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Discuss host plant resistance

INTRODUCTION
Host plant resistance is a plant that possess special features or
characteristic that enable the plant to protect itself from any pest that
attack it especially insects or microbes. There is a research on
Modelling the effects of host plant resistance on plant disease
epidemics. In the research, the researcher used research loop that is
simulation model to enable him/her to assume the result from his/her
choices.
INDUCTION PHASE
OBSERVING
EXPLORING
DESIGNING THE
CONSIDERED
SYSTEM AND ITS
STRUCTURE
TESTING PHASE
MEASURING
EPIDEMIOLOGICA
QUANTIFICATION SYSTEM,
THAT IS OF EPIDEMICS,
MODEL
PARAMETERIZATION,
MODEL VERIFICATION AND
COMPARING SIMULATION
OUTPUTS WITH FILED

DEDUCTION PHASE

ASSESSING LEVELS OF
RESISTANCE OF NOVEL,
EXISTING OR
POTENTIAL, GENETIC
MATERIAL

This simulation model enable great understanding between the


breeders, molecular geneticists, and plant disease epidemiologists.
Other than that, it enables, the observer to see things that been
hidden that is can not be observe at system level in the field, region or
the plant. In plant, there are many varieties of resistance mechanism
but there is a plant that naturally has resistant to the pest. Mechanisms
like morphological and physiological been used by plant to protect
themselves. Examples of morphological mechanism are plant has
thick cell walls that enable the plant to protect the tearing action of
insects and wax also may interfere with insect movement on surface of
leaf. Conventional breeding been use to develop pest resistance
cultivar by selecting good breeding lines and through introduced gene
into plant genome. The benefit of using this host plant resistance is
free chemical pesticides and safe. Meanwhile, Sterile Insect Technique
(SIT) is defined as a release sterile insects in a field population of same
species to reduce reproduction of wild trait. Male insects been released
into its population so that it mated with native female insects to
produce sterile population generations or fail of survival of the wild
offspring. This method relies on gamma rays to sterilize insects. The
important part in successful mating with native female insects is the
sterile males must be more than wild males in the area.
CONTENT
In plant host resistance there are two types of resistance. Firstly,
ecological resistance or Pseudo resistance and secondly genetic
resistance.
Type of Plant
Resistance

Ecological
resistance/Pseudo
Host evasion
Induced resistance

Genetic resistance
Based on number of genes
Based on biotype of reaction
Based on population/Line
concept
Miscellaneous categories

In ecological resistance/Pseudo resistance,there are 3 categories. First


host evasion. The plant host may undergo the insect attack at a time
when the percentage of insect is decrease or at a time maturing phase

of plant. Secondly, induced resistance. This induced resistance help


plant by taking advantage at the time when plant lack of nutrient
uptake. Thirdly, escape resistance. During incomplete or no infestation,
the host plant survive. This only relate to few plant host. In genetic
resistance, there are 4 categories. First, based on number of genes.
There are monogenic, oligogenic, polygenic,major gene,minor gene
resistance, Secondly, based on biotype of reaction. There are vertical
resistance and horizontal resistance. Vertical resistance only effective
on specific biotypes while horizontal resistance effective to all known
biotypes. Then, based on population/ Line concept. There are pureline
and multiline resistance. For pureline resistance only has on the similar
phenotypically and genetically lines. Multiline resistance has on
phenotypically similar but genotypically dissimilar lines. Lastly, for
miscellaneous categories. There are cross and multiple resistance. For
cross resistance, the host plant has varieties of resistance against the
primary pest. Then, multiple resistance against many environmental
stresses such as disease, nematodes, heat, and etc.
For the mechanism of plant resistance, there are 3 mechanisms
involved in host plant resistance. Firstly, antixenosis. Antixenosis is
the non-prefer plant for insect to feed, oviposition and etc.This
antixenosis alter the the insecst behavior by the present of chemical
and morphological plant factors. This give the benefits to the plant
because the insect has to choose other host plant to increase its
population.
Secondly, antibiosis. This mechanism give negative impact on insect
by biochemical and biophysical factors that has in plant. Both
biochemical and biophysical factors effect insects by reduce insect
weight, early instar die, immature stages of insect been extend, and
etc. Lastly, tolerance. Tolerance mechanism enable plant to withstand
attack from insect by its inherent ability. The presence of tolerance in
plant can be measured by comparing the plant damage, the plant
biomass production between infested and noninfested plant for same
cultivar plant.
Develop a crop that has high in resistance to insect can be done by
determine the resistance gene in a given pest and then put the gene
into the plant varieties that we want to improve through back crossbreeding. Many breeding strategies been develop such as gene
pyramiding, sequential release, gene deployment and multilines. In
current innovative strategies like tissue culture techniques, wide
hybridization and molecular marker-aided selection been done to
increase the insect resistance crop varieties. Genetic transformation
also aid in produce insect crop resistance by insert genes of resistance
insect into plant genome. Transgenic crop give many advantages like
eco-friendly, effective in targetting insects, financial savings to

