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Bituminous mixes

French standardization :
Component specifications
Overview of specifications
Yves BROSSEAUD – LCPC Nantes France -

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content
• Tests and Requirements for aggregates
– Standardization NF EN
– Classification NF (link with previous situation)

• Tests and Requirements for reclaim asphalt
• Tests and Requirements for bitumen
– Pure bitumen (tests and specification NF EN)
– Hard bitumen (tests and specification NF EN)
– Polymer modified binder (method)
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Mix design procedure

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Bituminous mixes French standardization and recommendations: Aggregate requirements 4/86 .

132 + Articles 7.European standard for aggregates (2004) NF EN 12620. 13139. 13043. 8. 9. 10: French classification standard XP P 18-545 5/86 .

Content of aggregate standard 6/86 .

55 Mg/m3 7/86 .New classification for aggregate according to the European standard exemple of designation Characterization of fraction aggregate: Porphyre (petrography with simplification) 10/20 .MBFNT .GC85/15 – G 20/15 f4 .Fl55 – C 50/30 LA25 .PSV NR – AAVNR – MDE25 AN NR – MVR 2.

Grading: size values Fabrication properties 8/86 .

Grading : general requirements Fabrication properties Fraction: d/D Maximum size for asphalt mixes: Fundation or base courses : 20mm – 14mm current Surface course : 14mm – 10mm current – 6mm improve skidding resistance 9/86 .

Fabrication properties Grading : allowed tolerances for coarse aggregates Alternative test for grading. by using LCPC videogranulometer Particules up to 1 mm 10/86 .

Fabrication properties Grading : allowed tolerances for the producers 11/86 .

Fabrication properties Grading : fines content on coarse aggregates or sand 12/86 .

Quality of fines : methylene blue test Fabrication properties 13/86 .

Fabrication properties Shape NF EN 933-3: categories for flakiness index 14/86 .

Fabrication properties Shape NF EN 933-4: categories for shape index 15/86 Test does not used in France .

Fabrication properties Angularity NF EN 933-5: categories for crushed faces Aggregate from crushing rocks (No test): C100/0 Test does not used in France Passing time on vibrating plate 16/86 French alternative test : Angularity test for coarse aggregates .

Fabrication properties Angularity NF EN 933-6: categories for sand Passing time on a calibrated hole 17/86 .

32. NR) 18/86 Test does not used in France .Fragmentation resistance NF EN 1097-2: categories for Los Angeles (LA) Intrinsic properties Other alternative test : resistance to impact SZ categories (18. 26. 22.

Wearing resistance NF EN 1097-1: categories for micro Deval (MDE) Intrinsic properties 19/86 .

Polishing resistance NF EN 1097-8: categories for Polishing Stone Value (PSV) Intrinsic properties Test only used for wearing course 20/86 Requirement up to 50 .

Intrinsic properties Surface abrasion resistance NF EN 1097-9: categories for Abrasion Resistance from studded tyres (AN) 21/86 Test does not used in France .

Density and water absorption Intrinsic properties Density aggregate in paraffin oil P 18-559 (taking into account the porosity full fill by hot bitumen) 22/86 is performed for theorical calculation of asphalt mix density .

Intrinsic properties Water absorption effect of freeze-thaw resistance No checking for freeze thaw resistance on aggregate used in bituminous mixes 23/86 No significant porosity of aggregates used in France (if not LA before and after freeze cycle) .

Other tests for artificial aggregate Example for steel slag aggregates Artificial aggregates 24/86 .

Requirements for added filler: Grading NF EN 933-10 25/86 .

Requirements for added filler: Voids Rigden NF EN 1097-7 26/86 .

Requirements for added filler: Increasing ring and ball temperature NF EN 13179-1 27/86 .

but some recommendations (advise) to follow 28/86 .National foreword • Recommendations concerning : – Test method and common European categories in France – Non-recommended tests in France But it is only «for information purposes only and do not exclude other options described in European standard» So it is not requirements (obligation).

National foreword Recommended tests and common categories 29/86 .

