receives
the 12-volt programming enable voltage (VPP) during Flash programming.
XTAL1: Input to the inverting oscillator amplifier and input to the internal clock
operating circuit.
XTAL2: Output from the inverting oscillator amplifier.






A GSM modem is a wireless modem that works with a GSM wireless network. A wireless
modem behaves like a dial-up modem. The main difference between them is that a dial-up
modem sends and receives data through a fixed telephone line while a wireless modem sends and
receives data through radio waves. A GSM modem can be an external device or a PC Card /
PCMCIA Card. Typically, an external GSM modem is connected to a computer through a serial
cable or a USB cable. A GSM modem in the form of a PC Card / PCMCIA Card is designed for
use with a laptop computer. It should be inserted into one of the PC Card / PCMCIA Card slots
of a laptop computer. Like a GSM mobile phone, a GSM modem requires a SIM card from a
wireless carrier in order to operate. As mentioned in earlier sections of this SMS tutorial,
computers use AT commands to control modems. Both GSM modems and dial-up modems
support a common set of standard AT commands. You can use a GSM modem just like a dial-up
modem. In addition to the standard AT commands, GSM modems support an extended set of AT
commands. These extended AT commands are defined in the GSM standards. With the extended
AT commands, you can do things like:
Reading, writing and deleting SMS messages.
Sending SMS messages.
Monitoring the signal strength.
Monitoring the charging status and charge level of the battery.
Reading, writing and searching phone book entries.
The Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) is the most popular standard for
mobile phones in the world. It is the European standard for digital cellular service that includes
enhanced features. It is based on TDMA technology and is used on 850/1900 MHz.
We are using the GSM modem. This is a powerful GSM/GPRS Terminal with compact and selfcontained unit. This has standard connector interfaces and has an integral SIM card reader. The
modem has a RJ9 connector through which a speaker and microphone can be connected allowing
audio calls being established, but this feature is not utilized in this project as only data transfer is
needed. Following are few technical details of the modem.


Figure: 4.1



ME + SIM phone book management read/write/find, call screening, groups

SIM Application Toolkit Class 2
Real Time Clock
Software upgradeable
Fixed dialing number
UCS2 16 bit data supported.
SMS features

Supports both Text and PDU modes

Cell Broadcast
Concatenation up to 6 SMS
The GSM module uses the following industry standard connectors to interface with the external
application and the GSM network;
RJ11 (plug-in power supply connector).
Integral SIM card reader.

Power Connections
All electrical connections are designed to meet the standard air (4 kV) and contact (8 kV) discharge ESD

Antenna Connections

The used antenna (Figure ) operates at 850/1900 MHz which is suitable for transmitting and
receiving of RF signals for the GSM modem used.
Some of the key features of this antenna are:
Bandwidth is 280 MHz
VSWR is <1.6
Gain 3.5 db
Antenna length is 120mm
Cable type RG174


Figure 4.2
The antenna connector allows transmission of radio frequency (RF) signals between the modem
and an external customer-supplied antenna. The modem is fitted with a 50db FME male coaxial
SIM card Reader:
The GSM Module is fitted with a SIM card reader designed for 3 V and 5 V SIM cards. It is the
flip-up type, which is lockable in the horizontal position and is accessed through a removable
panel. The SIM card reader includes a SIM presence switch. This ensures that when a SIM card
is inserted or removed while the TT4030 (SE-GM28) is turned ON, it will reset.

Figure 4.3


A GPRS modem is a GSM modem that additionally supports the GPRS technology for data
transmission. GPRS stands for General Packet Radio Service. It is a packet-switched technology
that is an extension of GSM. (GSM is a circuit-switched technology.) A key advantage of GPRS
over GSM is that GPRS has a higher data transmission speed.
GPRS can be used as the bearer of SMS. If SMS over GPRS is used, an SMS transmission speed
of about 30 SMS messages per minute may be achieved. This is much faster than using the
ordinary SMS over GSM, whose SMS transmission speed is about 6 to 10 SMS messages per
minute. A GPRS modem is needed to send and receive SMS over GPRS. Note that some
wireless carriers do not support the sending and receiving of SMS over GPRs If you need to send
or receive MMS messages, a GPRS modem is typically needed.
Which one is better: Mobile Phone or GSM / GPRS Modem?

