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UNIT 4

Syllabus:
WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEMS: Electromagnetic Polarization, Electromagnetic
Radiation, Optical Properties of Radio Waves, Terrestrial Propagation of Electromagnetic Waves,
Skip

Distance,

Free-Space

Path

Loss,

Microwave

Communications

Systems,

Satellite

Communications Systems.

ELECTROMAGNETIC POLARIZATION:
Electromagnetic waves are comprised of an electric and a magnetic field at 90 degrees to each other.
Polarization is the phenomenon in which waves of light or other radiation are restricted in
direction of vibration.
If the polarization remains constant,it is described as linear polarization. Horizontal and vertical
polarizations are two forms of linear polarization.
A wave is horizontally polarized, if the electric field propagates parallel to the earths surface and
the wave is vertically polarized, if theelectric field propagates perpendicular to the earths surface.
The wave is described as having circular polarization, if the polarization vector rotates 360 degrees
as the wave moves one wavelength through space and the field strength is equal at all angles of
polarization.
When the field strength varies with changes in polarization, this is described as elliptical
polarization.
A rotating wave can turn in either direction. If the vector rotates in a clockwise direction, it is right
handed, and if the vector rotates in a counterclockwise direction, it is considered left handed.
ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION:
Electromagnetic radiation represents the flow of electromagnetic waves (energy) in the direction of
propagation. The rate at which energy passes through a given surface area in free space is called power
density. Therefore, power density is energy per unit of time per unit of area and is usually given in watts
per square meter. Mathematically, power density is

B. RAMESH BABU

CSE DEPARTMENT CECC, CHIRALA.

DC MATERIAL

UNIT 4

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OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF RADIO WAVES:


There are 4 optical properties:
1. Refraction (Bending)
2. Reflection (bouncing)
3. Diffraction (scattering) and
4. Interference (colliding)
1. REFRACTION:
Electromagnetic refraction is the change in direction of an electromagnetic wave as it passes
obliquely from one medium to another
medium with a different density
(refractive index).
The velocity at which an electro
magnetic wave propagates is inversely
proportional to the density of the
medium in which it is propagating.
Therefore,refraction occurs when-ever
a radio wave passes from one medium
into another.
The angle of incidence is the angle
formed between the incident wave and
the normal, and the angle of refraction is the angle formed between the refracted wave and the
normal.
According to snells law,

B. RAMESH BABU

CSE DEPARTMENT CECC, CHIRALA.

DC MATERIAL

UNIT 4

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2. REFLECTION:
Electromagnetic wave reflection occurs
when

an

incident

wave

strikes

boundary of two media and some or all


of incident power does not enter the
second material (i.e.,they are reflected).
The figure shows electromagnetic wave
reflection at a plane boundary between
two media. Because all the reflected
waves remain in medium1, the velocities
of the reflected and incident waves are
equal.

Consequently,the

angle

of

reflection equals the angle of incidence.


The ratio of the reflected to the incident power is, expressed mathematically as

3. DIFFRACTION:

B. RAMESH BABU

CSE DEPARTMENT CECC, CHIRALA.

DC MATERIAL

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Diffraction is defined as the modulation or redistribution of energy within a wavefront when it passes
near the edge of an opaque object.
Diffraction is the phenomenon that allows light or radio waves to propagate (peek) around corners.
4. INTERFERENCE:
Radio wave interference occurs when two or more electromagnetic waves combine in such a way that
system performance is degraded.
The principle of linear superposition of electromagnetic waves and occur whenever two or more
waves simultaneously occupy the same point in space.
It can be seen that a point X (normally Receiver), the two waves occupy the same area of space.
However, wave B has traveled a different path than wave A, therefore, their relative phase angles
may be different.

TERRESTIAL PROPAGATION OF ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES:


Electromagnetic radio waves travelling within earths atmosphere are called terrestrial waves, and
communications between two or more points on earth is called terrestrial radio communications.
Earths atmosphere and earth itself influence terrestrial waves. In terrestrial radio communications,
waves can be propagated between points, depending on the type of system and the environment.
There are three modes of propagating electromagnetic waves within earths atmosphere:
1. ground wave propagation
2. space wave propagation and
3. sky wave propagation.
B. RAMESH BABU

CSE DEPARTMENT CECC, CHIRALA.

DC MATERIAL

UNIT 4

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1. Ground Wave Propagation:


Ground waves are electromagnetic waves that travel along the surface of the earth. Therefore, ground
waves are sometimes called surface waves.
The electromagnetic waves radiated by antenna that travel parallel or at lower anles with respect to
earths surface.
As ground wave passes over the surface of earth, its energy is absorbed by earths atmosphere.
Therefore they dieout after travelling a short distance.
To reach the greater distance, get the greater power.
Ground wave losses increase rapidly with frequency; therefore, ground wave propagation is generally
limited to frequencies below 2MHZ.