National foreword Recommended tests and common categories 30/86 .

National foreword Recommended tests and common categories 31/86 .

National foreword Non Recommended tests 32/86 .

Quality control – CE mark • 2 procedures for attestation of conformity for aggregates and filler: – System 2+ : certification of FPC by an appoved body (ex: LCPC) • Initial inspection • FPC continuous surveillance • Assessment and appoved of FPC – System 4 : without high safety requirements where no third party intervention is required 33/86 .

Quality control – CE mark 34/86 .

Quality control – CE mark 35/86 .

Quality control – CE mark 36/86 .

System 4 System 2+ 37/86 .

55 Mg/m3 It is a topic for specialist: so it is necessary to classified aggregate to facilitate the definitions in market 38/86 .GC85/15 – G 20/15 f4 .MBFNT .Fl55 – C 50/30 LA25 .New classification for aggregate – exemple inside in the market Characterization of fraction aggregate: Porphyre (petrography with simplification) 10/20 .PSV NR – AAVNR – MDE25 AN NR – MVR 2.

Reference document for asphalt mixes • Asphalt mixes standards – General asphalt mixes NF EN 13108-1 – Very thin asphalt mixes NF EN 13108-2 – Porous asphalt NF EN 13108-7 – Type testing NF EN 13108-20 – Factory Production control NF EN 13108-21 • French guide for the application of European standards • French asphalt mix design guide 39/86 .

General requirements or recommendations For aggregates used in asphalt mixes Specific guide : used of european asphalt mixes 40/86 .

XP P 18-545 - ARTICLE 7 :
CHAUSSEES
BINDER, BASE , FONDATION Courses

XP P 18-545 - ARTICLE 8 :
WEARING Courses

INTRINSIC CHARACTERISTICS

Codes n

tio

s
s
a
cl

a
c
i
if

Los
Angeles

Micro-Deval

Polishing
resistance
(wearing)

LA 20

MDE15

PSV 56

ANC

A (1)

PSV 50

BNC

B(1)

CNC

C(1)

B(1)

BNC

C(1)

CNC

LA 25

MDE20

D(1)

CNC

LA 30

MDE25

E(1)

DNC

LA 40

MDE35

Codes

(1) maximum

compensation up to 5 points is
accepted between LA and MDE Values

NC = no compensate (strictly the N€)

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General requirements or recommendations
For aggregates used in asphalt mixes

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Wearing courses

Fundation courses

Guide for mix design : relations between
type of asphalt mix and aggregates specifications

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General requirements or recommendations For alluvia aggregates used in asphalt mixes Relation between crushed faces and passing time for coarse aggregate passing time for sand used in asphalt wearing course 44/86 .

General requirements or recommendations For added fines or fines from sand used in asphalt mixes 45/86 .

Guide for mix design 46/86 .

General requirements or recommendations For reclaim asphalt used in asphalt mixes Using conditions 47/86 .

Guide for mix design 48/86 .

Bituminous mixes French standardization and recommendations: Bitumen requirements 49/86 .

European standards for bitumens : main classification 50/86 .

Pure bitumen : NF EN 12591 .Polymer Modified Binder NF EN 14023* * Only a framework with global test method and some specifications 51/86 .General requirements For bitumen used in asphalt mixes Choice between different nature of bitumen .Hard bitumen NF EN 13924 .

Paving grade bitumen (or pure bitumen) Standard NF EN 12 591 52/86 .

Specifications for pure bitumen from 20 to 330 1/10 mm penetration 9 differents classes of bitumen 53/86 .

Specifications for pure bitumen from 250 to 900 1/10 mm penetration 54/86 .

Specifications for pure SOFT bitumen : designated by viscosity at 60°C 55/86 .

National Specification used European countries 56/86 .

National foreword Bitumen used in France for road applications Bitumen categories NF EN 12 591: characteristics of penetration and R&B Consistancy « Hard» « Soft» 20/30 35/50 50/70 70/100 160/220 Pen 25°C 20 à 30 35 à 50 50 à 70 70 à 100 160 à 220 R&B °C 55 à 63 50 à 58 46 à 54 43 à 51 35 à 43 Description Road with traffic 57/86 .