In general, a GSM/GPRS modem is recommended for use with a computer to send and receive
messages. This is because some mobile phones have certain limitations comparing to
GSM/GPRS modems. Some of the limitations are described below:
Some mobile phone models (example: Ericsson R380) cannot be used with a computer to receive
concatenated SMS messages.
What is a concatenated SMS message?

A concatenated SMS message is a message that contains more than 140 bytes. (A normal SMS
message can only contain at most 140 bytes.) Concatenated SMS works like this: the sender's
mobile device breaks a message longer than 140 bytes into smaller parts. Each of these parts are
then fitted in a single SMS message and sent to the recipient. When these SMS messages reach
the destination, the recipient's mobile device will combine them back to one message.
What is the cause of the problem?

When the mobile phone receives the SMS messages that are parts of a concatenated SMS
message, it combines them to one message automatically. The correct behavior should be: when


the mobile phone receives the SMS messages that are parts of a concatenated SMS message, it
forwards them to the computer without combining them.
Many mobile phone models cannot be used with a computer to receive MMS messages. Because
when they receive a MMS notification, they handle it automatically instead of forwarding it to
the computer.
A mobile phone may not support some AT commands, command parameters and parameter
values. For example, some mobile phones do not support the sending and receiving of SMS
messages in text mode. So, the AT command "AT+CMGF=1" (it instructs the mobile phone to
use text mode) will cause an error message to be returned. Usually GSM/GPRS modems support
a more complete set of AT commands than mobile phones.
Most SMS messaging applications have to be available 24 hours a day. (For example, an SMS
messaging application that provides ringtone downloading service should be running all the time
so that a user can download ringtones any time he/she wants.) If such SMS messaging
applications use mobile phones to send and receive SMS messages, the mobile phones have to be
switched on all the time. However, some mobile phone models cannot operate with the battery
removed even when an AC adaptor is connected, which means the battery will be charged 24
hours a day. Besides the above issues, mobile phones and GSM/GPRS modems are more or less
the same for sending and receiving SMS messages from a computer. Actually, you can consider
an AT-command-enabled mobile phone as "GSM/GPRS modem + keypad + display + ...".
There is not much difference between mobile phones and GSM/GPRS modems in terms of SMS
transmission rate, since the determining factor for the SMS transmission rate is the wireless
. Every GSM Modem with AT command set should work if it is GSM07.05 compatible but I
tested only Falcom and Siemens. The Siemens modems hang often while the Falcom modems
run very stable. Notice that some GSM modems work only with 9600bps and some work only
with 19200bps.


AT-Command set:

The following section describes the AT-Command set. The commands can be tried out by
connecting a GSM modem to one of the PCs COM ports. Type in the test-command, adding CR
+ LF (Carriage return + Line feed = \r\n) before executing. Table gives an overview of the
implemented AT-Commands in this application. The use of the commands is described in the
later sections.
AT command used for Check if serial interface and GSM modem is working.
AT+CMGF command used for SMS string format, how they are compressed.
AT+CMGR command used for Read new message from a given memory location.
AT+CMGD command used for delect message.

Status (AT):
The AT commands is a status request used for testing if a compatible modem is connected and
that the serial interface is working properly.
AT command and possible responses





Connected and working


Serial line OK, modem error

Message format (AT+CMGF):

The AT+CMGF command is used to set input and output format of SMS messages. Two
modes are available:
PDU mode: reading and sending SMS is done in a special encoded format.
Text mode: reading and sending SMS is done in plain text.


PDU mode this compressed format saves message payload and is default on most modems. PDU
mode is implemented in the source code for this application note, it is possible to use text mode
to reduce code footprint if the connected modem supports this.
In text mode header fields as sender address, message length, validation period etc. can be read
out in plain text together with the sent message. Please consult GSM
PDU format explained:

There are two ways of sending and receiving SMS messages: by

text mode and by PDU (Protocol Description Unit) mode. By default most phones and modems
are setup to send SMS messages using a special compression format (PDU-mode).
Some modems supports text-mode, in which any information and the message itself can be read
as plain text. Note however that not all phones and modems support text-mode.





