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Design Example - Lipped Channel Column

Design Examples: Concentrically Loaded Lipped Channel Column


The following 11 examples include the methodology for all methods considered in the report:
Distortional Buckling of Columns. In brief, the 11 methods include:
A. AISI (1996) Methods and Simple Modifications
A1. Current AISI (1996) Method
A2. AISI (1996) with a Distortional Check
B. New Methods which include only Local+Euler Check and Distortional Check
B1. Effective width "element" based method
B2. Hand Implementation of Direct Strength "member" based method
B3. Numerical Implementation of Direct Strength "member" based method
C. New methods which include Local+Euler Check and Dist+Euler Check
C1 - C3 same as B methods with interactions listed above
D. New methods which include Local+Euler, Dist+Euler, and Local+Dist Check
D1 - D3 same as B and C methods with interactions listed above

Specimen Dimensions and Properties:


h

5.034 .in

Kx

1.992 .in

Ky

0.735 .in

0.031 .in

29500 .ksi

0.3

fy

35.1 .ksi

b
y

Kt

0.5

Lx

75 .in

Ly

75 .in

Lt

75 .in

h
x

Dimensions of the above example are based on Loughlan (1979) specimen #L6

Glossary of Variables:
h = web height
Kx = x-axis effective length
b = flange width
Ky = y axis effective length
d = lip length
Kt = torsion effective length
= lip angle (radians)
Lx = x-axis unbraced length
t = thickness
E = Young's modulus Ly = y-axis unbraced length
Lt = torsion unbraced length
= Poisson's ratio
fy = yield stress

90 .

180

The following solution only applies for = 90, due to explicit


formulas used in the calculation of Cw for overall (Euler) buckling.
Those formulas only apply to lipped C's.

Appendix D - 1

Design Example - Lipped Channel Column

Whole Section Material and Gross Properties Required for


Overall Buckling Analysis of Lipped Channel
Material Property:

2 .( 1

4
G = 1.135 10

ksi

Gross Section Properties:


This is a series of "canned" formulas for gross property calculations of a lipped channel.
They do not apply to other cross-section geometry. The Cw formula is from Yu,
Cold-Formed Steel Design.
A

t .( h

1. . 3
ht
3

y cg
Ix
x cg
Iy
xo
m

1.

2 .b

2 .d )

1
3
2 . .b . t
3

A = 0.325 in
1
3
2 . .d .t
3

J = 1.041 10

1 . 3.
h t
12

1. . . 2
bth
2

2.

1. . . 2
dth
2

3
d .t

1. . 3
bt
6

2
d .t .h

2 .d )
2 .b 2 .d

1 . .3
ht
12

x cg = 0.658 in

2. . 3
tb
3

b .t .( b

2 .d )

1. . 3
dt
6

2 .d .t .b

( h .t

2 .b .t

C wterm2

(h

b .t . . . 2
6dh
12 .I x

3 .b .h

8 .d

C wterm4

2 .d )

2 .b

2 .d )

I y = 0.204 in

x o = 1.668 in
m = 1.01 in

2
x cg .A .h b 2
.
t
3

A . 2. 3
m h
3 .t

2. 2.

m .b

b d ( 2 .d

C wterm1 = 57.823 in
3 .h )

2
I x .m

.( 2 . h

4 .d )

m .d . . 2 .
8 b d 2 . m . ( 2 .d . ( d h ) b .( 2 . d 3 . h ) )
3
2 2
2 4
b .h .
m .h
2
( 3 . d b ) . ( 4 .d h ) 6 . d
6
4
2

C wterm3

(b

2
2 .d .t ) .b .

x cg

C wterm1

Cw

I x = 1.325 in

b .( b

xo

in

y cg = 2.517 in

t .
C wterm1
A

C wterm2

C wterm3

C wterm4

Appendix D - 2

C wterm2 = 12.11 in

C wterm3 = 8.058 in

C wterm4 = 342.735 in
6

C w = 1.196 in

Design Example - Lipped Channel Column

Flange Only Properties Required for Distortional Buckling Calculation


Hand methods for distortional buckling prediction require that section properties of the
isolated flange be calculated. The expressions here are only applicable for simple lips.
More complicated flanges would follow the same procedures, but new expressions would
be required.

xof

hxf
W/F

Material Properties:

