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# Design Example - Lipped Channel Column

## Design Examples: Concentrically Loaded Lipped Channel Column

The following 11 examples include the methodology for all methods considered in the report:
Distortional Buckling of Columns. In brief, the 11 methods include:
A. AISI (1996) Methods and Simple Modifications
A1. Current AISI (1996) Method
A2. AISI (1996) with a Distortional Check
B. New Methods which include only Local+Euler Check and Distortional Check
B1. Effective width "element" based method
B2. Hand Implementation of Direct Strength "member" based method
B3. Numerical Implementation of Direct Strength "member" based method
C. New methods which include Local+Euler Check and Dist+Euler Check
C1 - C3 same as B methods with interactions listed above
D. New methods which include Local+Euler, Dist+Euler, and Local+Dist Check
D1 - D3 same as B and C methods with interactions listed above

## Specimen Dimensions and Properties:

h

5.034 .in

Kx

1.992 .in

Ky

0.735 .in

0.031 .in

29500 .ksi

0.3

fy

35.1 .ksi

b
y

Kt

0.5

Lx

75 .in

Ly

75 .in

Lt

75 .in

h
x

Dimensions of the above example are based on Loughlan (1979) specimen #L6

Glossary of Variables:
h = web height
Kx = x-axis effective length
b = flange width
Ky = y axis effective length
d = lip length
Kt = torsion effective length
Lx = x-axis unbraced length
t = thickness
E = Young's modulus Ly = y-axis unbraced length
Lt = torsion unbraced length
= Poisson's ratio
fy = yield stress

90 .

180

## The following solution only applies for = 90, due to explicit

formulas used in the calculation of Cw for overall (Euler) buckling.
Those formulas only apply to lipped C's.

Appendix D - 1

## Whole Section Material and Gross Properties Required for

Overall Buckling Analysis of Lipped Channel
Material Property:

2 .( 1

4
G = 1.135 10

ksi

## Gross Section Properties:

This is a series of "canned" formulas for gross property calculations of a lipped channel.
They do not apply to other cross-section geometry. The Cw formula is from Yu,
Cold-Formed Steel Design.
A

t .( h

1. . 3
ht
3

y cg
Ix
x cg
Iy
xo
m

1.

2 .b

2 .d )

1
3
2 . .b . t
3

A = 0.325 in
1
3
2 . .d .t
3

J = 1.041 10

1 . 3.
h t
12

1. . . 2
bth
2

2.

1. . . 2
dth
2

3
d .t

1. . 3
bt
6

2
d .t .h

2 .d )
2 .b 2 .d

1 . .3
ht
12

x cg = 0.658 in

2. . 3
tb
3

b .t .( b

2 .d )

1. . 3
dt
6

2 .d .t .b

( h .t

2 .b .t

C wterm2

(h

b .t . . . 2
6dh
12 .I x

3 .b .h

8 .d

C wterm4

2 .d )

2 .b

2 .d )

I y = 0.204 in

x o = 1.668 in
m = 1.01 in

2
x cg .A .h b 2
.
t
3

A . 2. 3
m h
3 .t

2. 2.

m .b

b d ( 2 .d

C wterm1 = 57.823 in
3 .h )

2
I x .m

.( 2 . h

4 .d )

m .d . . 2 .
8 b d 2 . m . ( 2 .d . ( d h ) b .( 2 . d 3 . h ) )
3
2 2
2 4
b .h .
m .h
2
( 3 . d b ) . ( 4 .d h ) 6 . d
6
4
2

C wterm3

(b

2
2 .d .t ) .b .

x cg

C wterm1

Cw

I x = 1.325 in

b .( b

xo

in

y cg = 2.517 in

t .
C wterm1
A

C wterm2

C wterm3

C wterm4

Appendix D - 2

C wterm2 = 12.11 in

C wterm3 = 8.058 in

C wterm4 = 342.735 in
6

C w = 1.196 in

## Flange Only Properties Required for Distortional Buckling Calculation

Hand methods for distortional buckling prediction require that section properties of the
isolated flange be calculated. The expressions here are only applicable for simple lips.
More complicated flanges would follow the same procedures, but new expressions would
be required.