Mode selected



[mode] integer type: 0 is PDU mode, 1 is text mode.

Read Message (AT+CMGR):

The AT+CMGR command is used to read a message from a given memory location.
Execution of AT+CMGR returns a message at [index] from selected memory [M1] . The status
of the message and the entire compressed message (PDU) is returned. To get any useful
information out of the compressed message it should be decompressed.




+CMGR:[stat] ,[alpha] , [length] \r\n pdu]


Message read OK
Error, No such index

1. [index] integer type: Read message from location [index].

2. [stat]: integer type: Status of message in memory: READ, UNREAD, SENT and UNSENT.
3. [alpha] integer type: Manufacturer specific field. Not used.
4. [length] integer type: Length of compressed message.
5. [pdu] string type: Compressed message.

Delete Message (AT+CMGD):

This command is used to delete a received stored message.





Message deleted


Command error

[index] integer type: Index of message to delete.


(8ch Darlington Arrays)

This ULN2803 is high voltage, high current Darlington drivers comprised of 8-NPN Darlington
pairs. The function is to interface the microcontroller with relay because microcontroller cannot
be directly connected to relay. The pins description of ULN2803 shown in figure. It has total 18
pin 9 on each side. It is seem like a small Microcontroller but it is not programmable because it is
only input and output device.

Pin Configurations:

Figure 4.4


The figure shown pin diagram of ULN2803APG 8 Darlington Arrays. It has total 18 Pins from 1
to 9 on left side and from 10 to 18 on right side of IC as shown in figure. The 10 Pin of IC is
Common and 9 Pin is ground.1 to 8 Pin is Input Pin and from 11 to 18 is output Pins.

Output current (single output) 500mA MAX.
High sustaining voltage output 50V MIN.
Output clamp diodes.
Inputs compatible with various types of logic.


(8-Bit Parallel-Out Serial In Shift Registers)

These 8-bit shift registers feature AND-gated serial inputs and an asynchronous clear (CLR)
input. The gated serial (A and B) inputs permit complete control over incoming data; a low at
either input inhibits entry of the new data and resets the first flip-flop to the low level at the next
clock (CLK) pulse. A high-level input enables the other input, which then determines the state of
the first flip-flop. Data at the serial inputs can be changed while CLK is high or low, provided
the minimum setup time requirements are met. Clocking occurs on the low-to-high-level
transition of CLK.

Wide Operating Voltage Range of 2 V to 6 V
Outputs Can Drive Up To 10 LSTTL Loads
Low Power Consumption, 80-A Max ICC
Typical tpd = 20 ns
4-mA Output Drive at 5 V
Low Input Current of 1 A Max
AND-Gated (Enable/Disable) Serial Inputs Fully Buffered Clock and Serial Inputs
Direct Clear.


Figure: 4.5

The figure shown pin diagram of SN74HC164N 8-Bit Parallel-Out Serial Shift Registers. It has
total 14 Pins from 1 to 7 on left side and from 8 to 14 on right side of IC as shown in figure. The
14 Pin of IC is VCC and 7 Pin is ground.


ATMEL 24c08A
2-Wire Serial EEPROM

The S-24C08A/16A is a series of 2-wired, low power 8K/16K-bit EEPROMs with a wide
operating range. They are organized as 1K-word 8-bit, 2K-word 8-bit respectively. Each is
capable of page write, and sequential read. The time for byte write and page write is the same, i.
e., 1 msec. (max.) during operation at 5 V 10%

Low power consumption
Standby: 1.0 A Max. (VCC=5.5 V)
Operating: 0.8 mA Max. (VCC=5.5 V f=400 kHz)
0.4 mA Max. (VCC=4.5 V f=100 kHz)
Wide operating voltage range
Write: 2.5 to 5.5 V
Read: 1.8 to 5.5 V
Page write
16 bytes (S-24C08A, S-24C16A)


Pin Configuration:

Figure: 4.6

Pin Name


A0 to A2

Address Inputs
Serial Data
Serial Clock Input
Write Protect
No Connect


NEC 772 Transistors

These transistors are used as a switch in cutoff mode if it s base is low emitt er to

junct ion

fro m co lle ct o r and

emit t er


g ive

co llect or




p o s it iv e


ju nct io n

shift ed





junction become open and



e m it t e r .




it s


We take output


positive volts does not




lo w

posit ive

volt s






as like open switch.