S
hyf

yof
x

E
.
2 (1 )

y
Properties of the Flange Only:
d ) .t

Af

(b

Jf

1. . 3
bt
3

I xf
I yf
I xyf
I of
x of
y of
h xf
h yf
C wf

A f = 0.085 in

1. . 3
dt
3

2 2
t . t .b

t. b

4 .b .d

4 . d .b

2
3
2
4 .b .d .cos( )
t .b .d
12 .( b d )

2
2 2
3
6 .d .b .cos( ) 4 .d .b .cos( )
12 .( b d )

2
4
d .cos( )

2
4
d .cos( )

2
t .b .d .sin( ) .( b d .cos( ) )
4 .( b d )

t .b

b .t

3
b

12

t .d

2 .( b

d)

2 .d .b

2 (b
2
d .sin( )
2 .( b d )

y distance from the centroid to


the shear center.
2
d .cos( )

d)

x distance from the centroid


to the web/flange juncture.

y distance from the centroid


to the web/flange juncture.

0 .in

x of = 0.728 in

y of = 0.099 in
h xf = 1.264 in
h yf = 0.099 in
6

C wf = 0 in

All flange properties are given the subscript 'f' to distinguish them from the
overall properties of the column

Appendix D - 3

in

I yf = 0.037 in

I of = 0.086 in
x distance from the centroid to
the shear center.

in

I xyf = 6.092 10

2
d .sin( )
2 .( b d )

I xf = 3.279 10

2
d .cos( )

J f = 2.708 10

in

Design Example - Lipped Channel Column

Overall (Global, Long-wavelength) Buckling Modes as per AISI (1996)


Elastic Flexural Buckling about the x-axis:

rx
F ex

Ix

Slenderness is:

r x = 2.018 in

A
2.

E
K x .L x

K x .L x
rx

F ex = 210.876 ksi

= 37.158

rx
Elastic Flexural Buckling about the y-axis:

ry
F ey

Iy

Slenderness is:

r y = 0.791 in

A
2.

E
K y .L y

K y .L y
ry

F ey = 32.417 ksi

= 94.77

ry
Elastic Flexural-torsional buckling
ex

F et

ro

F ex
1
A .r o

. G .J

1 .
ex
2 .

2
.E .C w

K t .L t
t

ex

rx

ry

xo
xo

ro
2

r o = 2.735 in

4 . . ex . t

t = 102.279 ksi
= 0.628
F et = 82.543 ksi

The controlling long-wavelength buckling load is the minimum:


Fe

min F ex F ey F et

mode_is

"x-axis flexure" if F e F ex

F e = 32.417 ksi
mode_is = "y axis flexure"

"y-axis flexure" if F e F ey
"flexural-torsional" if F e F et
Note, columns with different effective lengths (K) or braced lengths (Lx, Ly, Lt) are treated in the usual
fashion regardless of the design method considered.

Appendix D - 4

Design Example - Lipped Channel Column

A1. Ultimate Strength per Current AISI (1996) Procedure


Determine the long column nominal buckling stress Fn (per AISI section C4):
fy

c = 1.041

Fe
2
c
.

Fn

0.658

0.877 .
c

if c 1.5

fy

fy

F n = 22.31 ksi

if c > 1.5

Determine the effective area (calculated at the nominal buckling stress, Fn):
Determine the effective width of the web:
The buckling coefficient and stress are:
k web

f cr_web

k web .

2
.E

12 . 1

. t
h

f cr_web = 4.044 ksi

The slenderness is:

1.052 . h . F n
E
t
k web

= 2.349

or

Fn
f cr_web

= 2.349

the two expressions for are equivalent.

The reduction factor is:

1 if 0.673
1

= 0.386

0.22

if > 0.673

The effective width of the web:


h eff

.h

h eff = 1.943 in

Appendix D - 5

Design Example - Lipped Channel Column

A1. Ultimate Strength per Current AISI (1996) Procedure (continued)


Determine the effective width of the flange:
Preliminaries:

1.28 .

Is

Fn
k aisi

4 if

12

b S
t

Once kaisi is determined from the equations


on the left, the effective width of the flange
is readily calculated:

S b
if <
S
3 t
ku

0.43

The buckling coefficient and stress are:


b
ku

t
4
t .399 .
S

Ia

1 3
2

f cr_aisi

2
C2

Is

k aisi .

min

C1

ka

min 5.25

C2

5.

ku

ku

Fn

f cr_aisi

t
0.43

Ia
n

t
115 .
S

1 if 0.673

5
1

min

Is

C1

ka

min 5.25

b eff

.b

C2
5.

b
ku

= 0.776

if > 0.673

The effective width of the flange:

Ia

n
C2 . k a

= 1.007

0.22

3
C2

= 1.007

The reduction factor is:


b

4.