2. Space Wave Propagation:


Space wave propagation of electromagnetic energy includes radiated energy that travels in the lower
few miles earths atmosphere.
Space waves include both direct and ground-reflected waves (see Figure 7-13).

Direct waves travel essentially in a straight line between transmit and receive antennas. Space
wave propagation with direct waves is commonly called line-of site(LOS)transmission.

Ground-reflected waves are waves reflected by earths surface has they propagate between
transmit and receive antennas.

B. RAMESH BABU

CSE DEPARTMENT CECC, CHIRALA.

DC MATERIAL

UNIT 4

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3. Sky Wave Propagation:


Electromagnetic waves that are directed above the horizon level are called sky waves.
Typically, sky waves are radiated in a direction that produces a relatively large angle with reference
to earth. Sky waves are radiated toward the sky, where they are either reflected or refracted back to
earth by the ionosphere.
Sky wave propagation is sometimes called ionospheric propagation. The ionosphere is the region of
space located approximately 50km to 400km (31 miles to 248 miles) above earths surface.
The frequency range for sky wave propagation is from a few mega Hz upto 30 MHz.

SKIP DISTANCE:
The Skip Distance is the distance from the transmitter to the point where the sky wave is first
returned to Earth.
The size of the skip distance depends on the frequency of the wave, the angle of incidence, and the
degree of ionization present.
Skip zone:
The skip zone is a zone of silence between the point where the ground wave becomes too weak for
recetion and the point where the sky wave is first returned to earth.
The size of the skip zone depends on the extent of the ground wave coverage and the skip distance.
When the ground wave coverage is great enough or the skip distance is short enough that no zone of
silence occurs, there is no skip zone.

B. RAMESH BABU

CSE DEPARTMENT CECC, CHIRALA.

DC MATERIAL

UNIT 4

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FREE SPACE PATH LOSS:


Free-space path loss is often defined as the loss incurred by an electromagnetic wave has it propagate
in a straight line through a vacuum with no absorption or reflection of energy from near by objects.
With free-space path loss, no electromagnetic energy is exactly lost, it merely spreads out as it
propagates away from the source resulting in a lower power desnity. A more appropriate term for the
phenomenon is spreading loss.
Spreading loss is a function of distance from the source and the wavelength (frequency) of the
electromagnetic wave. Mathematically, free-space path loss is

B. RAMESH BABU

CSE DEPARTMENT CECC, CHIRALA.

DC MATERIAL

UNIT 4

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Ex:

MICROWAVE COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS:


Microwaves are generally described as electromagnetic waves with frequencies that range from
approximately 500MHz to 300GHz.
Microwave systems are used for carrying long-distance voice telephone service, metropolitan area
networks, wide area networks, and the Internet.
There are many different types of microwave systems operating over distance that vary from 15 miles
to 4000 miles in length.

Advantages:
1. Radio systems do not require a right-of-way accquisition between stations.
2. Each station requires the purchase or lease of only a small area of land.
3. Because of their high operating frequencies, microwave radio systems can carry large quantities of
information.
4. High frequencies means short wavelengths, which require relatively small antennas.
5. Radio signals are more easily propagated around physical obstacles, such as water and high
mountains.
B. RAMESH BABU

CSE DEPARTMENT CECC, CHIRALA.

DC MATERIAL

UNIT 4

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6. Microwave systems require fewer repeaters for amplification.


7. Distances between switching centers are less.
8. Underground facilities are minimized.
9. Minimal delay times are introduced.
10.

Minimal crosstalk exists between voice channels.

Disadvantages:
1. The electronic circuits used with microwave frequencies are more difficult to analyze.
2. Convenctional components, such as resistors, inductors, and capacitors, are more difficult to
manufacture and implement at microwave frequencies.
3. Microwave components are more expensive.
4. Transistor transit time is a problem with microwave devices.
5. Signal amplification is more difficult with microwave frequencies.
MICROWAVE RADIO LINK:
Microwave radio link comprised of a transmitter and a receiver separated by a distance of up to 40
miles. Full-duplex operation would require a duplicate set of equipment for the opposite direction.
A simplified block diagram for a microwave transmitter is shown in Figure 7-17a.

fig(a) microwave transmitter


The transmitter includes a modulator, mixer, and microwave generator as well as several stages of
amplifications and filtering.
B. RAMESH BABU

CSE DEPARTMENT CECC, CHIRALA.