Figure 4.7



As it name indicates that there are two words first one is Display and second one is Board.
Display mechanism situate on Board. Which help and perform display function? In display panel
we discuss the output stage, in pervious processes that give us ready data which we want to
display, microcontroller gives us three types of data first for clock, second for Rows selection,
and third for shift registers which is more important and in main concern.


The idea is to let a text scroll over the LED dot-matrix
displays. A dot-matrix display is a display which contains 5x7 dots (LEDs) in one case; the
LEDs are connected like a matrix.
If you put 1.8 Volt e.g. at the lines 4 and 10, that LED (dot) will lit, the trick of multiplexing is to
scan the columns (5) and set the data on the rows (7) (or visa-versa), the multiplex-frequency
must be greater than approx. 40Hz else you will see the flickering of the LEDs to much (take
about 5 msec per column, thats about 25 msec for one frame)
The scanning goes as follows, first set the rows data on the 7 rows e.g. 1010010, then activate (0
or 1 -> depends on which type CA = common cathode, or CC = common anode) the first
column, now these LEDs (dots) will lit, wait 5 msec, then switch the column off, now load the
next rows data, and set the second column on, wait 5 msec again, and switch it off again, if you
repeat this sequence very fast, you will see the data (character data) appear on the display
(refresh frequency 40 - 70Hz is ok, don't take twice or half the artificial light-frequency of 50/60

These devices on board except display module act like driver for it. All the data output from
microcontroller will helpful. There are three different outputs from microcontroller i-e used for
clock pulse, encoded data for rows decoder, and most important one is the data for shift register.
All the output data will be in serially flow format, because we obtain it from single pin. All of
them having its own important if one of them not present system not works. Like data clock
pulse is act like heart beat for system if heart beat stop`s human system not works, if clock pulse
stop, system stop its working. We have choice to use clock pulse serially/parallel provide for all
the devices. If somewhere, when nee complement we use NOT gate because it is real time
modeling because if we provide clock pulse when this pulse will at on state it switch on the
device. When that clock pulse is at zero state.

Here we provide clock pulse to all the devices at a time. Devices perform their own function,
device for decoding we use 74LC154. It decode it into hex format but the output from this
decoder act as signal for led DOTMATRIX module but the amount of current is so small which
not blow these LED we use current amplifier for this purpose. We use transistor amplification.
The signal voltage provide from transistor for best resolution and brightness we use sufficient
brightness because there are 19 modules at Board. Double transistor act as Darlington Pair,
instead of this double transistors pair IC advantage of this IC is provide same and better result
and available at low price, and occupy less space on PCB/VEROBOARD fabrication. Signal
provide from anode, this signal will absorb at cathode but there is no cathode we use sink for that
which absorb that signal with the help of ULN2803 A which act as hex inverter and hex pattern
generate from process of microcontroller and comes in shift that data according to the pattern
and data shift when clock pulse provide. And shift the data to next shift register and new data
temporary store in initial shift register there are 19 modules having 5 columns each. And there
are 95 (19*5) and 12 shift registers.

Figure: 4.8


Soldering is the process of a making a sound electrical and mechanical joint between certain
metals by joining them with a Soft solder.
This is a low temperature melting point alloy of lead and tin. The joint is heated to the correct
temperature by soldering iron. For most electronic work miniature mains powered soldering
irons are used. These consist of a handle on to which is mounted the heating element. On the end
of the heating element is what is know as the bit, so Called because it is the bit that heats the
joint up. Solder melts at around 190degrees centigrade, and the bit reaches a temperature of over
250 degrees centigrade. This temperature is plenty hot enough to inflict a nasty bourn,
consequently care be taken.