1.052 . b . F n
E
t
k aisi

or

ku

The slenderness is:

C2

ka

12 . 1

. t
b

b
n.

2
.E

f cr_aisi = 21.988 ksi

Ia

k aisi = 3.405

if

2
3
t .d .sin( )

ku

Appendix D - 6

b eff = 1.546 in

Design Example - Lipped Channel Column

A1. Ultimate Strength per Current AISI (1996) Procedure (continued)


Determine the effective width of the lip
The effective width of the lip is first determined as an unstiffened element in pure compression,
labeled as ds_p. Then a second reduction using the C2 term from the flange expressions must
also be applied.
First reduction:
k lip

Second reduction

0.43
k lip .

f cr_lip

C2

2
.E

12 . 1

. t
d

1 if

b S
t

if

S b
S
<
3 t

f cr_lip = 20.395 ksi


1.052 . d .
t
k lip

Fn

or

t
4
t .399 .
S

Ia

Fn
f cr_lip

min

if

1 if 0.673

0.22

if > 0.673

Ia

= 0.755
d s_p

Ia

= 1.046

Is

0.43

1
2

min

.d

t
4
t . 115 .
S
Is

Ia

d s_p = 0.555 in

C2 =1
d eff

C 2 .d s_p

d eff = 0.555 in
Determine the effective area and the Ultimate Strength:
The Effective area is:
Ae

t . h eff

2 .b eff

2 .d eff

A e = 0.19 in

The ultimate strength is:


P n_A1

A e .F n

P n_A1 = 4.249 k

Appendix D - 7

vs.

A = 0.325 in

Design Example - Lipped Channel Column

A2. AISI (1996) with a Distortional Check


Step 1: Complete design method A1.
Step 2: Perform the Distortional Check
Calculate the distortional buckling stress, via hand method of Schafer (1997)
Determine the critical half-wavelength at which distortional buckling occurs:

L cr

4
6 . .h . 1

. I . x
xf of

h xf

C wf

I xyf

1
4

I yf

. x
of

h xf

L cr = 30.007 in

If bracing is provided that restricts the distortional mode at some length less than Lcr, then the shorter
bracing length should be used in place of Lcr in the following calculations.

Determine the elastic and "geometric" rotational spring stiffness of the flange:
k fe

L cr

. E .I . x
xf of

h xf

E .C wf

E.

I xyf

I yf

. x
of

h xf

.G .J

L cr

k fe = 0.035 k
k fg

L cr

. A . x
f
of

k fg = 2.092 10

h xf

2.

I xyf

I yf

2 .y of . x of

h xf .

I xyf
I yf

h xf

y of

I xf

I yf

in

Determine the elastic and "geometric" rotational spring stiffness from the web:
k we

E .t
6 .h . 1

k we = 0.032 k

k wg

Determine the distortional buckling stress:


f cr_dist

k fe

k we

k fg

k wg

f cr_dist = 23.921 ksi

Appendix D - 8

. 3
.t h
L cr
60

k wg = 7.224 10
kwg is modified
due to an error in
Schafer (1997)
analysis.

in

Design Example - Lipped Channel Column

A2. AISI (1996) with a Distortional Check (continued)


Calculate the strength reduction factor () for distortional buckling
Find the reduction factor for the distortional stress
fy

d = 1.211

f cr_dist

Rd

min 1

1.17
d

R d = 0.829

0.3
1

The increased slenderness is


fy

Winter's curve is used to find the strength


reduction factor; but the distortional stress
is reduced by Rd to account for lower
post-buckling capacity in the distortional
mode.

note that fy, not Fn is used in the strength provisions for


distortional buckling in method A2, this is because
distortional interaction with long column Euler buckling is
ignored in this method.

= 1.33

R d .f cr_dist

The reduction factor is:

1 if 0.673
1

0.22 .