customer and etc. This transgenic technology should be no harm to


natural enemies. Bacteria like Bacillus thuringiensis has been record
successfully in genetic transformation for controlling pest. Examples of
crop are maize, potato, cabbage, broccoli, alfalfa and cotton. Insertion
of Bacillus thuringiensis gene into tobacco plant chloroplast genome
has prove the successful of trangenic technology. There are two major
plant-derived genes that been use for insect resistance to the crop.
There are lectins and inhibitor of digestive enzymes. This both genes
been transfered to crop with similar level of gene Bt toxins. Plant
families Solanaceae, Fabaceae, and Poaceae been concentrated
against coleopteran, lepidopteran and orthopteran by using inhibitor of
digestive enzymes gene that has on this families. For lectins, lectins
also have shows some characteristics against insects species of orders
Diptera, Coleoptera, and Homoptera. In snowdrop(GNA) from lectins
has toxic agains aphid. Overall, host plant resistance is vital in
producing better crop and improved food security. This host plant
resistance give no harm to natural enemies. It also less cost to farmer
for increasing its crop yield. Some varieties of plant has long duration
of resistance. The disadvantage of plant host resistance are its time
consuming because it takes long time to develop a variety that
resistance to certain insects. Then, genes among available germination
plants are absence of resistance.
Concept of Sterile Insect Techniques
Concept of Sterile Insect
Techniques
Using insect to
control themselves
Their reproductive
capacity is reduce
Drosophila fruit files was
discovered by Dr.
H.J.Muller that fruitflies
can be sexually sterilized
by radiation.
Dominant lethal
mutations been
induced
Tuxtla Gutierrez,
Chaiapas, Mexico,
This thought
was
Last endemic
eastern
panama, North
confirmed
by Knipling
screwworm
case
America
and Bushland
on
was recorded
inwere selected
countries
for this SIT
screwworm
flies.
florida
in 1959 using
program to be

First insect pest control method using genetics is Sterile Insect


Technique. It been done spread of sterile male into wide area to be
mate with native females to produce sterile insect species. This SIT
involves by exposing them to low dose of radiation then released into
targeted area where they will mate with wild female of its population.
Before this, SIT was used to eradicate New World Screwworm (NWS)
from North Africa.
Sterile Insect Technique
Biological based method
(Autocidal)

Radiation
sterilized males

Species specific

Resistance free

Non-polluting

Pest population
numbers were
decreased

Autocidal was a type of pest control that use manipulation technique

on target insect so that it can control of its own kind , or literally 'kills
itself'.
Component of insect
sterility

Male
Female
No sperm was produced, the
After the male streile insect
sterile insect can not mate or
mate with wild female, no
mate but does not transfer
eggs were produced, the
sperm or mate with transfer
female does not lay eggs and
sperm to native female with
lay eggs with DLM
DLM
Autocide is effective when applied to restricted populations. It takes 3
years to control Screw-worm in Texas. There are approach in insect
control. There are reactive (defense) approach and proactive (offense)
approach. For reactive (defense) approach, it is conventional method.
The commodity is firstly been damaged by population insects then it is
treated. Every one of the individual farmer has a small area. The
planning is little. For proactive (offense), the approach area is wide.
The pest population been reduced until non-economic level. Same or
similar crop been own by many individual producers. The planning is
carefully plan.
STERILE INSECT
TECHNIQUE
Major strategies

Suppression

Eradication

In Okanagan Valley, full


scale program is
initiated(1995).
Then, wild codling moth
(Cydia pomonella (L.))
population is rapidly
decreased. Pest for apples
and pears.
Purchased insecticides for
this pest is also reduced

Prevention
Mediterranean
fruit fly in
California and
Florida cause
significant
damaged and be
prevented by
using malathionbait sprays.
SIT been used in
1994
Then, 400 million
sterile males is

Containmen
t

In Yaeyama Island, melon fruit


Guatemala, Mexico and the
fly first found in 1919.
United
States
signed
The melon fruit fly is spread to
agreements for establish
southern island of Japan and
Program Moscamed.
then make damage to many
The aim is by containment
hosts in 1980.
Mediterranean fruit fly, in
A program be done by Japanese
Guatemala and prevent it
government to make the melon
from wide its population into
fruit fly disappear from
Mexico and US.
The major strategies in SIT approach are local population
of insect
The result
is theisagricultural
suppress, well-establish pest population been eradicated,
productcontainment
and produce from
and prevent the build up population of insects. TheMexico
individual
is farmers
increasing in a
use SIT independently by supress the local population by using
chemical control. Growers from the surrounding area weak the insect
population more. The suppression effective when the size of treated
area is small. For eradication method, the every individual species in
treated area is eradicate totally by assisstance from high technology of
rearing facilities, monitoring programme and etc. In containment
method, SIT and quarantine are major way to decrease the wild
populatin insects. For cotton crop in Californias San Joaquin Valley, the
sterile pink bollworms and strile Mexican fruit flies are relaesed to its
population to mate with the native female to fail the wild offspring is
one of the example for prevention method.
CONCLUSION
In conclusion, host plant resistance is good for crisis in food security
and for farmer to reduce the cost in prevent pest attack. Developing a
good host plant resistance is not easy but with help from breeders,
molecular geneticists, and plant disease epidemiologists, by their
research and experimental design it bring a lots of benefit to
humankind. SIT techniques also one of the good strategies that
reduces the pest population. This SIT method been using all around the
world due to its effectiveness in prevent damage in plant. This insect
pest control bring new hope to the farmers to increase their produce
yield.

REFERENCES
Lecture 16: Host Plant Resistance - Definition- Types and Mechanism Ecological and Genetic
Resistance. Retrieved December 26, 2015
website:http://agridr.in/tnauEAgri/eagri50/ENTO232/lec16.pdf
Chapter 6. Modeling the Effects of Host Plant Resistance on Plant Disease Epidemics. Retrieved
December 26, 2015
website:
http://www.apsnet.org/edcenter/advanced/topics/BotanicalEpidemiology/Documents/Downloads/chapt
er6.pdf

S. Sadasivam, B. Thayumanavan
Resistance to Pests.
India: CRC Press. 496

(2003).

Molecular

Host

Plant