After cleaning the area with steel wool or fine abrasive put on a dab of flux and a
flattened piece of solder(just squish off a piece with your pliers) sandwiched between the
bezel and the tab.
Putting heat to it with a soldering gun, you will feel the solder melt and the tab attach to
the bezel. Heat for a few seconds more and then carefully remove the gun. Some times
letting the gun cool for a short time will aid in removal without disturbing the solder
Clean any trances of extra flux thoroughly, so that it does not corrode the bezel later.
1. Soft soldering
2. Hard soldering (brazing)
SOFT SOLDERING: Soft soldering is used for fixing electronic components over PCBs the
classified by its composition.
A small amount of flux is used while soldering it does the following operation.
Flux removes the dirt present in the leads of the soldering.
Flux reduces the surface tension of the molten solder and does a bead shape soldering it
Further it reduced the oxidation of molten solder and with atmosphere oxygen and does
prevent dry soldering.


The surface of the copper must be absolutely clean and completely free of oils, oxides, stains and
finger salts. This is achieved by gently rubbing the surface of the copper using a small amount of
detergent and 600 grit wet and dry paper with a circular scrubbing motion. This will actually
remove a very slight amount of copper, but don't worry because this is exactly the process the
professionals use in commercial photo processing. The appearance of the copper surface when
this process is finished will be uniformly dull all over, with tens of thousands of fine circular
scratches which form a 'key' on the copper surface to which the toner can bond. When this
surface appearance has been achieved, the board surface is carefully rinsed off and then dried
using a freshly laundered (no oils!) lint free (old!) cotton tea towel. Do not touch the board
surface after it has been dried. If you do finger oils will destroy toner adhesion.
Transferring the Image:
To transfer the image, fold the paper around the PCB material so that
no relative movement between the two is possible. The back of the paper is then ironed on a hard
flat surface (an ironing board will not do as it is too soft - a flat kitchen chopping board is ideal).
The iron temperature is adjusted so that after about 20 seconds of ironing the back surface of the
clay paper has been uniformly discolored to a light yellow. Typically the iron temperature setting
used will be towards the upper end of scale (cotton or linen) and the iron is of course used DRY.
The clay paper surface should remain flat during ironing and particular attention should be paid
to the corners of the PCB pattern with the iron tip. The paper/PCB assembly is then allowed to
cool for about 5 minutes until it is near room temperature. (Do not throw the PCB/paper
assembly into water while it is hot as this will destroy the toner/copper adhesion.) When the
assembly has cooled, soak it in water for 5 minutes.
Removing the Paper, Etching, and Cleanup:
Take a very soft nail brush, coat its surface with Velvet soap, and
gently scrub the rear of the paper, keeping everything wet. The objective here is to reduce about
70% of the paper thickness to pulp but not to break through to the copper surface. The Velvet
soap assists in wetting the junction between the clay backing and the toner and assuring its
damage-free release. The last part of the backing is removed using the finger tips only with a
gentle circular rubbing motion. Be patient and use only light pressure. If you have done
everything correctly the undamaged toner track pattern should now appear on the surface of the
copper. If there are minor defects, repair them with a DALO pen or similar. The PCB is then
etched in one of the standard etching solutions such as 43% ferric chloride. This allows the
chemical products of etching to fall away from the copper surface, exposing fresh copper and
minimizing etch times. Damage to the toner resist can be prevented by drilling 3 or 4 holes in the
waste areas of the PCB and fitting plastic stand-offs. It will be found that toner is an
extraordinarily good resist and that it will tolerate brutal over etching. When etching is finished,
the toner is removed with lacquer thinners or a hydrocarbon such as petrol.


