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The following 11 examples include the methodology for all methods considered in the report:

Distortional Buckling of Columns. In brief, the 11 methods include:

A. AISI (1996) Methods and Simple Modifications

A1. Current AISI (1996) Method

A2. AISI (1996) with a Distortional Check

B. New Methods which include only Local+Euler Check and Distortional Check

B1. Effective width "element" based method

B2. Hand Implementation of Direct Strength "member" based method

B3. Numerical Implementation of Direct Strength "member" based method

C. New methods which include Local+Euler Check and Dist+Euler Check

C1 - C3 same as B methods with interactions listed above

D. New methods which include Local+Euler, Dist+Euler, and Local+Dist Check

D1 - D3 same as B and C methods with interactions listed above

h

5.034 .in

Kx

1.992 .in

Ky

0.735 .in

0.031 .in

29500 .ksi

0.3

fy

35.1 .ksi

b

y

Kt

0.5

Lx

75 .in

Ly

75 .in

Lt

75 .in

h

x

Dimensions of the above example are based on Loughlan (1979) specimen #L6

Glossary of Variables:

h = web height

Kx = x-axis effective length

b = flange width

Ky = y axis effective length

d = lip length

Kt = torsion effective length

= lip angle (radians)

Lx = x-axis unbraced length

t = thickness

E = Young's modulus Ly = y-axis unbraced length

Lt = torsion unbraced length

= Poisson's ratio

fy = yield stress

90 .

180

formulas used in the calculation of Cw for overall (Euler) buckling.

Those formulas only apply to lipped C's.

Appendix D - 1

Overall Buckling Analysis of Lipped Channel

Material Property:

2 .( 1

4

G = 1.135 10

ksi

This is a series of "canned" formulas for gross property calculations of a lipped channel.

They do not apply to other cross-section geometry. The Cw formula is from Yu,

Cold-Formed Steel Design.

A

t .( h

1. . 3

ht

3

y cg

Ix

x cg

Iy

xo

m

1.

2 .b

2 .d )

1

3

2 . .b . t

3

A = 0.325 in

1

3

2 . .d .t

3

J = 1.041 10

1 . 3.

h t

12

1. . . 2

bth

2

2.

1. . . 2

dth

2

3

d .t

1. . 3

bt

6

2

d .t .h

2 .d )

2 .b 2 .d

1 . .3

ht

12

x cg = 0.658 in

2. . 3

tb

3

b .t .( b

2 .d )

1. . 3

dt

6

2 .d .t .b

( h .t

2 .b .t

C wterm2

(h

b .t . . . 2

6dh

12 .I x

3 .b .h

8 .d

C wterm4

2 .d )

2 .b

2 .d )

I y = 0.204 in

x o = 1.668 in

m = 1.01 in

2

x cg .A .h b 2

.

t

3

A . 2. 3

m h

3 .t

2. 2.

m .b

b d ( 2 .d

C wterm1 = 57.823 in

3 .h )

2

I x .m

.( 2 . h

4 .d )

m .d . . 2 .

8 b d 2 . m . ( 2 .d . ( d h ) b .( 2 . d 3 . h ) )

3

2 2

2 4

b .h .

m .h

2

( 3 . d b ) . ( 4 .d h ) 6 . d

6

4

2

C wterm3

(b

2

2 .d .t ) .b .

x cg

C wterm1

Cw

I x = 1.325 in

b .( b

xo

in

y cg = 2.517 in

t .

C wterm1

A

C wterm2

C wterm3

C wterm4

Appendix D - 2

C wterm2 = 12.11 in

C wterm3 = 8.058 in

C wterm4 = 342.735 in

6

C w = 1.196 in

Hand methods for distortional buckling prediction require that section properties of the

isolated flange be calculated. The expressions here are only applicable for simple lips.

More complicated flanges would follow the same procedures, but new expressions would

be required.

xof

hxf

W/F

Material Properties:

S

hyf

yof

x

E

.