R d .f cr_dist

R d .f cr_dist

fy

fy

= 0.627

if > 0.561

An alternative, but similar method to calculate the strength reduction factor ()


The alternative reduction factor is:
alt

1 if d 0.561
1

0.25 .

f cr_dist
fy

0.6

f cr_dist

0.6

fy

if > 0.561

alt = 0.637

The Effective area for distortional buckling is:


Ae

.A

A e = 0.204 in

The strength prediction for the distortional check is


P n_A2dist_check

A e .f y

P n_A2dist_check = 7.16 k

The ultimate strength is the minimum:


P n_A2

min P n_A1 P n_A2dist_check

ultimate_is

P n_A2 = 4.249 k

"local limited to Fn (L+E)" if P n_A2 P n_A1


"distortional" if P n_A2 P n_A2dist_check

ultimate_is = "local limited to Fn (L+E)"

Appendix D - 9

vs.

this method for


calculation of is
used in methods B2
and B3 and is
provided for
comparison only.
2

A = 0.325 in

Design Example - Lipped Channel Column

B1. Effective width "element" based method with L+E and D Checks
L=local buckling D=distortional buckling E=Euler (long wavelength) buckling a "+" indicates that
interaction in these modes is considered in the design method.
Determine the effective width of the flange web and lip considering L+E, thus all eff. width
calculations are limited to the long column nominal stress Fn
Effective Width of the Web
The plate buckling coefficient is
k web

OR

the web local buckling stress is

k web .

f cr_w

The slenderness is

1.052 . h . F n
E
t
k web

= 2.349

2
.E

12 . 1

Fn

. t
h

f cr_w = 4.044 ksi

= 2.349

f cr_w

The reduction factor is:

1 if 0.673
= 0.386

0.22

if > 0.673

The effective width of the web:


.h

h eff

h eff = 1.943 in

Effective Width of the Flange


The plate buckling coefficient is*
k flange

OR

the flange local buckling stress is

k flange .

f cr_f

The slenderness is

1.052 . b . F n
E
t
k flange

= 0.929

Fn
f cr_f

The reduction factor is:

1 if 0.673
1

= 0.821

0.22

if > 0.673

The effective width of the flange:


b eff

.b

b eff = 1.636 in

Appendix D - 10

2
.E

12 . 1

. t
b

f cr_f = 25.829 ksi

= 0.929

* note that a k of 4 is used for the flange


instead of the AISI rules from B4.2. This
implies that only local buckling is
considered in this calculation, and
distortional buckling will thus be checked
separately.

Design Example - Lipped Channel Column

B1. Effective width "element" based method with L+E and D Checks
(continued)
Effective Width of the Lip
The plate buckling coefficient is*
k lip

OR

the lip local buckling stress is

0.43
f cr_l

k lip .

The slenderness is

1.052 . d . F n
E
t
k lip

= 1.046

2
.E

12 . 1

Fn

. t
d

f cr_l = 20.395 ksi

= 1.046

f cr_l

The reduction factor is:

1 if 0.673
1

= 0.755

0.22

if > 0.673

The effective width of the lip:


d eff

.d

d eff = 0.555 in

The Effective area is:


Ae

t . h eff

2 .b eff

2 .d eff

A e = 0.196 in

A e_B1local

Ae

The strength prediction for local buckling (L) considering long column (E) interaction is
P n_B1local

A e .F n

P n_B1local = 4.374 k

Check distortional buckling (calculations are identical to distortional check in method A2)
The strength prediction for the distortional check from A2 is
P n_A2dist_check = 7.16 k
The ultimate strength is the minimum:
P n_B1

min P n_B1local P n_A2dist_check

ultimate_is

P n_B1 = 4.374 k

"local (k=4 sol'n) limited to Fn (L+E)" if P n_B1 P n_B1local


"distortional" if P n_B1 P n_A2dist_check

ultimate_is = "local (k=4 sol'n) limited to Fn (L+E)"

Appendix D - 11

Design Example - Lipped Channel Column

B2. Hand Based Direct Strength "member" method with L+E and D
Checks
L=local buckling D=distortional buckling E=Euler (long wavelength) buckling a "+" indicates that
interaction in these modes is considered in the design method.
In the member methods (B2-B3, C2-C3, D2-D3) solutions are written in terms of load, P.
Calculate the elastic buckling loads by hand
Long Column Buckling (Euler buckling) see before method A1 for details of hand calculation
P cre

A .F e

P cre = 10.54 k

Distortional Buckling see method A2 for details of hand calculation


P crd

A .f cr_dist

P crd = 7.777 k

Local buckling (based on hand expressions for flange/web and flange/lip interaction)
Flange/Web Local Buckling
The plate buckling coefficient for the flange/web interaction expressions are written
in terms of the flange:
k flange_web

0.4

h
0.2

.4 . b
h
.4

if

k flange_web .