DC MATERIAL

UNIT 4

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The modulator may perform frequency modulation (FM) or some form of digital modulation such as
PSK or QAM.
The output of the modulator is an intermediate frequency (IF) carrier that has been modulate or
encoded by the baseband input signal.
The baseband signal is simply the information, which can be frequency-division multiplexed analog
channels, time-division multiplexed digital voice channels, video, or high-speed digital data channels.
The mixer and microwave generator (oscillator) combine to form frequency up-conversion to
translate IF frequencies (between 60 MHz and 80 MHz) to RF frequencies (between 2 GHz and 18
GHz).
A simplified block diagram for a microwave receiver is shown in Figure b.

fig(b) microwave receiver


A microwave receiver is comprised of a radio-frequency(RF) amplifier, a frequency down-converter
(mixer and microwave generator), and a demodulator.
The RF amplifier and filter increase the received signal level so that the down-converter can convert
the RF signals to IF signals.
The demodulator can be for FM, PSK, or QAM. The output of the demodulator is the original
baseband (information) signals.
Microwave Radio Repeaters: The maximum distance is between 15 miles and 40 miles. The repeater
station receives a signal, amplifies and reshapes it, and then retransmits it to the next repeater or terminal
station down line from it. A terminal station is simply a station at the end of a microwave system where
information signals originate and terminate.
B. RAMESH BABU

CSE DEPARTMENT CECC, CHIRALA.

DC MATERIAL

UNIT 4

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SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEMS:


A satellite network is a combination of nodes, some of which are satellites, that provides
communication from one point on the Earth to another. A node in the network can be a satellite, an
Earth station, or an end-user terminal or telephone.
A communication satellite is a microwave repeater or transponder to relay signals between two or
more earth stations. A satellite may have many transponders.

Fig: satellite microwave system


The period of a satellite, the time required for a satellite to make a complete trip around the Earth, is
determined by Kepler's law, which defines the period as a function of the distance of the satellite
from the center of the Earth.
Advantage: It makes high-quality communication available to undeveloped parts of the world without
requiring a huge investment in ground-based infrastructure.
Applications of Satellites:
1. Weather Forecasting
2. Radio and TV Broadcast
3. Military Navigation
B. RAMESH BABU

CSE DEPARTMENT CECC, CHIRALA.

DC MATERIAL

UNIT 4

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4. Global Telephone
5. Connecting Remote Areas
6. Global Mobile Communication

Orbits: An artificial satellite needs to have an orbit, the path in which it travels around the Earth. The
orbit can be equatorial, inclined, or polar, as shown in Figure.

Types of Satellite Orbits:


Satellites can be generally classified as either synchronous or nonsynchronous.
Most of the satellites used for commercial voice and data communications are synchronous.
Nonsynchronous satellites rotate around earth in circular or elliptical patterns as shown in Figures
7-20a and b,respectively.

B. RAMESH BABU

CSE DEPARTMENT CECC, CHIRALA.

DC MATERIAL

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In a circular orbit, the speed or rotation is constant. In elliptical orbits, the speed depends on the
altitude of the satellite.
The velocity of a satellite in an elliptical orbit is greater when the satellite is closest to earth.The point
in an elliptical orbit located closest to the earth is called the perigee, and the point in an elliptical
orbit farthest from earth is called the apogee.
Satellite categories: Satellites are generally classified as having a low earth orbit (LEO), medium earth
orbit (MEO), or geosynchronous earth orbit (GEO).

Each satellite sends and receives over two different bands. Transmission from the Earth to the satellite is
called the uplink. Transmission from the satellite to the Earth is called the downlink.
LEO:
Most LEO satellites operate in the 1.0-GHz to 2.5 GHz frequency range.
Motorolas satellite based telephone system, Iridium, is an LEO system approximately 480 miles
above earths surface.
The main advantage of LEO satellites is less path loss equates to lower transmit powers, smaller
antennas, and less weights.
LEOs provide bandwidth for mobile terminals with Omnidirectional antennas using low transmit
power in the range of 1W. Omnidirectional antenna is a class of antenna which radiates radio
wave power uniformly in all directions.
The delay for packets delivered via a LEO is relatively low (approx 10 ms).
One general problem of LEOs is the short lifetime of about 5 to 8 years.
MEO:
MEO satellites operate in the 1.2-GHz to 1.67-GHz frequency band.
MEO system approximately between 6000 miles and 12,000 miles above earth.
These satellites move more slowly relative to the earths rotation allowing a simpler system design.
B. RAMESH BABU

CSE DEPARTMENT CECC, CHIRALA.

DC MATERIAL

UNIT 4

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Due to the larger distance to the earth, delay increases to about 7080 ms.
These satellites need higher transmit power and special antennas.
GEO:
Geosynchronous satellites are high-altitude earth-orbit satellites operating primarily in the 2-GHz to
18-GHz frequency spectrum.
GEO satellite should be placed 22300 miles above the surface of the earth.
Lifetime expectancy of GEO satellites is 15 years.
GEO satellites must travel in the rotational speed of earth, and in the direction of motion of earth, that
is eastward. The inclination of satellite with respect to earth must be 00.
These satellites are used for TV and radio broadcast, weather forecast and also, these satellites are
operating as backbones for the telephone networks.
The transmit power needed is relatively high which causes problems for battery powered devices.

B. RAMESH BABU

CSE DEPARTMENT CECC, CHIRALA.

DC MATERIAL

UNIT 4

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