2 (1 )

y

Properties of the Flange Only:

d ) .t

Af

(b

Jf

1. . 3

bt

3

I xf

I yf

I xyf

I of

x of

y of

h xf

h yf

C wf

A f = 0.085 in

1. . 3

dt

3

2 2

t . t .b

t. b

4 .b .d

4 . d .b

2

3

2

4 .b .d .cos( )

t .b .d

12 .( b d )

2

2 2

3

6 .d .b .cos( ) 4 .d .b .cos( )

12 .( b d )

2

4

d .cos( )

2

4

d .cos( )

2

t .b .d .sin( ) .( b d .cos( ) )

4 .( b d )

t .b

b .t

3

b

12

t .d

2 .( b

d)

2 .d .b

2 (b

2

d .sin( )

2 .( b d )

the shear center.

2

d .cos( )

d)

to the web/flange juncture.

to the web/flange juncture.

0 .in

x of = 0.728 in

y of = 0.099 in

h xf = 1.264 in

h yf = 0.099 in

6

C wf = 0 in

All flange properties are given the subscript 'f' to distinguish them from the

overall properties of the column

Appendix D - 3

in

I yf = 0.037 in

I of = 0.086 in

x distance from the centroid to

the shear center.

in

I xyf = 6.092 10

2

d .sin( )

2 .( b d )

I xf = 3.279 10

2

d .cos( )

J f = 2.708 10

in

Elastic Flexural Buckling about the x-axis:

rx

F ex

Ix

Slenderness is:

r x = 2.018 in

A

2.

E

K x .L x

K x .L x

rx

F ex = 210.876 ksi

= 37.158

rx

Elastic Flexural Buckling about the y-axis:

ry

F ey

Iy

Slenderness is:

r y = 0.791 in

A

2.

E

K y .L y

K y .L y

ry

F ey = 32.417 ksi

= 94.77

ry

Elastic Flexural-torsional buckling

ex

F et

ro

F ex

1

A .r o

. G .J

1 .

ex

2 .

2

.E .C w

K t .L t

t

ex

rx

ry

xo

xo

ro

2

r o = 2.735 in

4 . . ex . t

t = 102.279 ksi

= 0.628

F et = 82.543 ksi

Fe

min F ex F ey F et

mode_is

"x-axis flexure" if F e F ex

F e = 32.417 ksi

mode_is = "y axis flexure"

"y-axis flexure" if F e F ey

"flexural-torsional" if F e F et

Note, columns with different effective lengths (K) or braced lengths (Lx, Ly, Lt) are treated in the usual

fashion regardless of the design method considered.

Appendix D - 4

Determine the long column nominal buckling stress Fn (per AISI section C4):

fy

c = 1.041

Fe

2

c

.

Fn

0.658

0.877 .

c

if c 1.5

fy

fy

F n = 22.31 ksi

if c > 1.5

Determine the effective area (calculated at the nominal buckling stress, Fn):

Determine the effective width of the web:

The buckling coefficient and stress are:

k web

f cr_web

k web .

2

.E

12 . 1

. t

h

1.052 . h . F n

E

t

k web

= 2.349

or

Fn

f cr_web

= 2.349

1 if 0.673

1

= 0.386

0.22

if > 0.673

h eff

.h

h eff = 1.943 in

Appendix D - 5

Determine the effective width of the flange:

Preliminaries:

1.28 .

Is

Fn

k aisi

4 if

12

b S

t

on the left, the effective width of the flange

is readily calculated:

S b

if <

S

3 t

ku

0.43

b

ku

t

4

t .399 .

S

Ia

1 3

2

f cr_aisi

2

C2

Is

k aisi .

min

C1

ka

min 5.25

C2

5.

ku

ku

Fn

f cr_aisi

t

0.43

Ia

n

t

115 .

S

1 if 0.673

5

1

min

Is

C1

ka

min 5.25

b eff

.b

C2

5.

b

ku

= 0.776

if > 0.673

Ia

n

C2 . k a

= 1.007

0.22

3

C2

= 1.007

b

4.

1.052 . b . F n

E

t

k aisi

or

ku

C2

ka

12 . 1

. t

b

b

n.

2

.E

Ia

k aisi = 3.405

if

2

3

t .d .sin( )

ku

Appendix D - 6

b eff = 1.546 in

Determine the effective width of the lip

The effective width of the lip is first determined as an unstiffened element in pure compression,

labeled as ds_p. Then a second reduction using the C2 term from the flange expressions must

also be applied.

