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1.

Background of the Study


The Malaysia government has the social responsibility to provide 11 years of free primary and
secondary education at government and vernacular schools. According to Education Act
1996, it is compulsory for all children of Malaysian citizens to go to school. Therefore ,
children who are between the ages of 7 and 12 is mandatory to be enrolled at primary
schools. This is also further

emphasised

in the National Education Blueprint. The

National Curriculum states English as one of its core subjects. Thus English is compulsory
subjects and must be learned by all pupils in government and vernacular as well as private
schools.
http://www.schoolmalaysia.com/resources/public_schooling.php
When Malaysia(Malaya) was under Britishs rule between the 1750s and 1950s, English
language was used as official language in any forms of transactions

and medium of

instruction . After the independence in 1957, Bahasa Melayu was pronounced as the official
language as well as the national language. However, English was given recognition in the
education policy and planning as the second language.
The Status of English in Malaysia
Based from the survey conducted by EF EPI (Education First, English Proficiency Index),
which is a global education centre that specialises in academic degrees, educational travel,
cultural exchange and language training, Malaysia is ranked with the as one of the highest
English proficiency level among the Asian in the world. Malaysia scored 14 th place in
countries where English is not the mother tongue and 2 nd after Singapore in Asia followed by
Hong Kong, South Korea and Japan. This goes to show that learning has been
acknowledged as the important subject to be learned in line with the countries progress.

It was put much emphasise by our then Prime Minister, Tun Dr Mahathir Mohamad
when he started of PPSMI.
http://www.ef.com/epi/
The role of English in curriculum
With reference to the Malaysian education system, English is fully acknowledged as the
Second Language in line with the education policy. English language is made a compulsory
subject at all levels of education which goes to show its significance in the education policy
in Malaysia. Therefore, Malaysia learners are well aware of the necessity to master English
language

to undertake global challenges in future such as economy, employment and

business and to remain globally competitive. In the Malaysian education system, English
language learning takes a formal learning of English language is eleven years and they will
further their learning of the language in the tertiary level.
https://www.academia.edu/4275280/English_language_in_the_Malaysian_education_system_
Its_existence_and_implications

The aim of the KBSR is: to equip learners with basic skills and knowledge of the English
language so as to enable them to communicate both orally and in writing, in and out of
school.The learning outcomes outlined in the KBSR comprise of

the four important

component of the language skills such as listening, speaking, reading and writing which
could help the pupils to fulfil the needs in the daily life of Malaysian society. Then they
would continue to fully develop their skills in the secondary school curriculum which is
called the KBSM, which is to extend learners English language proficiency in order to
meet their needs to use English in certain situations in everyday life, for knowledge
acquisition, and for future workplace needs.(HSP Manual). In 2011 the Ministry of
Education introduced KSSR. It comes with the introduction of the standardised English
Language Curriculum for Primary Schools (Kurikulum Standard Sekolah Rendah), which was
implemented phase starting with Year 1 until Year 6 in 2016. The new curriculum emphasises
on holistic development of the students which encompasses new elements such as grooming
of creativity and innovation, entrepreneurship, and integration of Information and
Communication Technology (ICT).
Teaching Hours
Before the implementations of KSSR or rather Kurikulum Bersepadu Sekolah Rendah contact
hours for teaching English language was 210 minutes for government schools and 120
minutes allocated for vernacular schools. However, the ministry has increased the duration of
teaching English in class to 300 minutes in government schools and another 30 minutes to
vernacular schools.
http://www.kssronline.com/2013/09/peruntukan-waktu-kssr-bagi-kurikulum.html

The English Language Curriculum for Primary Schools aims to equip pupils with basic
language skills to enable them to communicate effectively in a variety of contexts that is
appropriate to the pupils level of development. The KSSR Curriculum is also known as
Modular Curriculum as it provides 5 modules in the learning of English from Primary 1 until
Primary 6
According to Bahasa Inggeris HSP (Syllabus), English language learning is developmental.
The focus in Years 1 and 2 is on basic literacy. This is done by building a strong foundation in
basic literacy skills namely reading through phonics, penmanship and basic listening and
speaking. Activities are contextualized and fun-filled with integration of language skills in
meaningful contexts. In Year 3 and onwards, pupils will further develop the ability to speak,
listen, read and write in English meaningfully, purposefully and with confidence. A Grammar
module is introduced from Year 3 to enable pupils develop a sound grasp of the language
structures and rules of grammar. The Language Arts module has been added to the English
language curriculum from Year 1 to allow pupils to engage and enjoy stories, poems, songs,
rhymes and plays written in English.(HSP Bahasa Inggeris Sekolah Rendah)
The overall framework of Teaching English Curriculum in Primary school is based on two
levels, in which Level 1 comprises of Year 1 to Year 3 while Level 2 comprises of Year 4 to
Year 6. Both levels will be concerned with the mastery of 4 Language skills and language arts.
However Grammar will be fully emphasised in Level 2.