xof

hxf
W/F

Material Properties:

S
hyf

yof
x

E
.
2 (1 )

y
Properties of the Flange Only:
d ) .t

Af

(b

Jf

1. . 3
bt
3

I xf
I yf
I xyf
I of
x of
y of
h xf
h yf
C wf

A f = 0.085 in

1. . 3
dt
3

2 2
t . t .b

t. b

4 .b .d

4 . d .b

2
3
2
4 .b .d .cos( )
t .b .d
12 .( b d )

2
2 2
3
6 .d .b .cos( ) 4 .d .b .cos( )
12 .( b d )

2
4
d .cos( )

2
4
d .cos( )

2
t .b .d .sin( ) .( b d .cos( ) )
4 .( b d )

t .b

b .t

3
b

12

t .d

2 .( b

d)

2 .d .b

2 (b
2
d .sin( )
2 .( b d )

## y distance from the centroid to

the shear center.
2
d .cos( )

d)

## x distance from the centroid

to the web/flange juncture.

## y distance from the centroid

to the web/flange juncture.

0 .in

x of = 0.728 in

y of = 0.099 in
h xf = 1.264 in
h yf = 0.099 in
6

C wf = 0 in

All flange properties are given the subscript 'f' to distinguish them from the
overall properties of the column

Appendix D - 3

in

I yf = 0.037 in

I of = 0.086 in
x distance from the centroid to
the shear center.

in

I xyf = 6.092 10

2
d .sin( )
2 .( b d )

I xf = 3.279 10

2
d .cos( )

J f = 2.708 10

in

## Overall (Global, Long-wavelength) Buckling Modes as per AISI (1996)

Elastic Flexural Buckling about the x-axis:

rx
F ex

Ix

Slenderness is:

r x = 2.018 in

A
2.

E
K x .L x

K x .L x
rx

F ex = 210.876 ksi

= 37.158

rx
Elastic Flexural Buckling about the y-axis:

ry
F ey

Iy

Slenderness is:

r y = 0.791 in

A
2.

E
K y .L y

K y .L y
ry

F ey = 32.417 ksi

= 94.77

ry
Elastic Flexural-torsional buckling
ex

F et

ro

F ex
1
A .r o

. G .J

1 .
ex
2 .

2
.E .C w

K t .L t
t

ex

rx

ry

xo
xo

ro
2

r o = 2.735 in

4 . . ex . t

t = 102.279 ksi
= 0.628
F et = 82.543 ksi

## The controlling long-wavelength buckling load is the minimum:

Fe

min F ex F ey F et

mode_is

"x-axis flexure" if F e F ex

F e = 32.417 ksi
mode_is = "y axis flexure"

"y-axis flexure" if F e F ey
"flexural-torsional" if F e F et
Note, columns with different effective lengths (K) or braced lengths (Lx, Ly, Lt) are treated in the usual
fashion regardless of the design method considered.

Appendix D - 4

## A1. Ultimate Strength per Current AISI (1996) Procedure

Determine the long column nominal buckling stress Fn (per AISI section C4):
fy

c = 1.041

Fe
2
c
.

Fn

0.658

0.877 .
c

if c 1.5

fy

fy

F n = 22.31 ksi

if c > 1.5

Determine the effective area (calculated at the nominal buckling stress, Fn):
Determine the effective width of the web:
The buckling coefficient and stress are:
k web

f cr_web

k web .

2
.E

12 . 1

. t
h

1.052 . h . F n
E
t
k web

= 2.349

or

Fn
f cr_web

= 2.349

1 if 0.673
1

= 0.386

0.22

if > 0.673

h eff

.h

h eff = 1.943 in

Appendix D - 5

## A1. Ultimate Strength per Current AISI (1996) Procedure (continued)

Determine the effective width of the flange:
Preliminaries:

1.28 .