First reduction:

k lip

Second reduction

0.43

k lip .

f cr_lip

C2

2

.E

12 . 1

. t

d

1 if

b S

t

if

S b

S

<

3 t

1.052 . d .

t

k lip

Fn

or

t

4

t .399 .

S

Ia

Fn

f cr_lip

min

if

1 if 0.673

0.22

if > 0.673

Ia

= 0.755

d s_p

Ia

= 1.046

Is

0.43

1

2

min

.d

t

4

t . 115 .

S

Is

Ia

d s_p = 0.555 in

C2 =1

d eff

C 2 .d s_p

d eff = 0.555 in

Determine the effective area and the Ultimate Strength:

The Effective area is:

Ae

t . h eff

2 .b eff

2 .d eff

A e = 0.19 in

P n_A1

A e .F n

P n_A1 = 4.249 k

Appendix D - 7

vs.

A = 0.325 in

Step 1: Complete design method A1.

Step 2: Perform the Distortional Check

Calculate the distortional buckling stress, via hand method of Schafer (1997)

Determine the critical half-wavelength at which distortional buckling occurs:

L cr

4

6 . .h . 1

. I . x

xf of

h xf

C wf

I xyf

1

4

I yf

. x

of

h xf

L cr = 30.007 in

If bracing is provided that restricts the distortional mode at some length less than Lcr, then the shorter

bracing length should be used in place of Lcr in the following calculations.

Determine the elastic and "geometric" rotational spring stiffness of the flange:

k fe

L cr

. E .I . x

xf of

h xf

E .C wf

E.

I xyf

I yf

. x

of

h xf

.G .J

L cr

k fe = 0.035 k

k fg

L cr

. A . x

f

of

k fg = 2.092 10

h xf

2.

I xyf

I yf

2 .y of . x of

h xf .

I xyf

I yf

h xf

y of

I xf

I yf

in

Determine the elastic and "geometric" rotational spring stiffness from the web:

k we

E .t

6 .h . 1

k we = 0.032 k

k wg

f cr_dist

k fe

k we

k fg

k wg

Appendix D - 8

. 3

.t h

L cr

60

k wg = 7.224 10

kwg is modified

due to an error in

Schafer (1997)

analysis.

in

Calculate the strength reduction factor () for distortional buckling

Find the reduction factor for the distortional stress

fy

d = 1.211

f cr_dist

Rd

min 1

1.17

d

R d = 0.829

0.3

1

fy

reduction factor; but the distortional stress

is reduced by Rd to account for lower

post-buckling capacity in the distortional

mode.

distortional buckling in method A2, this is because

distortional interaction with long column Euler buckling is

ignored in this method.

= 1.33

R d .f cr_dist

1 if 0.673

1

0.22 .

R d .f cr_dist

R d .f cr_dist

fy

fy

= 0.627

if > 0.561

The alternative reduction factor is:

alt

1 if d 0.561

1

0.25 .

f cr_dist

fy

0.6

f cr_dist

0.6

fy

if > 0.561

alt = 0.637

Ae

.A

A e = 0.204 in

P n_A2dist_check

A e .f y

P n_A2dist_check = 7.16 k

P n_A2

ultimate_is

P n_A2 = 4.249 k

"distortional" if P n_A2 P n_A2dist_check

Appendix D - 9

vs.

calculation of is

used in methods B2

and B3 and is

provided for

comparison only.

2

A = 0.325 in

B1. Effective width "element" based method with L+E and D Checks

L=local buckling D=distortional buckling E=Euler (long wavelength) buckling a "+" indicates that

interaction in these modes is considered in the design method.

Determine the effective width of the flange web and lip considering L+E, thus all eff. width

calculations are limited to the long column nominal stress Fn

Effective Width of the Web

The plate buckling coefficient is

k web

OR

k web .

f cr_w

The slenderness is

1.052 . h . F n

E

t

k web

= 2.349

2

.E

12 . 1

Fn

. t

h

= 2.349

f cr_w

1 if 0.673

= 0.386

0.22

if > 0.673

.h

h eff

h eff = 1.943 in

The plate buckling coefficient is*

k flange

OR

k flange .

f cr_f

The slenderness is

1.052 . b . F n

E

t

k flange

= 0.929

Fn

f cr_f

1 if 0.673

1

= 0.821

0.22

if > 0.673

b eff

.b

b eff = 1.636 in

Appendix D - 10

2

.E

12 . 1

. t

b

= 0.929

instead of the AISI rules from B4.2. This

implies that only local buckling is

considered in this calculation, and

distortional buckling will thus be checked

separately.

