If external stimulus is applied to the brain, it becomes possible to entrain the brain frequency from one brain state

to another. For example, if a person is in the beta state (highly alert) and a stimulus of 10Hz is applied to his/her brain for some time, the brain frequency is likely to change towards the applied stimulus. The effect will be relaxing to the person. This phenomenon is also called frequency following response. When the brain's state is close to the applied stimulus, entrainment works more efficiently. Thus, when doing a sweep from one frequency to another, the starting frequency should be as close to the current brain state as possible. The sweep speed should be such that the brain's state changes steadily with it, so that the difference never gets very large. In practice, it is difficult to determine the brain state without complex EEG measurement equipment. However, you can quite safely assume that during the day your brain is in the beta state (about 20Hz) and you can start a frequency sweep from there. If you are already somewhat relaxed, you can use a start frequency of 15Hz or a few Hz lower. Stimulating the brain The easiest way of applying stimulus to the brain is via ears and eyes. Since humans cannot hear sounds low enough to be useful for brain stimulation, special techniques must be used. One such special technique used is called binaural beats. If the left ear is presented with a steady tone of 495Hz and the right ear a steady tone of 505Hz, these two tones combine in the brain. The difference, 10Hz, is perceived by the brain and is a very effective stimulus for brainwave entrainment. This 10Hz is formed entirely by the brain. When using stereo headphones, the left and right sounds do not mix together until in your brain. The frequency difference, when perceived by brain this way, is called a binaural beat. To get a stimulus of 10Hz, you may use tones of 495Hz and 505Hz, or 400Hz and 410Hz, or 862Hz and 872Hz, or so on. The only requirements are that the tone is heard well enough and that it is below about 1000Hz. Below 1000Hz, the wavelength of the sound is sufficiently small so that the sound waves curve around the skull. Stimulating the brain with visual stimulus Visual stimulation is easier than aural stimulation because low frequencies can readily be used. A frequency of 10Hz, for example, is generated when a led is flashed on and off 10 times a second in the front of your eyes. When visual stimulus is in synch with aural stimulus, effects are highly increased over using only visual or only aural stimulus. Applying a stimulus to the brain will eventually bring the brain's state closer to the stimulus frequency. This topic describes some possible effects achievable by this. Note: Just passively listening to binaural beats does not necessarily alter your state of consciousness. For example, willingness and ability to relax and focus attention affects how effective the binaural beat stimulus is for inducing state changes.

Helping in meditation Meditation is essentially about willingly being able to alter one's brain frequency to a desired state. While meditators have traditionally used several years to learn the techniques of meditation, you can now attain the same effect with brainwave entrainment. No special training or great discipline is required. Good meditation frequencies are in the alpha range, from 8Hz to 13Hz. When a certain brainwave state is experienced and practiced over a period of time, the brain will "learn" the state change and it will become easier to self-produce the desired brainwave state at will. Thus, using brainwave entrainment, you can expect to get some of its effects later even without any external stimulus. Reducing learning time The theta state (4Hz–7Hz) has been found to increase learning capabilities. In fact, children spend more time in theta state than adults, which probably explains the accelerated learning capabilities of children. Alpha frequencies are also useful for learning purposes. You can play language cassettes, subliminal tapes, etc. during an entrainment session for a maximum effect. Reducing sleep needs Some people have found that half an hour a day of the Theta state can replace up to 4 hours of sleep. Treatment of certain mental diseases Brainwave entrainment is used in treatment of depression, low self-esteem, attention deficit disorder, drug and alcohol addiction and autism, to name a few. Brainwave entrainment has also been found helpful in alleviating headaches and migraines. EEG (electroencephalography) technology is used to measure brain's electrical vibrations from the surface of the scalp. The resulting EEG pattern will contain frequency elements mainly below 30Hz. The frequencies are categorized into four states as follows. State Delta Theta Alpha Beta Frequency State of mind 0.5–4Hz Deep sleep 4–8Hz Drowsy (also first stage of sleep) 8–14Hz Relaxed but alert 14–30Hz Highly alert and focused

The dominant frequency in the brain's EEG pattern determines what shall be called the current state of the brain. If the amplitude of the alpha range frequencies is highest, then the brain is said to be in the alpha state. The purpose of BrainWave Generator is to affect the brain's state to achieve different results. For more information on how this is achieved, click . For more information on the possible results, click .

Note: Brain's EEG pattern always consists of a wide range of different frequencies. The most dominant of them determines the current state of mind, but note that this is not any "exact frequency the brain is operating on". There are always also other frequency components present.

