23 views

Original Title: Pasch, Moritz.pdf

Uploaded by creesha

- Geo Ch 2 Lesson 3: Intro to proofs
- II.Reason, Truth and Science
- Discrete Mathematics for Computer Science_Proof - Wikiversity
- Russell's paradox.pdf
- George Polya-Mathematics and Plausible Reasoning. Induction and Analogy in Mathematics. Volume 01-Princeton univ press (1954).pdf
- 1893462-AQA-MPC2-QP-JUN14.pdf
- Khan-WhatisMath-anOverview-IJMCS-2015-4p.pdf
- students difficulties with proofs weber
- 1997PascalContest.pdf
- GRE Maths Questions
- Exam 1
- CS2405 Cg Lab Manual
- Per Martin Löf, Informal Notes on Foundations
- Inequalities Marathon
- Case Analysis Summary
- Scheat Malibu (1)
- j1q82015
- standard rubric
- Slides
- Quantum Mechanics is a Hell of a Way to Run a Universe

You are on page 1of 4

(November 8, 1843 - September 20, 1930) is its grandfather, for he was first

on the scene in raising most, and answering many, of the questions that arose

following the advent of non-Euclidean geometry. Born in Breslau, Germany

(now Wroclaw, Poland), Pasch attended the Elisabeth Gymnasium in Breslau

before going on to the university, where he initially studied chemistry but changed to mathematics.

After completing his dissertation, Pasch went to Berlin, where he studied with Weierstrass and

Kronecker. Pasch taught at the University of Giessen from 1870 until he retired in 1911 to devote more

time to his research. He led a simple life, saddened by the untimely deaths of his wife and two

daughters. Pasch died while on a vacation trip away from Giessen.

The first seventeen years of his mathematical life Pasch worked in algebraic geometry and for the

remaining 48 years in foundations of geometry, a field that didnt really exist before he took a hard look

at Euclids Elements and found a number of hidden assumptions in it that nobody had noticed before.

For some two thousand years, Euclid's Elements was accepted by all as the one and only geometry and

as the structural paradigm for any field of mathematics, with clearly stated axioms and definitions and

all else rigorously proved from that starting point. Then, in the 19th century, Bolyai and Lobachevsky

introduced the first non-Euclidean geometry, soon to be followed by Riemanns alternative nonEuclidean geometry. Perhaps the most important result of these inventions was the realization that

geometries, including Euclids, are human-made constructions that may bear some relation to the

physical world but do not precisely represent it. With this realization mathematicians began to take

note that Euclid's axioms needed some retooling and additions if they were to support the structure first

proposed by him around 300 B.C. For example, Pasch noted that Euclid's definitions of his common

notions, such as point, line and plane, were not really definitions at all. Stating that a point is that

which has no part does not actually identify what a point is, for what exactly is meant by a part?

Pasch was not the first to recognize that any attempt to define every concept in terms of something

more basic must result in an unending chain of definitions that would not really pin down anything.

Even before Euclid, Aristotle saw this, and in more recent times George Peacock and George Boole

maintained that some concepts must be undefined. Once these are identified, other concepts can be

defined in terms of them. But it remained for Pasch to actually wrestle with this issue relative to

Euclids geometry. In modern geometry these primitive, undefined terms are usually taken to be

point, line, and plane. Pasch actually chose point, line segmentandplanar section as his

primitive terms. The last two were chosen rather than line and plane, because, as he pointed out, no one

has actually had any experience of a line or a plane.

Pasch made his observations in his groundbreaking work, Vorlesungen ber neuere Geometrie (1882).

In it, he states that axioms are not self-evident truths, as had been the conventional thinking for two

millennia; rather, he asserted, axioms make assertions about undefined terms and these are the only

assertions that can be used in developing the geometry. In a sense, undefined terms are given meaning

implicitly by the axioms. Pasch insisted that while axioms may be suggested by experience, once they

are chosen, all proofs of propositions must be based on them without further appeal of experience or

physical reality. They are just assumptions designed to yield the theorems of a particular geometry.