B1. Effective width "element" based method with L+E and D Checks

(continued)

Effective Width of the Lip

The plate buckling coefficient is*

k lip

OR

0.43

f cr_l

k lip .

The slenderness is

1.052 . d . F n

E

t

k lip

= 1.046

2

.E

12 . 1

Fn

. t

d

= 1.046

f cr_l

1 if 0.673

1

= 0.755

0.22

if > 0.673

d eff

.d

d eff = 0.555 in

Ae

t . h eff

2 .b eff

2 .d eff

A e = 0.196 in

A e_B1local

Ae

The strength prediction for local buckling (L) considering long column (E) interaction is

P n_B1local

A e .F n

P n_B1local = 4.374 k

Check distortional buckling (calculations are identical to distortional check in method A2)

The strength prediction for the distortional check from A2 is

P n_A2dist_check = 7.16 k

The ultimate strength is the minimum:

P n_B1

ultimate_is

P n_B1 = 4.374 k

"distortional" if P n_B1 P n_A2dist_check

Appendix D - 11

B2. Hand Based Direct Strength "member" method with L+E and D

Checks

L=local buckling D=distortional buckling E=Euler (long wavelength) buckling a "+" indicates that

interaction in these modes is considered in the design method.

In the member methods (B2-B3, C2-C3, D2-D3) solutions are written in terms of load, P.

Calculate the elastic buckling loads by hand

Long Column Buckling (Euler buckling) see before method A1 for details of hand calculation

P cre

A .F e

P cre = 10.54 k

P crd

A .f cr_dist

P crd = 7.777 k

Local buckling (based on hand expressions for flange/web and flange/lip interaction)

Flange/Web Local Buckling

The plate buckling coefficient for the flange/web interaction expressions are written

in terms of the flange:

k flange_web

0.4

h

0.2

.4 . b

h

.4

if

k flange_web .

2

.E

12 . 1

. t

b

h

b

h

b

b

f cr_fw

if

k flange_web = 0.82

<1

The plate buckling coefficient for the flange/lip interaction expression is also written

in terms of the flange:

k flange_lip

11.07 .

3.95 .

k flange_lip = 3.95

k flange_lip .

f cr_fl

2

.E

12 . 1

. t

b

f cr_local

P crl

A .f cr_local

P crl = 1.722 k

Py

A .f y

P y = 11.412 k

Appendix D - 12

B2. Hand Based Direct Strength "member" method with L+E and D

Checks (continued)

Calculate the nominal long column (Euler) strength

Py

c = 1.041

P cre

2

c

.

P ne

0.658

0.877 .

c

Py

Py

if c 1.5

P ne = 7.253 k

if c > 1.5

Consider local and long column (Euler) interaction, calculate the strength

P nl

P ne

= 2.052

P crl

P ne if 0.7776

1

0.15 .

P crl

P nl = 3.737 k

0.4

P crl

0.4

.P

P ne

P ne

ne if > 0.776

P nd

Py

calculation. Thus disotortional

and overall interaction is

ignored.

P nd = 7.266 k

= 1.211

P crd

P y if 0.561

1

0.25 .

P crd

Py

0.6

P crd

0.6

.P

Py

y if > 0.561

P n_B2

P n_B2 = 3.737 k

min P nl P nd

ultimate_is

"distortional" if P n_B2 P nd

Appendix D - 13

L+E and D Checks

L=local buckling D=distortional buckling E=Euler (long wavelength) buckling a "+" indicates that

interaction in these modes is considered in the design method.

Finite Strip Analysis of the member (the raw data is imported from Matlab):

40

30

<1 >

curve

20

10

0

1

10

<0 >

curve

half-wavelength (in.)