Main tests to classify the pure bitumen : penetretion grade Penetration test Ring and Ball test 58/86 .

Bitumen used in France for road applications Ageing effect during coating RFTOT test (163°C) Mass variation Residual penetration Minimum R&B after ageing Maximum increasing for R&B Flash point solubility Maximum paraffin content 59/86 .

National foreword Paving grade bitumen (or pure bitumen) 60/86 .

Hard bitumen used in France for road applications NF EN 13924 (EME) 61/86 .

Specifications for binder. some remarks : • NPD : no performance determined • NR : no requirement • TBR : to be reported 62/86 .

Specifications for hard bitumen defined in European standard 63/86 .

National foreword French specifications for hard paving grade 64/86 .

Polymer modified bitumen NF EN 14023 used in Europe 65/86 .

Polymer modified bitumen NF EN 14023 used in Europe 66/86 .

Polymer modified bitumen NF EN 14023 used in Europe 67/86 .

Polymer modified bitumen Example for BMP 45/80-60 68/86 .

no really significant ƒ Traction. Elastic recovery -> favorable for elastomers/plastomers ƒ Percentage of polymer -> composition.conventional tests to assess the characterization of PmB ƒ Penetrability / Viscosity -> no link with performances (translate a state of binder) ƒ R&B -> becarefull with the preparation ƒ Fraass -> no good repeatability. not a performance ! ƒ Cohesion Vialit -> energy vs temperature (Surface Dressing) 69/86 .

Specific tests to perform the rehological behaviour for PmB Microstructure of PmB physical mixing .behaviour 100μm MICROSTRUCTURE Polymères < 3 % : Polymères ~ 5 % : Polymères > 7 % : matrice bitume deux phases continues matrice polymère •Cohésion ↑ •Susceptibilité thermique ↓ •Propriétés rhéologiques ↑ •Stabilité au stockage ? •Cohésion ↑↑ •Propriétés rhéologiques↑↑ •Stockage ?? •Histoire thermique ??? •Cohésion ↑↑↑ •Propriétés rhéologiques ↑↑↑ •Stockage ??? 70/86 .

Specific tests to perform the rehological behaviour for PmB Bitumes/Polymères (5) expertise tests ƒ Complex Modulus (DSR) -> assess the performances and the rheological behaviour on all the range of uses: ƒ low temperature ƒ service temperature ƒ high temperature ƒ ƒ Simulated distillation -> to find some pollutants. to characterize the compatibilisants or plastifiants agents ƒ Bending Beam Rheometer (BBR) -> to check the critical freeze temperature 71/86 .

Specific tests to perform the rehological behaviour for PmB complex module : polymer (SBS) content effect Before ageing (origin) 90 60 30 Bc Bc-SBS* (3%) 0 1E+01 Bc-SBS* (6%) 1E+03 1E+05 G* (Pa) 1E+07 1E+09 72/86 .

Quality control for CE mark System 2+ = Initial Type Testing + Factory Production Control ISO 9001 PRODUCER NOTIFIED BODY 73/86 .

CE mark System 2+ ITT + FPC + Notified Body 74/86 .

Bitumen used in France for road applications • The choice of penetration grade depend on: .altitude .mechanical strains and stresses .type of asphalt mix Some recommendations are given in specific guides for application of asphalt mixes 75/86 .type of climate .

conclusion • Specific requirements for aggregates. reclaim asphalt and binders are avalaible in European standard.…) • The producer must be respected these disposals in the Factory production control (quality système with or without « nofified body ») 76/86 . to produce an asphalt mix for infrasctructure applications • Some adjustements will be necessary for economic and technology conditions adapted to the use in French country • Some recommendations are given on national technical application guides for different uses (national roads. airfields. toll motorways.

I whish you a very fruitful meeting on performance requirements for asphalt mixes Gracias por su atención 77/86 .