Is

Fn
k aisi

4 if

12

b S
t

## Once kaisi is determined from the equations

on the left, the effective width of the flange

S b
if <
S
3 t
ku

0.43

b
ku

t
4
t .399 .
S

Ia

1 3
2

f cr_aisi

2
C2

Is

k aisi .

min

C1

ka

min 5.25

C2

5.

ku

ku

Fn

f cr_aisi

t
0.43

Ia
n

t
115 .
S

1 if 0.673

5
1

min

Is

C1

ka

min 5.25

b eff

.b

C2
5.

b
ku

= 0.776

if > 0.673

Ia

n
C2 . k a

= 1.007

0.22

3
C2

= 1.007

b

4.

1.052 . b . F n
E
t
k aisi

or

ku

C2

ka

12 . 1

. t
b

b
n.

2
.E

Ia

k aisi = 3.405

if

2
3
t .d .sin( )

ku

Appendix D - 6

b eff = 1.546 in

## A1. Ultimate Strength per Current AISI (1996) Procedure (continued)

Determine the effective width of the lip
The effective width of the lip is first determined as an unstiffened element in pure compression,
labeled as ds_p. Then a second reduction using the C2 term from the flange expressions must
also be applied.
First reduction:
k lip

Second reduction

0.43
k lip .

f cr_lip

C2

2
.E

12 . 1

. t
d

1 if

b S
t

if

S b
S
<
3 t

## f cr_lip = 20.395 ksi

1.052 . d .
t
k lip

Fn

or

t
4
t .399 .
S

Ia

Fn
f cr_lip

min

if

1 if 0.673

0.22

if > 0.673

Ia

= 0.755
d s_p

Ia

= 1.046

Is

0.43

1
2

min

.d

t
4
t . 115 .
S
Is

Ia

d s_p = 0.555 in

C2 =1
d eff

C 2 .d s_p

d eff = 0.555 in
Determine the effective area and the Ultimate Strength:
The Effective area is:
Ae

t . h eff

2 .b eff

2 .d eff

A e = 0.19 in

P n_A1

A e .F n

P n_A1 = 4.249 k

Appendix D - 7

vs.

A = 0.325 in

## A2. AISI (1996) with a Distortional Check

Step 1: Complete design method A1.
Step 2: Perform the Distortional Check
Calculate the distortional buckling stress, via hand method of Schafer (1997)
Determine the critical half-wavelength at which distortional buckling occurs:

L cr

4
6 . .h . 1

. I . x
xf of

h xf

C wf

I xyf

1
4

I yf

. x
of

h xf

L cr = 30.007 in

If bracing is provided that restricts the distortional mode at some length less than Lcr, then the shorter
bracing length should be used in place of Lcr in the following calculations.

Determine the elastic and "geometric" rotational spring stiffness of the flange:
k fe

L cr

. E .I . x
xf of

h xf

E .C wf

E.

I xyf

I yf

. x
of

h xf

.G .J

L cr

k fe = 0.035 k
k fg

L cr

. A . x
f
of

k fg = 2.092 10

h xf

2.

I xyf

I yf

2 .y of . x of

h xf .

I xyf
I yf

h xf

y of

I xf

I yf

in

Determine the elastic and "geometric" rotational spring stiffness from the web:
k we

E .t
6 .h . 1

k we = 0.032 k

k wg

f cr_dist

k fe

k we

k fg

k wg

## f cr_dist = 23.921 ksi

Appendix D - 8

. 3
.t h
L cr
60

k wg = 7.224 10
kwg is modified
due to an error in
Schafer (1997)
analysis.

in

## A2. AISI (1996) with a Distortional Check (continued)

Calculate the strength reduction factor () for distortional buckling
Find the reduction factor for the distortional stress
fy

d = 1.211

f cr_dist

Rd

min 1

1.17
d

R d = 0.829

0.3
1

fy

## Winter's curve is used to find the strength

reduction factor; but the distortional stress
is reduced by Rd to account for lower
post-buckling capacity in the distortional
mode.

## note that fy, not Fn is used in the strength provisions for

distortional buckling in method A2, this is because
distortional interaction with long column Euler buckling is
ignored in this method.

= 1.33

R d .f cr_dist

1 if 0.673
1

0.22 .