2
.E

12 . 1

. t
b

h
b

h
b

b
f cr_fw

if

k flange_web = 0.82

<1

f cr_fw = 5.298 ksi

Flange/Lip Local Buckling


The plate buckling coefficient for the flange/lip interaction expression is also written
in terms of the flange:
k flange_lip

11.07 .

3.95 .

k flange_lip = 3.95

k flange_lip .

f cr_fl

2
.E

12 . 1

. t
b

f cr_fl = 25.508 ksi

Local buckling stress


f cr_local

min f cr_fw f cr_fl

f cr_local = 5.298 ksi

Local buckling load


P crl

A .f cr_local

P crl = 1.722 k

Calculate the column squash load


Py

A .f y

P y = 11.412 k

Appendix D - 12

Design Example - Lipped Channel Column

B2. Hand Based Direct Strength "member" method with L+E and D
Checks (continued)
Calculate the nominal long column (Euler) strength

Py

c = 1.041

P cre
2
c
.

P ne

0.658

0.877 .
c

Py

Py

if c 1.5

P ne = 7.253 k

if c > 1.5

Consider local and long column (Euler) interaction, calculate the strength

P nl

P ne

= 2.052

P crl

P ne if 0.7776
1

0.15 .

P crl

P nl = 3.737 k

0.4

P crl

0.4

.P

P ne

P ne

ne if > 0.776

Consider distortional, calculate the strength

P nd

Py

note Py, not Pne is used in the


calculation. Thus disotortional
and overall interaction is
ignored.
P nd = 7.266 k

= 1.211

P crd

P y if 0.561
1

0.25 .

P crd
Py

0.6

P crd

0.6

.P

Py

y if > 0.561

The ultimate strength is the minimum:


P n_B2

P n_B2 = 3.737 k

min P nl P nd

ultimate_is

"local limited to long column Pne (L+E)" if P n_B2 P nl


"distortional" if P n_B2 P nd

ultimate_is = "local limited to long column Pne (L+E)"

Appendix D - 13

Design Example - Lipped Channel Column

B3. Numerical Implementation of Direct Strength "member" method with


L+E and D Checks
L=local buckling D=distortional buckling E=Euler (long wavelength) buckling a "+" indicates that
interaction in these modes is considered in the design method.
Finite Strip Analysis of the member (the raw data is imported from Matlab):
40

buckling stress (ksi)

30

<1 >
curve

20

10

0
1

10
<0 >
curve
half-wavelength (in.)

100

Buckling stresses from the finite strip analysis:


f cr_locals

5.65 .ksi

These values are manually entered from the curve.

21.4 .ksi

f cr_dists
f cr_longs

Fe

Since the analysis was stopped at approximately 50 in. the hand solution
for overall buckling of the column will be employed.

Elastic Buckling Loads (subscript "s" is added to distinguish from the hand based methods)
Local

P crls

A .f cr_locals

P crls = 1.837 k

Dist.

P crds

A .f cr_dists

P crds = 6.958 k

Long

P cres

A .f cr_longs

P cres = 10.54 k

Appendix D - 14

Design Example - Lipped Channel Column

B3. Numerical Implementation of Direct Strength "member" method with


L+E and D Checks (continued)
Calculate the nominal long column strength

Py

c = 1.041

P cres
2
c
.

P nes

0.658

0.877 .
c

Py

Py

if c 1.5

P nes = 7.253 k

if c > 1.5

Consider local and long column (Euler) interaction, calculate the strength

P nes

= 1.987

P crls

P nes if 0.776

P nls

0.15 .

P crls

P nls = 3.825 k
0.4

P crls

0.4

.P

P nes

P nes

nes if > 0.776

Consider distortional, calculate the strength

Py

note Py, not Pne is used in the


calculation. Thus disotortional
and overall interaction is
ignored.
P nds = 6.905 k

= 1.281

P crds

P y if 0.561

P nds

0.25 .

P crds
Py

0.6

P crds

0.6

.P

Py

y if > 0.561

The ultimate strength is the minimum:


P n_B3

P n_B3 = 3.825 k

min P nls P nds

ultimate_is

"local limited to long column Pnes (L+E)" if P n_B3 P nls


"distortional" if P n_B3 P nds

ultimate_is = "local limited to long column Pnes (L+E)"

Appendix D - 15

Design Example - Lipped Channel Column

C1. Effective width "element" based method with L+E and D+E Checks
Note, the presented solution for method C1 is in a different format, than that suggested in Appendix
F.2. The results are identical, see example C1 (alternate) for solution in the same form as Appendix F.2
Calculations for C1 are nearly identical to B1 except that now the distortional buckling strength
check includes the possibility of interaction with the long column (Euler) buckling modes, and thus
effective width in both the distortional mode is limited to Fn (instead of Fy).
P n_B1local = 4.374 k