Here we gives you the whole summary of our display panel we discuss the system in parts and
their own description but here only we describe functions. Every system need power supply for
system running. The method for selecting power we overview the whole system and decide the
maximum power which require by system and that power can divide by using regulating IC like
LM78xx. Here xx represents how much power you need for specific device it gives dc output
and we also need dc if +12v, for 12 volt dc first we were use computer power supply which gives
use accurate dc after that we decide to design power supply we use transformer (step down)
which step down the high voltage of 220v to 15v but, that give us ac not dc, for dc we use
rectifier which convert that 15v ac in 15v dc and we use LM7812. This gives us 12c dc, but the
cost of these components of power supply equal to the cost of readymade adapter. Which is best
power source and this 12v divide the 5v dc through LM7805, 5 volt is require for microcontroller
shift register ULN 2803A and decoding device 74hc154. And produce 12v to Darlington pair
power provide to all devices which activate them.
Microcontroller is controlling device which send request to mobile phone that if there is any
message in mobile please transfer, in response of this mobile transfer data and the data is transfer
through data cable which is serial one. Received data can transfer serially at output pin through
single pin and microcontroller also gives two other types of data which is clock pulse &
transmits data which use for decoding of rows which mean that there are three types of output
data from microcontroller.
Output from microcontroller provide to all the devices but clock pulse provide at same time to all
the devices which having concern with display because synchronization need between all the
devices operation.
The number from 0-255 provided to 74LS154 which is decoder convert serial data into parallel
which provide logic to Darlington pair TTL which on the rows. At same time data transfer to
74hc164 to shift register which temporary storing bitwise data. According to the table it gives
output. Led has two terminals one is anode and other one is cathode, signal apply through anode
and absorb through cathode but cathode is attach with shift register therefore we need inverse for
this which act as sink for that we use ULN2803A which act as sink which attach to column.
When it matches to table of ASCII it display the character. We use 19 module having 5 column
and 7 rows and one character display on eight column.





Microsoft office
Software use for different function first we want to make hardware for our system for hardware
first we make plan for that how to build it for this we distribute task among us and start search
using different sources like internet, hardware books, different forum of display and internet
communities. Actually we want to make hardware which will suitable according to our
requirement our plan was how this can be possible for that we start search to achieve our goal,
for achieving goal we take help of many peoples and also use of internet for this and we register
our self in forum. When we design block diagram. We start making of our circuit but this
circuit can`t be made physically because, if it having some errors we will debug and if it will not
correct our device can be lost. We start our circuit design in proteus software for Electrical
Engineer which is best one we first learn it and then work on it after a long time struggle we
design a circuit initially we thought that if we show our circuit to our teacher those are expert in
that field he tell us either it is correct or not with the help of our supervisor and other university
friends. We debug its fault and we sure our hardware is correct. All that can be make possible
with the help of PROTEUS. In which we use devices one by one and check it either its work or
not. When we complete our hardware in proteus. We decide to make program according to
hardware for that we done activity which a best programmer do we make a flow diagram and
syntax which help us during programming. We start working on MIDE51 software. When our
program complete after debugging we check it on proteus because only proteus has compatibility
to check program after burn into controller when we check it was clear and ok. We decide to
start to start manufacturing for first time fabrication we select VEROBOARD experiment
because all the component in proteus are not like real one e.g. microcontroller has 40 pin in
realistic but in proteus there are only 38 pins. We start fabrication initially we have many
problem and we trouble shoot them. And then we got succeed but on veroboard we test only one
module when we got success it was in working condition we want to transfer it on PCB.







Future Enhancement

1. Indication of initialization and new message.

2. Storage of Message Templates.
3. Multiple style of font.
4. Security Enhancement.
5. Timed Displayed of message.
6. Remotely control of display.
7. Animation/Image display.
8. Multi-directional movement.
9. Multi-linguistic text.
10. Display of Error Messages.



1. Muhammad Ali Mazidi, The 8051 Microcontroller and Embedded
systems, 2nd Edition.
2. Scott Machenzie, The 8051 Microcontroller.
3. B L Theraja, Electrical Technology.
4. K. Y. Tang, Alternating Current Circuits.
5. Golding and Widdis, Electrical measurements and measuring instruments.
6. Admiralty, Examples in Electrical Calculations.
7. B. W. Williams, Power Electronics.
Books from Reference Library.
Websites: 0804/Analog-to-digita.htm