R d .f cr_dist

R d .f cr_dist

fy

fy

= 0.627

if > 0.561

## An alternative, but similar method to calculate the strength reduction factor ()

The alternative reduction factor is:
alt

1 if d 0.561
1

0.25 .

f cr_dist
fy

0.6

f cr_dist

0.6

fy

if > 0.561

alt = 0.637

Ae

.A

A e = 0.204 in

## The strength prediction for the distortional check is

P n_A2dist_check

A e .f y

P n_A2dist_check = 7.16 k

P n_A2

ultimate_is

P n_A2 = 4.249 k

## "local limited to Fn (L+E)" if P n_A2 P n_A1

"distortional" if P n_A2 P n_A2dist_check

Appendix D - 9

vs.

## this method for

calculation of is
used in methods B2
and B3 and is
provided for
comparison only.
2

A = 0.325 in

## Design Example - Lipped Channel Column

B1. Effective width "element" based method with L+E and D Checks
L=local buckling D=distortional buckling E=Euler (long wavelength) buckling a "+" indicates that
interaction in these modes is considered in the design method.
Determine the effective width of the flange web and lip considering L+E, thus all eff. width
calculations are limited to the long column nominal stress Fn
Effective Width of the Web
The plate buckling coefficient is
k web

OR

## the web local buckling stress is

k web .

f cr_w

The slenderness is

1.052 . h . F n
E
t
k web

= 2.349

2
.E

12 . 1

Fn

. t
h

= 2.349

f cr_w

1 if 0.673
= 0.386

0.22

if > 0.673

.h

h eff

h eff = 1.943 in

## Effective Width of the Flange

The plate buckling coefficient is*
k flange

OR

## the flange local buckling stress is

k flange .

f cr_f

The slenderness is

1.052 . b . F n
E
t
k flange

= 0.929

Fn
f cr_f

1 if 0.673
1

= 0.821

0.22

if > 0.673

b eff

.b

b eff = 1.636 in

Appendix D - 10

2
.E

12 . 1

. t
b

= 0.929

## * note that a k of 4 is used for the flange

instead of the AISI rules from B4.2. This
implies that only local buckling is
considered in this calculation, and
distortional buckling will thus be checked
separately.

## Design Example - Lipped Channel Column

B1. Effective width "element" based method with L+E and D Checks
(continued)
Effective Width of the Lip
The plate buckling coefficient is*
k lip

OR

## the lip local buckling stress is

0.43
f cr_l

k lip .

The slenderness is

1.052 . d . F n
E
t
k lip

= 1.046

2
.E

12 . 1

Fn

. t
d

= 1.046

f cr_l

1 if 0.673
1

= 0.755

0.22

if > 0.673

d eff

.d

d eff = 0.555 in

## The Effective area is:

Ae

t . h eff

2 .b eff

2 .d eff

A e = 0.196 in

A e_B1local

Ae

The strength prediction for local buckling (L) considering long column (E) interaction is
P n_B1local

A e .F n

P n_B1local = 4.374 k

Check distortional buckling (calculations are identical to distortional check in method A2)
The strength prediction for the distortional check from A2 is
P n_A2dist_check = 7.16 k
The ultimate strength is the minimum:
P n_B1

ultimate_is

P n_B1 = 4.374 k

## "local (k=4 sol'n) limited to Fn (L+E)" if P n_B1 P n_B1local

"distortional" if P n_B1 P n_A2dist_check

Appendix D - 11

## Design Example - Lipped Channel Column

B2. Hand Based Direct Strength "member" method with L+E and D
Checks
L=local buckling D=distortional buckling E=Euler (long wavelength) buckling a "+" indicates that
interaction in these modes is considered in the design method.
In the member methods (B2-B3, C2-C3, D2-D3) solutions are written in terms of load, P.
Calculate the elastic buckling loads by hand
Long Column Buckling (Euler buckling) see before method A1 for details of hand calculation
P cre

A .F e

P cre = 10.54 k

## Distortional Buckling see method A2 for details of hand calculation

P crd

A .f cr_dist

P crd = 7.777 k

Local buckling (based on hand expressions for flange/web and flange/lip interaction)
Flange/Web Local Buckling
The plate buckling coefficient for the flange/web interaction expressions are written
in terms of the flange:
k flange_web

0.4

h
0.2

.4 . b
h
.4

if

k flange_web .