Strength in local mode from calculation in B1

Strength in distortional mode considering possibility of long column (Euler) interaction


Calculate the strength reduction factor () for distortional buckling
Find the reduction factor for the distortional stress
d
Rd

Fn

d = 0.966

f cr_dist
min 1

1.17
d

R d = 0.895

0.3
1

The increased slenderness is


The reduction factor is:

Winter's curve is used to find the strength


reduction factor; but the distortional stress
is reduced by Rd to account for lower
post-buckling capacity in the distortional
mode.

Fn

= 1.021

R d .f cr_dist

1 if 0.673
1

0.22 .

R d .f cr_dist

R d .f cr_dist

Fn

Fn

= 0.769

if > 0.561

Alternative method for the strength reduction factor () used in C2 and C3 and provided here for the
purposes of comparison only.
alt

1 if d 0.561
1

0.25 .

f cr_dist

0.6

Fn

f cr_dist

0.6

if d > 0.561

Fn

alt = 0.771

The Effective area for distortional buckling is (same reduction for all elements):
.A

Ae

A e = 0.25 in

vs.

The strength prediction for the distortional check is


P n_C1dist_check

A e .F n

P n_C1dist_check = 5.575 k

The ultimate strength is the minimum:


P n_C1

min P n_B1local P n_C1dist_check

ultimate_is

P n_C1 = 4.374 k

"local limited to long column Pne (L+E)" if P n_C1 P n_B1local


"distortional limited to long column Pne (D+E)" if P n_C1 P n_C1dist_check

ultimate_is = "local limited to long column Pne (L+E)"

Appendix D - 16

A = 0.325 in

Design Example - Lipped Channel Column

C1 - Alternate. Effective width "element" based method with L+E and D+E
Checks
Appendix F.2 provides a proposed method for incorporating method C1 into the AISI Specification.
The format is different than that presented in the previous example for C1, but the result is the same.
For completeness, this example is provided in the same format as presented in Appendix F.2 and
proposed for adoption - however, the final results are identical to method C1 presented above.
Step 1. Determine the effective area for local buckling (consider long column interaction - follow
method B1)
2

A e_B1local = 0.196 in

Step 2. Determine the distortional buckling effective area (as described in Appendix F.2)
Determine the long column nominal stress (same as in method A1)
F n = 22.31 ksi
Determine the elastic distortional buckling stress (same as fcr_dist in method A2)
f ed

f ed = 23.921 ksi

f cr_dist

Determine the reduced elastic distortional buckling stress


Fn

d = 0.966

f ed

Rd

min 1

fd

R d .f ed

1.17
d

R d = 0.895

0.3
1

f d = 21.414 ksi

Determine the effective width of each element, subjected to distortional buckling


Flange
f d.

k d_flange

1.052
k d_flange

. b
t

Fn
. b .
E
t

1 if 0.673
1

.b

k d_flange = 3.316

= 1.021
= 0.768

0.22

b eff

12 . 1

if > 0.673
b eff = 1.531 in

Appendix D - 17

Design Example - Lipped Channel Column

C1 - Alternate. Effective width "element" based method with L+E and D+E
Checks (continued)
Web
f d.

k d_web

1.052
k d_web

12 . 1

. h
t

k d_web = 21.179

Fn
. h .
E
t

= 1.021

1 if 0.673

= 0.768

0.22

if > 0.673

.h

h eff

h eff = 3.869 in

Lip
f d.

k d_lip

12 . 1

. d
t

k d_lip = 0.451

1.052 . d . F n
E
t
k d_lip

= 1.021

1 if 0.673
1

= 0.768

0.22

d eff

if > 0.673

.d

h eff = 3.869 in

The Effective area for distortional buckling is:


A e_dist

t . h eff

2 .b eff

2 .d eff

A e_dist = 0.25 in

The governinig effective area is:


Ae

A e = 0.196 in

min A e_B1local A e_dist

ultimate_is

"local limited to long column (L+E)" if A e A e_B1local


"distortional limited to long column (D+E)" if A e A e_dist

ultimate_is = "local limited to long column (L+E)"


Capacity is

P n_C1alt

A e .F n

P n_C1alt = 4.374 k

Appendix D - 18

Design Example - Lipped Channel Column

C2. Hand Based Direct Strength "member" method with L+E and D+E
Checks
L=local buckling D=distortional buckling E=Euler (long wavelength) buckling a "+" indicates that
interaction in these modes is considered in the design method.
Local Buckling considering long column interaction (same as B2)
P nl = 3.737 k
Distortional Buckling considering long column interaction
P ne

= 0.966

P crd

P nd2

P ne if 0.561
1

0.25 .