100

f cr_locals

5.65 .ksi

21.4 .ksi

f cr_dists

f cr_longs

Fe

Since the analysis was stopped at approximately 50 in. the hand solution

for overall buckling of the column will be employed.

Elastic Buckling Loads (subscript "s" is added to distinguish from the hand based methods)

Local

P crls

A .f cr_locals

P crls = 1.837 k

Dist.

P crds

A .f cr_dists

P crds = 6.958 k

Long

P cres

A .f cr_longs

P cres = 10.54 k

Appendix D - 14

L+E and D Checks (continued)

Calculate the nominal long column strength

Py

c = 1.041

P cres

2

c

.

P nes

0.658

0.877 .

c

Py

Py

if c 1.5

P nes = 7.253 k

if c > 1.5

Consider local and long column (Euler) interaction, calculate the strength

P nes

= 1.987

P crls

P nes if 0.776

P nls

0.15 .

P crls

P nls = 3.825 k

0.4

P crls

0.4

.P

P nes

P nes

Py

calculation. Thus disotortional

and overall interaction is

ignored.

P nds = 6.905 k

= 1.281

P crds

P y if 0.561

P nds

0.25 .

P crds

Py

0.6

P crds

0.6

.P

Py

y if > 0.561

P n_B3

P n_B3 = 3.825 k

ultimate_is

"distortional" if P n_B3 P nds

Appendix D - 15

C1. Effective width "element" based method with L+E and D+E Checks

Note, the presented solution for method C1 is in a different format, than that suggested in Appendix

F.2. The results are identical, see example C1 (alternate) for solution in the same form as Appendix F.2

Calculations for C1 are nearly identical to B1 except that now the distortional buckling strength

check includes the possibility of interaction with the long column (Euler) buckling modes, and thus

effective width in both the distortional mode is limited to Fn (instead of Fy).

P n_B1local = 4.374 k

Calculate the strength reduction factor () for distortional buckling

Find the reduction factor for the distortional stress

d

Rd

Fn

d = 0.966

f cr_dist

min 1

1.17

d

R d = 0.895

0.3

1

The reduction factor is:

reduction factor; but the distortional stress

is reduced by Rd to account for lower

post-buckling capacity in the distortional

mode.

Fn

= 1.021

R d .f cr_dist

1 if 0.673

1

0.22 .

R d .f cr_dist

R d .f cr_dist

Fn

Fn

= 0.769

if > 0.561

Alternative method for the strength reduction factor () used in C2 and C3 and provided here for the

purposes of comparison only.

alt

1 if d 0.561

1

0.25 .

f cr_dist

0.6

Fn

f cr_dist

0.6

if d > 0.561

Fn

alt = 0.771

The Effective area for distortional buckling is (same reduction for all elements):

.A

Ae

A e = 0.25 in

vs.

P n_C1dist_check

A e .F n

P n_C1dist_check = 5.575 k

P n_C1

ultimate_is

P n_C1 = 4.374 k

"distortional limited to long column Pne (D+E)" if P n_C1 P n_C1dist_check

Appendix D - 16

A = 0.325 in

C1 - Alternate. Effective width "element" based method with L+E and D+E

Checks

Appendix F.2 provides a proposed method for incorporating method C1 into the AISI Specification.

The format is different than that presented in the previous example for C1, but the result is the same.

For completeness, this example is provided in the same format as presented in Appendix F.2 and

proposed for adoption - however, the final results are identical to method C1 presented above.

Step 1. Determine the effective area for local buckling (consider long column interaction - follow

method B1)

2

A e_B1local = 0.196 in

Step 2. Determine the distortional buckling effective area (as described in Appendix F.2)

Determine the long column nominal stress (same as in method A1)

F n = 22.31 ksi

Determine the elastic distortional buckling stress (same as fcr_dist in method A2)

f ed

f ed = 23.921 ksi

f cr_dist

Fn

d = 0.966

f ed

Rd

min 1

fd

R d .f ed

1.17

d

R d = 0.895

0.3

1

f d = 21.414 ksi

Flange

f d.

k d_flange

1.052

k d_flange

. b

t

Fn

. b .