2
.E

12 . 1

. t
b

h
b

h
b

b
f cr_fw

if

k flange_web = 0.82

<1

## Flange/Lip Local Buckling

The plate buckling coefficient for the flange/lip interaction expression is also written
in terms of the flange:
k flange_lip

11.07 .

3.95 .

k flange_lip = 3.95

k flange_lip .

f cr_fl

2
.E

12 . 1

. t
b

f cr_local

P crl

A .f cr_local

P crl = 1.722 k

Py

A .f y

P y = 11.412 k

Appendix D - 12

## Design Example - Lipped Channel Column

B2. Hand Based Direct Strength "member" method with L+E and D
Checks (continued)
Calculate the nominal long column (Euler) strength

Py

c = 1.041

P cre
2
c
.

P ne

0.658

0.877 .
c

Py

Py

if c 1.5

P ne = 7.253 k

if c > 1.5

Consider local and long column (Euler) interaction, calculate the strength

P nl

P ne

= 2.052

P crl

P ne if 0.7776
1

0.15 .

P crl

P nl = 3.737 k

0.4

P crl

0.4

.P

P ne

P ne

ne if > 0.776

P nd

Py

## note Py, not Pne is used in the

calculation. Thus disotortional
and overall interaction is
ignored.
P nd = 7.266 k

= 1.211

P crd

P y if 0.561
1

0.25 .

P crd
Py

0.6

P crd

0.6

.P

Py

y if > 0.561

P n_B2

P n_B2 = 3.737 k

min P nl P nd

ultimate_is

## "local limited to long column Pne (L+E)" if P n_B2 P nl

"distortional" if P n_B2 P nd

Appendix D - 13

## B3. Numerical Implementation of Direct Strength "member" method with

L+E and D Checks
L=local buckling D=distortional buckling E=Euler (long wavelength) buckling a "+" indicates that
interaction in these modes is considered in the design method.
Finite Strip Analysis of the member (the raw data is imported from Matlab):
40

## buckling stress (ksi)

30

<1 >
curve

20

10

0
1

10
<0 >
curve
half-wavelength (in.)

100

f cr_locals

5.65 .ksi

## These values are manually entered from the curve.

21.4 .ksi

f cr_dists
f cr_longs

Fe

Since the analysis was stopped at approximately 50 in. the hand solution
for overall buckling of the column will be employed.

Elastic Buckling Loads (subscript "s" is added to distinguish from the hand based methods)
Local

P crls

A .f cr_locals

P crls = 1.837 k

Dist.

P crds

A .f cr_dists

P crds = 6.958 k

Long

P cres

A .f cr_longs

P cres = 10.54 k

Appendix D - 14

## B3. Numerical Implementation of Direct Strength "member" method with

L+E and D Checks (continued)
Calculate the nominal long column strength

Py

c = 1.041

P cres
2
c
.

P nes

0.658

0.877 .
c

Py

Py

if c 1.5

P nes = 7.253 k

if c > 1.5

Consider local and long column (Euler) interaction, calculate the strength

P nes

= 1.987

P crls

P nes if 0.776

P nls

0.15 .

P crls

P nls = 3.825 k
0.4

P crls

0.4

.P

P nes

P nes

Py

## note Py, not Pne is used in the

calculation. Thus disotortional
and overall interaction is
ignored.
P nds = 6.905 k

= 1.281

P crds

P y if 0.561

P nds

0.25 .