P crd
P ne

P nd2 = 5.592 k
0.6

P crd

0.6

.P

P ne

ne if > 0.561

note a "2" is added to the subscript of Pnd to distinguish from the calculation method
used in example B2, which ignores long column (Euler) interaction, but is otherwise
performed in a similar manner.
The ultimate strength is the minimum:
P n_C2

min P nl P nd2

ultimate_is

P n_C2 = 3.737 k

"local limited to long column Pne (L+E)" if P n_C2 P nl


"distortional limited to long column Pne (D+E)" if P n_C2 P nd2

ultimate_is = "local limited to long column Pne (L+E)"

Appendix D - 19

Design Example - Lipped Channel Column

C3. Hand Based Direct Strength "member" method with L+E and D+E
Checks
L=local buckling D=distortional buckling E=Euler (long wavelength) buckling a "+" indicates that
interaction in these modes is considered in the design method.
Local Buckling considering long column interaction (same as B3)
P nls = 3.825 k
Distortional Buckling considering long column interaction

P nes

= 1.021

P crds

P nes if 0.561

P nd2s

0.25 .

P crds
P nes

P nd2s = 5.35 k
0.6

P crds
P nes

0.6

.P

nes if > 0.561

The ultimate strength is the minimum:


P n_C3

min P nls P nd2s

ultimate_is

P n_C3 = 3.825 k

"local limited to long column Pnes (L+E)" if P n_C3 P nls


"distortional limited to long column Pnes (D+E)" if P n_C3 P nd2s

ultimate_is = "local limited to long column Pnes (L+E)"

Appendix D - 20

Design Example - Lipped Channel Column

D1. Effective width "element" based method with L+E, D+E and L+D
Checks
L=local buckling D=distortional buckling E=Euler (long wavelength) buckling a "+" indicates that
interaction in these modes is considered in the design method.
This design method is the same as C1 with the addition of a local + distortional check
Check local + distortional interaction
Find the limiting, nominal, distortional stress (Fnd)
Local and long column (Euler) interaction is completed by calculating the effective width for
local buckling at the nominal long column stress (Fn). Local and distortional interaction is
completed in a similar manner by calculating the effective width for local buckling at the
nominal distortional stress (Fnd)
Distortional slenderness is
fy

= 1.211

f cr_dist

F nd

1 if 0.561
1

0.25 .

F nd = 22.348 ksi

f cr_dist

0.6

f cr_dist

fy

fy

0.6

.f

y if > 0.561

Determine the effective width of the flange web and lip considering L+D, thus all eff. width
calculations are limited to the distortional nominal stress Fnd
Effective Width of the Web
The plate buckling coefficient is
k web

The slenderness is

1.052 . h . F nd
E
t
k web

The reduction factor is:


= 2.351

1 if 0.673
1

0.22

The effective width of the web:


h eff

.h

h eff = 1.941 in

Appendix D - 21

if > 0.673

= 0.386

Design Example - Lipped Channel Column

D1. Effective width "element" based method with L+E, D+E and L+D Checks
(continued)
Effective Width of the Flange
The plate buckling coefficient is
k flange

The slenderness is

The reduction factor is:

1.052 . b . F nd
E
t
k flange

= 0.93

1 if 0.673

= 0.821

0.22

if > 0.673

The effective width of the flange:


b eff

.b

b eff = 1.635 in

Effective Width of the Lip


The plate buckling coefficient is

k lip

The slenderness is

0.43
The reduction factor is:

1.052 . d . F nd
E
t
k lip

= 1.047

1 if 0.673
1

= 0.754

0.22

if > 0.673

The effective width of the lip:


d eff

.d

d eff = 0.555 in

The Effective area is:


Ae

t . h eff

2 .b eff

2 .d eff

A e = 0.196 in

vs.