The Four Brain States: Choosing the Programs that are Right for You
Beta Alpha Theta Delta Vibrations from rhythmic sounds have a profound effect on our brain activity. In shamanic traditions, drums have long been used to transport the shaman out of his or her body into other realms of reality through the use of constant rhythmic vibrations. Researcher Melinda Maxfield, studying the Shamanic State of Consciousness, found that the steady rhythmic beat of the drum struck four and one half times per second was the key to transporting a shaman into the deepest part of his shamanic state of consciousness. It is no coincidence that 4.5 beats, or cycles, per second corresponds to the trance-like state of theta brain wave activity. In direct correlation, we see similar effects brought on by the constant and rhythmic drone of Tibetan Buddhist chants that transport the monks and even other listeners into realms of blissful meditation. The gentle pulsating rhythms of Brain Sync tapes act in a similar fashion, yet because the frequencies are computer generated, they are precise, consistent and can be targeted to induce highly specific and desired brain states. Just as we can tune a radio to get a particular station, with Brain Sync technology we can tune our consciousness to dial-in a wide variety of brain states. You have your very own signature brain wave activity, unique to you. It has a rhythm and pattern - and it incorporates Beta, Alpha, Theta, and Delta frequencies at varying levels over the course of a day as your brain modulates them to match your activities. Brain Sync audio programs amplify a single frequency or a carefully balanced combination of frequencies to achieve a specific purpose. So how do you choose the programs that are right for you? Consider the qualities each frequency promotes as we describe them below. Listen to the audio samples we've provided, then select the audio programs that best support your personal desires, preferences, and goals.

Beta

Alertness Concentration Cognition
You are wide-awake, alert. Your mind is sharp, focused. It makes connections quickly, easily and you're primed to do work that requires your full attention. In the Beta state, neurons fire abundantly, in rapid succession, helping you achieve peak performance. New ideas and solutions to problems flash like lightning into your mind. Beta training is one of the frequencies that biofeedback therapists use to treat Attention Deficit Disorder.

Beta-centered programs help you prepare to take an exam, play sports, give a presentation, analyze and organize information, and other activities where mental alertness and high levels of concentration are key to your success. Beta waves range between 13-40 HZ. The Beta state is associated with peak concentration, heightened alertness, hand eye coordination and visual acuity. Nobel Prize Winner, Sir Francis Crick and other scientists believe that the 40HZ beta frequency used on many Brain Sync tapes may be key to the act of cognition.

Alpha

Relaxation Visualization Creativity
When you are truly relaxed, your brain activity slows from the rapid patterns of Beta into the more gentle waves of Alpha. Your awareness expands. Fresh creative energy begins to flow. Fears vanish. You experience a liberating sense of peace and well-being. In biofeedback, Alpha training is most commonly recommended for the treatment of stress. Alpha-centered programs help you tap your creativity and are excellent for problem solving, finding new ideas and practicing creative visualization. Choose Alpha programs when you want to attain deep levels of relaxation that are so essential to your health and well-being. Alpha waves range between 7-12 HZ. This is a place of deep relaxation, but not quite meditation. In Alpha, we begin to access the wealth of creativity that lies just below our conscious awareness - it is the gateway, the entry point that leads into deeper states of consciousness. Alpha is also the home of the window frequency known as the Schuman Resonance - the resonant frequency of the earth's electromagnetic field.

Theta

Meditation Intuition Memory
Going deeper into relaxation, you enter the elusive and mysterious Theta state where brain activity slows almost to the point of sleep, but not quite. Theta is the brain state where magic happens in the crucible of your own neurological activity. Theta brings forward heightened receptivity, flashes of dreamlike imagery, inspiration, and your long-forgotten memories. Theta can bring you deep states of meditation. A sensation of "floating." And, because it is an expansive state, in Theta, you may feel your mind expand beyond the boundaries of your body. Theta rests directly on the threshold of your subconscious. In biofeedback, it is most commonly associated with the deepest levels of meditation. Theta also plays an important part in behavior modification programs and has been used in the treatment of drug and alcohol addiction. Finally, Theta is an ideal state for super-learning, re-programming your mind, dream recall, and self-hypnosis.

Theta waves range between 4-7 HZ. Theta is one of the more elusive and extraordinary realms we can explore. It is also known as the twilight state which we normally only experience fleetingly as we rise up out of the depths of delta upon waking, or drifting off to sleep. In Theta, we are in a waking dream, vivid imagery flashes before the mind's eye and we are receptive to information beyond our normal conscious awareness. Theta has also been identified as the gateway to learning and memory. Theta meditation increases creativity, enhances learning, reduces stress and awakens intuition and other extrasensory perception skills.

Delta

Detached Awareness Healing Sleep
Long, slow, undulating. Delta is the slowest of all four brain wave frequencies. Most commonly associated with deep sleep, certain frequencies in the Delta range also trigger the release of Human Growth Hormone so beneficial for healing and regeneration. This is why sleep - deep restorative sleep - the kind that Delta frequencies help induce is so essential to the healing process. Delta is the brain wave signal of the subconscious, the seat from which intuition arises. That means Delta-based programs are not only an ideal choice for their sleep and deep regeneration potential, but also when you want to access your unconscious activity and help that wellspring of information flow to your conscious mind for clearing and for empowerment. Delta waves range between 0-4 HZ.

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