P crds
Py

0.6

P crds

0.6

.P

Py

y if > 0.561

P n_B3

P n_B3 = 3.825 k

ultimate_is

## "local limited to long column Pnes (L+E)" if P n_B3 P nls

"distortional" if P n_B3 P nds

Appendix D - 15

## Design Example - Lipped Channel Column

C1. Effective width "element" based method with L+E and D+E Checks
Note, the presented solution for method C1 is in a different format, than that suggested in Appendix
F.2. The results are identical, see example C1 (alternate) for solution in the same form as Appendix F.2
Calculations for C1 are nearly identical to B1 except that now the distortional buckling strength
check includes the possibility of interaction with the long column (Euler) buckling modes, and thus
effective width in both the distortional mode is limited to Fn (instead of Fy).
P n_B1local = 4.374 k

## Strength in distortional mode considering possibility of long column (Euler) interaction

Calculate the strength reduction factor () for distortional buckling
Find the reduction factor for the distortional stress
d
Rd

Fn

d = 0.966

f cr_dist
min 1

1.17
d

R d = 0.895

0.3
1

## The increased slenderness is

The reduction factor is:

## Winter's curve is used to find the strength

reduction factor; but the distortional stress
is reduced by Rd to account for lower
post-buckling capacity in the distortional
mode.

Fn

= 1.021

R d .f cr_dist

1 if 0.673
1

0.22 .

R d .f cr_dist

R d .f cr_dist

Fn

Fn

= 0.769

if > 0.561

Alternative method for the strength reduction factor () used in C2 and C3 and provided here for the
purposes of comparison only.
alt

1 if d 0.561
1

0.25 .

f cr_dist

0.6

Fn

f cr_dist

0.6

if d > 0.561

Fn

alt = 0.771

The Effective area for distortional buckling is (same reduction for all elements):
.A

Ae

A e = 0.25 in

vs.

## The strength prediction for the distortional check is

P n_C1dist_check

A e .F n

P n_C1dist_check = 5.575 k

P n_C1

ultimate_is

P n_C1 = 4.374 k

## "local limited to long column Pne (L+E)" if P n_C1 P n_B1local

"distortional limited to long column Pne (D+E)" if P n_C1 P n_C1dist_check

Appendix D - 16

A = 0.325 in

## Design Example - Lipped Channel Column

C1 - Alternate. Effective width "element" based method with L+E and D+E
Checks
Appendix F.2 provides a proposed method for incorporating method C1 into the AISI Specification.
The format is different than that presented in the previous example for C1, but the result is the same.
For completeness, this example is provided in the same format as presented in Appendix F.2 and
proposed for adoption - however, the final results are identical to method C1 presented above.
Step 1. Determine the effective area for local buckling (consider long column interaction - follow
method B1)
2

A e_B1local = 0.196 in

Step 2. Determine the distortional buckling effective area (as described in Appendix F.2)
Determine the long column nominal stress (same as in method A1)
F n = 22.31 ksi
Determine the elastic distortional buckling stress (same as fcr_dist in method A2)
f ed

f ed = 23.921 ksi

f cr_dist

Fn

d = 0.966

f ed

Rd

min 1

fd

R d .f ed

1.17
d

R d = 0.895

0.3
1

f d = 21.414 ksi

## Determine the effective width of each element, subjected to distortional buckling

Flange
f d.

k d_flange

1.052
k d_flange

. b
t

Fn
. b .
E
t

1 if 0.673
1

.b

k d_flange = 3.316

= 1.021
= 0.768

0.22

b eff

12 . 1

if > 0.673
b eff = 1.531 in

Appendix D - 17

## Design Example - Lipped Channel Column

C1 - Alternate. Effective width "element" based method with L+E and D+E
Checks (continued)
Web
f d.

k d_web

1.052
k d_web

12 . 1

. h
t

k d_web = 21.179

Fn
. h .
E
t

= 1.021

1 if 0.673

= 0.768

0.22

if > 0.673

.h

h eff

h eff = 3.869 in

Lip
f d.

k d_lip

12 . 1

. d
t

k d_lip = 0.451

1.052 . d . F n
E
t
k d_lip

= 1.021

1 if 0.673
1

= 0.768

0.22

d eff

if > 0.673

.d

h eff = 3.869 in

## The Effective area for distortional buckling is:

A e_dist

t . h eff

2 .b eff

2 .d eff

A e_dist = 0.25 in

Ae

A e = 0.196 in

ultimate_is

## "local limited to long column (L+E)" if A e A e_B1local

"distortional limited to long column (D+E)" if A e A e_dist

## ultimate_is = "local limited to long column (L+E)"

Capacity is

P n_C1alt

A e .F n

P n_C1alt = 4.374 k

Appendix D - 18

## Design Example - Lipped Channel Column

C2. Hand Based Direct Strength "member" method with L+E and D+E
Checks
L=local buckling D=distortional buckling E=Euler (long wavelength) buckling a "+" indicates that
interaction in these modes is considered in the design method.
Local Buckling considering long column interaction (same as B2)
P nl = 3.737 k
Distortional Buckling considering long column interaction
P ne

= 0.966

P crd

P nd2

P ne if 0.561
1

0.25 .