E

t

1 if 0.673

1

.b

k d_flange = 3.316

= 1.021

= 0.768

0.22

b eff

12 . 1

if > 0.673

b eff = 1.531 in

Appendix D - 17

C1 - Alternate. Effective width "element" based method with L+E and D+E

Checks (continued)

Web

f d.

k d_web

1.052

k d_web

12 . 1

. h

t

k d_web = 21.179

Fn

. h .

E

t

= 1.021

1 if 0.673

= 0.768

0.22

if > 0.673

.h

h eff

h eff = 3.869 in

Lip

f d.

k d_lip

12 . 1

. d

t

k d_lip = 0.451

1.052 . d . F n

E

t

k d_lip

= 1.021

1 if 0.673

1

= 0.768

0.22

d eff

if > 0.673

.d

h eff = 3.869 in

A e_dist

t . h eff

2 .b eff

2 .d eff

A e_dist = 0.25 in

Ae

A e = 0.196 in

ultimate_is

"distortional limited to long column (D+E)" if A e A e_dist

Capacity is

P n_C1alt

A e .F n

P n_C1alt = 4.374 k

Appendix D - 18

C2. Hand Based Direct Strength "member" method with L+E and D+E

Checks

L=local buckling D=distortional buckling E=Euler (long wavelength) buckling a "+" indicates that

interaction in these modes is considered in the design method.

Local Buckling considering long column interaction (same as B2)

P nl = 3.737 k

Distortional Buckling considering long column interaction

P ne

= 0.966

P crd

P nd2

P ne if 0.561

1

0.25 .

P crd

P ne

P nd2 = 5.592 k

0.6

P crd

0.6

.P

P ne

ne if > 0.561

note a "2" is added to the subscript of Pnd to distinguish from the calculation method

used in example B2, which ignores long column (Euler) interaction, but is otherwise

performed in a similar manner.

The ultimate strength is the minimum:

P n_C2

min P nl P nd2

ultimate_is

P n_C2 = 3.737 k

"distortional limited to long column Pne (D+E)" if P n_C2 P nd2

Appendix D - 19

C3. Hand Based Direct Strength "member" method with L+E and D+E

Checks

L=local buckling D=distortional buckling E=Euler (long wavelength) buckling a "+" indicates that

interaction in these modes is considered in the design method.

Local Buckling considering long column interaction (same as B3)

P nls = 3.825 k

Distortional Buckling considering long column interaction

P nes

= 1.021

P crds

P nes if 0.561

P nd2s

0.25 .

P crds

P nes

P nd2s = 5.35 k

0.6

P crds

P nes

0.6

.P

P n_C3

ultimate_is

P n_C3 = 3.825 k

"distortional limited to long column Pnes (D+E)" if P n_C3 P nd2s

Appendix D - 20

D1. Effective width "element" based method with L+E, D+E and L+D

Checks

L=local buckling D=distortional buckling E=Euler (long wavelength) buckling a "+" indicates that

interaction in these modes is considered in the design method.

This design method is the same as C1 with the addition of a local + distortional check

Check local + distortional interaction

Find the limiting, nominal, distortional stress (Fnd)

Local and long column (Euler) interaction is completed by calculating the effective width for

local buckling at the nominal long column stress (Fn). Local and distortional interaction is

completed in a similar manner by calculating the effective width for local buckling at the

nominal distortional stress (Fnd)

Distortional slenderness is

fy

= 1.211

f cr_dist

F nd

1 if 0.561

1

0.25 .

F nd = 22.348 ksi

f cr_dist

0.6

f cr_dist

fy

fy

0.6

.f

y if > 0.561

Determine the effective width of the flange web and lip considering L+D, thus all eff. width

calculations are limited to the distortional nominal stress Fnd

Effective Width of the Web

The plate buckling coefficient is

k web

The slenderness is

1.052 . h . F nd

E

t

k web

= 2.351

1 if 0.673

1

0.22

h eff

.h

h eff = 1.941 in

Appendix D - 21

if > 0.673

= 0.386

D1. Effective width "element" based method with L+E, D+E and L+D Checks

(continued)

Effective Width of the Flange

The plate buckling coefficient is

k flange

The slenderness is

1.052 . b . F nd

E

t

k flange

= 0.93

1 if 0.673

= 0.821

0.22

if > 0.673

b eff

.b

b eff = 1.635 in

The plate buckling coefficient is

k lip

The slenderness is

0.43

The reduction factor is:

1.052 . d . F nd

E

t

k lip

= 1.047

1 if 0.673

1

= 0.754

0.22

if > 0.673

d eff

.d

d eff = 0.555 in

Ae

t . h eff

2 .b eff

2 .d eff

A e = 0.196 in

vs.