Pasch was also the first to notice that in his proofs Euclid made use of properties of order without ever

referring to them and certainly without introducing axioms about order. For instance, Euclid and

everyone after him assumed if A, B, and C are three distinct points on a line then exactly one of them is

between the other two. Similarly, Euclid, and all geometers before Pasch, had given proofs that

depended on the property that a line separates a plane into two disjoint half-planes. However, these

assumptions about points, lines and planes went unstated, and if one was going to play the game of

geometry according to the rules, they shouldn't be used in constructing proofs. Perhaps the reason no

one had taken any notice of such oversights before is that the assumed properties are so obvious, but

that is just another way of saying everyone was making the same assumptions; it doesnt change the

fact that they are assumptions. They may be very reasonable and useful assumptions, but they need to

be identified; i.e., they should be stated as axioms.

Even though Euclid's Elements was an axiomatic means of presenting geometry, it had also been

accepted as the description of physical space (i.e., the truth); no one had ever looked for such hidden

assumptions. And no one had ever done a careful examination of what constitutes an axiom system.

That examination became a major quest for those like Pasch who worked in the foundations of

geometry. Not only did they have to divorce themselves from reality to identify the hidden

assumptions of Euclids (and others) geometry, but they also had to hammer out some agreement as to

what features are necessary in order to have an axiom system. Pasch played a crucial role in the

development of the axiomatic method, a central feature of modern mathematics.

The axiomatic method requires that all assumption (axioms) for a given system (Euclidean geometry,

for instance) be stated, and that everyone constructing a proof in that system is restricted to using only

those assumptions. People cannot simply introduce new assumptions whenever it suits their fancy,

anymore than those playing baseball can change the rules in the middle of a game. Its not merely that

this is unsportsmanlike; it can also be misleading. There is a famous proof that all triangles are

isosceles, which is obviously not true. Yet when the proof is presented its quite convincing, and

discovering the flaw and of course, there must be a flaw is not easy. The flaw arises from the

diagram used to represent the information of the proposition that all triangles are isosceles. The

argument follows if certain betweeness of points occur, which happens when the diagram represents (or

at least approximates) an isosceles triangle. There is a different betweeness property of these points for

non-isosceles triangles. The bogus argument depends on the assumption that one of these betweeness

relations holds rather than the other, an unstated assumption that the figure (not the axioms) fools one

into accepting: but if one is not aware of the assumption made, then the proof seems correct.

that the way in which inferences are made should be altogether independent of the meaning of the

geometrical concepts, and also of the diagrams; all that need be considered are relationships between

the geometrical concepts asserted by the propositions and definitions. In the course of deduction it is

both advisable and useful to bear in mind the meaning of the geometrical concepts used, but this is in

no way essential; in fact it is precisely when this becomes necessary that a gap occurs in the deduction

and (when it is not possible to supply the deficiency by modifying the reasoning) we are forced to

admit the inadequacy of the propositions invoked as the means of proof. Moritz Pasch, Vorlesungen

ber neuere Geometrie.

- Geo Ch 2 Lesson 3: Intro to proofsUploaded byezmoreldo
- II.Reason, Truth and ScienceUploaded byJavier Hernández Iglesias
- Discrete Mathematics for Computer Science_Proof - WikiversityUploaded byOO;
- Russell's paradox.pdfUploaded byAudrey Hernandez
- George Polya-Mathematics and Plausible Reasoning. Induction and Analogy in Mathematics. Volume 01-Princeton univ press (1954).pdfUploaded byMatias Batalla
- 1893462-AQA-MPC2-QP-JUN14.pdfUploaded byastargroup
- Khan-WhatisMath-anOverview-IJMCS-2015-4p.pdfUploaded byMichelleneChenTadle
- students difficulties with proofs weberUploaded byapi-339611548
- 1997PascalContest.pdfUploaded byJoshuandy Jusuf
- GRE Maths QuestionsUploaded byanimasharma
- Exam 1Uploaded byamruuuu
- CS2405 Cg Lab ManualUploaded byRagavendhran N
- Per Martin Löf, Informal Notes on FoundationsUploaded byapplicative
- Inequalities MarathonUploaded bytangkhaihanh
- Case Analysis SummaryUploaded byramos777
- Scheat Malibu (1)Uploaded byS R Saini
- j1q82015Uploaded bySandoval Adolfo
- standard rubricUploaded byapi-237016338
- SlidesUploaded bysaivaishali07
- Quantum Mechanics is a Hell of a Way to Run a UniverseUploaded byquantumrealm
- DLL Q3-Week 1Uploaded byNathaniel Savedor Enriquez
- advtopicsans.pdfUploaded byssshhhki
- Catalan Sequence GenerationUploaded byLuc-Andre Sabourin
- Contracting TBoxes: the importance of being modularUploaded byIvan José Varzinczak
- problem solving rubricsUploaded byapi-231417652
- Forcing.pdfUploaded byandre
- Dawson, 2016 - Was Wittgenstein Really a ConstructivistUploaded byAnderson Luis Nakano
- ClassicalPropNotes.pdfUploaded byFabio André
- Assignment 4 planningUploaded byapi-19754814
- Drawing Geomrt FigUploaded bySohel Bangi