P crd
P ne

P nd2 = 5.592 k
0.6

P crd

0.6

.P

P ne

ne if > 0.561

note a "2" is added to the subscript of Pnd to distinguish from the calculation method
used in example B2, which ignores long column (Euler) interaction, but is otherwise
performed in a similar manner.
The ultimate strength is the minimum:
P n_C2

min P nl P nd2

ultimate_is

P n_C2 = 3.737 k

## "local limited to long column Pne (L+E)" if P n_C2 P nl

"distortional limited to long column Pne (D+E)" if P n_C2 P nd2

Appendix D - 19

## Design Example - Lipped Channel Column

C3. Hand Based Direct Strength "member" method with L+E and D+E
Checks
L=local buckling D=distortional buckling E=Euler (long wavelength) buckling a "+" indicates that
interaction in these modes is considered in the design method.
Local Buckling considering long column interaction (same as B3)
P nls = 3.825 k
Distortional Buckling considering long column interaction

P nes

= 1.021

P crds

P nes if 0.561

P nd2s

0.25 .

P crds
P nes

P nd2s = 5.35 k
0.6

P crds
P nes

0.6

.P

P n_C3

ultimate_is

P n_C3 = 3.825 k

## "local limited to long column Pnes (L+E)" if P n_C3 P nls

"distortional limited to long column Pnes (D+E)" if P n_C3 P nd2s

Appendix D - 20

## Design Example - Lipped Channel Column

D1. Effective width "element" based method with L+E, D+E and L+D
Checks
L=local buckling D=distortional buckling E=Euler (long wavelength) buckling a "+" indicates that
interaction in these modes is considered in the design method.
This design method is the same as C1 with the addition of a local + distortional check
Check local + distortional interaction
Find the limiting, nominal, distortional stress (Fnd)
Local and long column (Euler) interaction is completed by calculating the effective width for
local buckling at the nominal long column stress (Fn). Local and distortional interaction is
completed in a similar manner by calculating the effective width for local buckling at the
nominal distortional stress (Fnd)
Distortional slenderness is
fy

= 1.211

f cr_dist

F nd

1 if 0.561
1

0.25 .

F nd = 22.348 ksi

f cr_dist

0.6

f cr_dist

fy

fy

0.6

.f

y if > 0.561

Determine the effective width of the flange web and lip considering L+D, thus all eff. width
calculations are limited to the distortional nominal stress Fnd
Effective Width of the Web
The plate buckling coefficient is
k web

The slenderness is

1.052 . h . F nd
E
t
k web

= 2.351

1 if 0.673
1

0.22

h eff

.h

h eff = 1.941 in

Appendix D - 21

if > 0.673

= 0.386

## Design Example - Lipped Channel Column

D1. Effective width "element" based method with L+E, D+E and L+D Checks
(continued)
Effective Width of the Flange
The plate buckling coefficient is
k flange

The slenderness is

1.052 . b . F nd
E
t
k flange

= 0.93

1 if 0.673

= 0.821

0.22

if > 0.673

b eff

.b

b eff = 1.635 in

## Effective Width of the Lip

The plate buckling coefficient is

k lip

The slenderness is

0.43
The reduction factor is:

1.052 . d . F nd
E
t
k lip

= 1.047

1 if 0.673
1

= 0.754

0.22

if > 0.673

d eff

.d

d eff = 0.555 in

## The Effective area is:

Ae

t . h eff

2 .b eff

2 .d eff

A e = 0.196 in

vs.