A = 0.325 in

The strength prediction for local buckling (L) considering long column (E) interaction is

P n_D1localdist

A e .F nd

P n_D1localdist = 4.378 k

P n_D1

ultimate_is

P n_D1 = 4.374 k

"distortional" if P n_D1 P n_A2dist_check

"local limited to distortional Fnd (L+D)" if P n_D1 P n_D1localdist

Appendix D - 22

D2. Hand Based Direct Strength "member" method with L+E, D+E and

L+D Checks

L=local buckling D=distortional buckling E=Euler (long wavelength) buckling a "+" indicates that

interaction in these modes is considered in the design method.

Local Buckling considering long column interaction (same as B2)

P nl = 3.737 k

Distortional Buckling considering long column interaction

P nd2 = 5.592 k

Local Buckling considering distortional interaction

Consider distortional alone, calculate the strength (done previoulsy in B2)

P nd = 7.266 k

Now consider local limited to nominal distortional load

P nd

= 2.054

P crl

P nd if 0.776

P nld

0.15 .

P crl

P nld = 3.741 k

0.4

P nd

P crl

P nd

0.4

.P

nd if > 0.776

P n_D2

ultimate_is

P n_D2 = 3.737 k

"distortional limited to long column Pne (D+E)" if P n_D2 P nd2

"local limited to distortional Pnd (L+D)" if P n_D2 P nld

Appendix D - 23

L+E, D+E and L+D Checks

L=local buckling D=distortional buckling E=Euler (long wavelength) buckling a "+" indicates that

interaction in these modes is considered in the design method.

Local Buckling considering long column interaction (same as B3)

P nls = 3.825 k

Distortional Buckling considering long column interaction (same as C3)

P nd2s = 5.35 k

Local Buckling considering distortional interaction

Consider distortional alone, calculate the strength (done previously in B3)

P nds = 6.905 k

Now consider local limited to nominal distortional load

P nds

= 1.939

P crls

P nlds

P nds if 0.776

1

0.15 .

P crls

P nlds = 3.707 k

0.4

P nds

P crls

P nds

0.4

.P

P n_D3

ultimate_is

P n_D3 = 3.707 k

"distortional limited to long column Pne (D+E)" if P n_D3 P nd2s

"local limited to distortional Pnd (L+D)" if P n_D3 P nlds

Appendix D - 24

Summary

A. AISI (1996) Methods and Simple Modifications

A1. Current AISI (1996) Method

A2. AISI (1996) with a Distortional Check

B. New Methods which include only Local+Euler Check and Distortional Check

B1. Effective width "element" based method

B2. Hand Implementation of Direct Strength "member" based method

B3. Numerical Implementation of Direct Strength "member" based method

C. New methods which include Local+Euler Check and Dist+Euler Check

C1 - C3 same as B methods with interactions listed above

D. New methods which include Local+Euler, Dist+Euler, and Local+Dist Check

D1 - D3 same as B and C methods with interactions listed above

P n_A1 = 4.249 k

P test

3.8 .k

P n_A2 = 4.249 k

P n_B1 = 4.374 k

4

P n_B2 = 3.737 k

3

P n_B3 = 3.825 k

P n_C1 = 4.374 k

P n_C2 = 3.737 k

P n_C3 = 3.825 k

0

10

P n_D1 = 4.374 k

P n_all

P n_D2 = 3.737 k

P n_D3 = 3.707 k

0

0 0.894

1 0.894

2 0.869

3 1.017

R tp =

4 0.993

5 0.869

6 1.017

7 0.993

8 0.869

9 1.017

10 1.025

A1

A2

B1

B2

B3

C1

C2

C3

D1

D2

D3

0.5

10

R tp

see the text for complete discussion of the analyzed design methods.

Appendix D - 25

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