- Thompson, DArcy Wentworth.pdfUploaded bycreesha
- Corals TutorialUploaded bycreesha
- Joint Ocean Commission Initiative 2013Uploaded bycreesha
- Report OceanUploaded bycreesha
- von Mises, Richard.pdfUploaded bycreesha
- Torricelli, Evangelista.pdfUploaded bycreesha
- Water WavesUploaded bycreesha
- TsunamiUploaded bycreesha
- Weyl, HermannUploaded bycreesha
- Wallis, JohnUploaded bycreesha
- Zuse, KonradUploaded bymark4262
- ZenoUploaded byAakash Chatake
- Thom, Rene.pdfUploaded bycreesha
- Zariski, OscarUploaded bycreesha
- Zassenhaus, HansUploaded bycreesha
- Young, Grace Chisholm and William HenryUploaded bycreesha
- Wiles, Andrew JohnUploaded bycreesha
- Yang HuiUploaded bycreesha
- Wittgenstein, LudwigUploaded bycreesha
- Wiener, NorbertUploaded bycreesha
- Weil, AndreUploaded bycreesha
- Weierstrass, KarlUploaded bycreesha
- von Lindemann, Carl Louis Ferdinand.pdfUploaded bycreesha
- Veblen, Oswald.pdfUploaded bycreesha
- Ulam, Stanislaw Marcin.pdfUploaded bycreesha
- Turing, Alan.pdfUploaded bycreesha
- Tukey, John Wilder.pdfUploaded bycreesha
- Thales.pdfUploaded bycreesha
- Thabit.pdfUploaded bycreesha
- Taylor BrookUploaded byAnonymous l6OMyp4w

- 3 Probabilistic Structural Mechanics Handbook C Sundararajan Editor Chapman Amp Hall London 1995 735 Pages 1996 Engineering StructuresUploaded byEric Chien
- PronounUploaded byNur Kamariah
- Steps Involved in Process of Performance AppraisalUploaded byShahzad Salim
- COS3751-201-1-2017.pdfUploaded byFreePDFs
- Pictorial Composition in the CinemaUploaded bymikaelman
- ch05 (1)asdaUploaded byDres Khalifa
- Direct TOEFL SsUploaded byMárcio Cabral
- tsl 3108_TOPIC_2Uploaded byArini Mohd Ibrahim
- cdd main document-cindyUploaded byapi-348745797
- Mat Lab Nn ToolsUploaded byAbdkabeer Akande
- What is Socratic QuestioningUploaded byEmirul Hafizi Roslan
- copy of copy of multiple intelligences lesson plan student outlineUploaded byapi-424883526
- adhd, boysUploaded byJyothsna Chandur
- Choral Speech and the Amelioration of Stuttering via ImitationUploaded byStella Papadopoulou
- documento sobre robotica.pdfUploaded byfrancisco ruiz
- Contextual_frames_of_reference_in_transl.pdfUploaded byJacob Bullock
- How to Write a Thesis ProposalUploaded bysophisticated321
- 拉岡講座242Uploaded byChun-hsiung Chen
- ELC5901Uploaded byNurmazillaZainal
- c Cccc Cccc CcccUploaded byLakshvini Manugaran
- MorphologyUploaded bysaqabbas
- CHAPTER IUploaded byeendrick
- Phonetics of English and DutchUploaded bynata25sun
- case studyUploaded byapi-285899026
- attitude and actionUploaded byapi-348024705
- Robbins Fom9 Ppt04Uploaded byFiras Hamdan
- Object Recognition From Image Using Grid Based Color Moments Feature Extraction MethodUploaded byInternational Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology
- mary fahey solid to liquid lesson planUploaded byapi-316572939
- Affixation and Abreviation in the Variety of Adolescent Languages in the BBM ApplicationUploaded byanna
- Prepositions and Conjunctions Cheat SheetUploaded bybraindead_91