A = 0.325 in

The strength prediction for local buckling (L) considering long column (E) interaction is
P n_D1localdist

A e .F nd

P n_D1localdist = 4.378 k

P n_D1

ultimate_is

P n_D1 = 4.374 k

## "local (k=4 sol'n) limited to Fn (L+E)" if P n_D1 P n_B1local

"distortional" if P n_D1 P n_A2dist_check
"local limited to distortional Fnd (L+D)" if P n_D1 P n_D1localdist

Appendix D - 22

## Design Example - Lipped Channel Column

D2. Hand Based Direct Strength "member" method with L+E, D+E and
L+D Checks
L=local buckling D=distortional buckling E=Euler (long wavelength) buckling a "+" indicates that
interaction in these modes is considered in the design method.
Local Buckling considering long column interaction (same as B2)
P nl = 3.737 k
Distortional Buckling considering long column interaction
P nd2 = 5.592 k
Local Buckling considering distortional interaction
Consider distortional alone, calculate the strength (done previoulsy in B2)
P nd = 7.266 k
Now consider local limited to nominal distortional load

P nd

= 2.054

P crl

P nd if 0.776

P nld

0.15 .

P crl

P nld = 3.741 k

0.4

P nd

P crl
P nd

0.4

.P

nd if > 0.776

P n_D2

ultimate_is

P n_D2 = 3.737 k

## "local limited to long column Pne (L+E)" if P n_D2 P nl

"distortional limited to long column Pne (D+E)" if P n_D2 P nd2
"local limited to distortional Pnd (L+D)" if P n_D2 P nld

Appendix D - 23

## D3. Numerical Implementation of Direct Strength "member" method with

L+E, D+E and L+D Checks
L=local buckling D=distortional buckling E=Euler (long wavelength) buckling a "+" indicates that
interaction in these modes is considered in the design method.
Local Buckling considering long column interaction (same as B3)
P nls = 3.825 k
Distortional Buckling considering long column interaction (same as C3)
P nd2s = 5.35 k
Local Buckling considering distortional interaction
Consider distortional alone, calculate the strength (done previously in B3)
P nds = 6.905 k
Now consider local limited to nominal distortional load
P nds

= 1.939

P crls

P nlds

P nds if 0.776
1

0.15 .

P crls

P nlds = 3.707 k

0.4

P nds

P crls
P nds

0.4

.P

P n_D3

ultimate_is

P n_D3 = 3.707 k

## "local limited to long column Pne (L+E)" if P n_D3 P nls

"distortional limited to long column Pne (D+E)" if P n_D3 P nd2s
"local limited to distortional Pnd (L+D)" if P n_D3 P nlds

Appendix D - 24

## Design Example - Lipped Channel Column

Summary
A. AISI (1996) Methods and Simple Modifications
A1. Current AISI (1996) Method
A2. AISI (1996) with a Distortional Check
B. New Methods which include only Local+Euler Check and Distortional Check
B1. Effective width "element" based method
B2. Hand Implementation of Direct Strength "member" based method
B3. Numerical Implementation of Direct Strength "member" based method
C. New methods which include Local+Euler Check and Dist+Euler Check
C1 - C3 same as B methods with interactions listed above
D. New methods which include Local+Euler, Dist+Euler, and Local+Dist Check
D1 - D3 same as B and C methods with interactions listed above
P n_A1 = 4.249 k

P test

3.8 .k

P n_A2 = 4.249 k
P n_B1 = 4.374 k
4

P n_B2 = 3.737 k
3

P n_B3 = 3.825 k
P n_C1 = 4.374 k

P n_C2 = 3.737 k

P n_C3 = 3.825 k
0

10

P n_D1 = 4.374 k
P n_all

P n_D2 = 3.737 k

P n_D3 = 3.707 k
0
0 0.894
1 0.894
2 0.869
3 1.017
R tp =

4 0.993
5 0.869
6 1.017
7 0.993
8 0.869
9 1.017
10 1.025

## Test to Predicted Ratio for Loughlan (1979) #L6

A1
A2
B1
B2
B3
C1
C2
C3
D1
D2
D3

0.5

10

R tp
see the text for complete discussion of the analyzed design methods.

Appendix D - 25