A = 0.325 in

The strength prediction for local buckling (L) considering long column (E) interaction is
P n_D1localdist

A e .F nd

P n_D1localdist = 4.378 k

The ultimate strength is the minimum:


P n_D1

min P n_B1local P n_A2dist_check P n_D1localdist

ultimate_is

P n_D1 = 4.374 k

"local (k=4 sol'n) limited to Fn (L+E)" if P n_D1 P n_B1local


"distortional" if P n_D1 P n_A2dist_check
"local limited to distortional Fnd (L+D)" if P n_D1 P n_D1localdist

ultimate_is = "local (k=4 sol'n) limited to Fn (L+E)"

Appendix D - 22

Design Example - Lipped Channel Column

D2. Hand Based Direct Strength "member" method with L+E, D+E and
L+D Checks
L=local buckling D=distortional buckling E=Euler (long wavelength) buckling a "+" indicates that
interaction in these modes is considered in the design method.
Local Buckling considering long column interaction (same as B2)
P nl = 3.737 k
Distortional Buckling considering long column interaction
P nd2 = 5.592 k
Local Buckling considering distortional interaction
Consider distortional alone, calculate the strength (done previoulsy in B2)
P nd = 7.266 k
Now consider local limited to nominal distortional load

P nd

= 2.054

P crl

P nd if 0.776

P nld

0.15 .

P crl

P nld = 3.741 k

0.4

P nd

P crl
P nd

0.4

.P

nd if > 0.776

The ultimate strength is the minimum:


P n_D2

min P nl P nd2 P nld

ultimate_is

P n_D2 = 3.737 k

"local limited to long column Pne (L+E)" if P n_D2 P nl


"distortional limited to long column Pne (D+E)" if P n_D2 P nd2
"local limited to distortional Pnd (L+D)" if P n_D2 P nld

ultimate_is = "local limited to long column Pne (L+E)"

Appendix D - 23

Design Example - Lipped Channel Column

D3. Numerical Implementation of Direct Strength "member" method with


L+E, D+E and L+D Checks
L=local buckling D=distortional buckling E=Euler (long wavelength) buckling a "+" indicates that
interaction in these modes is considered in the design method.
Local Buckling considering long column interaction (same as B3)
P nls = 3.825 k
Distortional Buckling considering long column interaction (same as C3)
P nd2s = 5.35 k
Local Buckling considering distortional interaction
Consider distortional alone, calculate the strength (done previously in B3)
P nds = 6.905 k
Now consider local limited to nominal distortional load
P nds

= 1.939

P crls

P nlds

P nds if 0.776
1

0.15 .

P crls

P nlds = 3.707 k

0.4

P nds

P crls
P nds

0.4

.P

nds if > 0.776

The ultimate strength is the minimum:


P n_D3

min P nls P nd2s P nlds

ultimate_is

P n_D3 = 3.707 k

"local limited to long column Pne (L+E)" if P n_D3 P nls


"distortional limited to long column Pne (D+E)" if P n_D3 P nd2s
"local limited to distortional Pnd (L+D)" if P n_D3 P nlds

ultimate_is = "local limited to distortional Pnd (L+D)"

Appendix D - 24

Design Example - Lipped Channel Column

Summary
A. AISI (1996) Methods and Simple Modifications
A1. Current AISI (1996) Method
A2. AISI (1996) with a Distortional Check
B. New Methods which include only Local+Euler Check and Distortional Check
B1. Effective width "element" based method
B2. Hand Implementation of Direct Strength "member" based method
B3. Numerical Implementation of Direct Strength "member" based method
C. New methods which include Local+Euler Check and Dist+Euler Check
C1 - C3 same as B methods with interactions listed above
D. New methods which include Local+Euler, Dist+Euler, and Local+Dist Check
D1 - D3 same as B and C methods with interactions listed above
P n_A1 = 4.249 k

Predicted Nominal Capacity

P test

3.8 .k

P n_A2 = 4.249 k
P n_B1 = 4.374 k
4

P n_B2 = 3.737 k
3

P n_B3 = 3.825 k
P n_C1 = 4.374 k

P n_C2 = 3.737 k

P n_C3 = 3.825 k
0

10

P n_D1 = 4.374 k
P n_all

P n_D2 = 3.737 k

P n_D3 = 3.707 k
0
0 0.894
1 0.894
2 0.869
3 1.017
R tp =

4 0.993
5 0.869
6 1.017
7 0.993
8 0.869
9 1.017
10 1.025

Test to Predicted Ratio for Loughlan (1979) #L6

A1
A2
B1
B2
B3
C1
C2
C3
D1
D2
D3

0.5

10

R tp
see the text for complete discussion of the analyzed design methods.

Appendix D - 25