KSSR was first established in 2011 starting with Year One pupils.The learning and content
standards that are outlined in KSSR were specifically aimed towards ensuring pupils acquire
basic literacy skills by the end of Year Three, and was also in line with the second National
Key Result Areas (NKRA) for the ministry which is to ensure all primary school pupils have
basic literacy skills after three years of formal schooling
Primary education is divided into two levels: Level One consists of Years 1, 2 and 3 while
Level 2 or Tahap 2, consists of Years 4, 5 and 6. The focus in Years 1 and 2 is on basic literacy
whereby pupils are taught on the use of letters, single to two word level vocabulary and
phonics. They are also being taught the basic foundation of

literacy skills

such basic

writing, reading, listening and speaking. In Year 3 and onwards, pupils will further develop
the ability to speak, listen, read and write in English meaningfully, purposefully and with
confidence. A Grammar module is introduced from Year 3 to enable pupils develop a sound
grasp of the language structures and rules of grammar. The Language Arts module has been
added to the English language curriculum from Year 1 to allow pupils to learn and enjoy
stories, poems, songs, rhymes and plays written in English.
In Level 2, pupils take to develop and progress on the skills they have obtained in Years 1 and
2. The only difference is that there is a fifth module added in Level 2 which is Grammar.
Grammar is added to the above four modules. Therefore, the modules for this stage are: 1.
Listening and Speaking 2. Reading 3. Writing 4. Language Arts 5. Grammar.

Activities are more on fun, meaningful and purposeful. Learning is more learner centred.
Learning of the language is also put much emphasise on the Integration of new technologies
which is in line with the academic competitiveness and the change in how children learn in
the 21st century. In other words, learning is more contextualized and fun-filled with integration
of language skills in meaningful contexts.
In short, the Language teaching curriculum is set to prepare the students for the real world
challenge especially in the 21st century society by focussing on the use of English language as
a tool to penetrate every aspect of future global transaction. Therefore the students are
expected to master the ability to listen carefully, speak confidently, read widely and write
effectively in the English language. They will also be equipped with interpersonal skills that
will enable them to achieve their long-term goals of pursuing their future endeavours such as
to further their studies and to gain employment. Thus they can contribute effective in the
society as well as contributing to the betterment of the global society effectively.
Actual practices in your school
Since the beginning of KSSR in 2011 my school has been adhering strictly to the prescribed
syllabus. The aim, objectives and contents of the language programmes are laid out which
specially cater the basic items to be taught in school especially for vernacular schools and
pupils of all level of competency. The syllabus helps teachers to utilise whatever materials
used towards a more creative way of teaching KSSR English.
Statement of the Problem
Malaysia has always put English Language on top of its priority in its quest of becoming a
developed nation. However, better performance in English among young students has been a
disappointment. This is due to the fact that students may not be aware of the importance of

English for their future. Lack of motivations and support from their parents is also one of the
factor affecting students progress in the language.Pupils in the primary schools fail to equip
themselves the required skills expected from them.
Reading ability has been identified as the major setback in the teaching of pupils of the
primary school especially those from the lower primary. Numerous studies have been
highlighting the grave concern on the primary cause of the failure of pupils in mastering
literacy.Therefore LINUS Programme was introduced to all schools throughout Malaysia in
2010. As of today, we have heard about the overwhelming positive results generated from this
programme. For instance, in 2013 pupils reading ability shot up sharply from 50% to 63%

in only 6 months. But what about to the remaining 37% ? This goes to show that there are
some certain areas needs to be improved.
Reading presents a problem to many pupils due to two reasons. Rural secondary school
pupilss face more problems due environmental factors which create negative attitude towards
the language. The parents and societal environment have indirectly influenced pupils mastery
of the language. Rural pupils , generally come from homes with little exposure to the English
English . To make matter worst, their parents do not speak or even speak the language as well.
The school, such as the teachers, also has an important role to play in the mastery or
English . Unfortunately, the administrators of the schools do not play their part in creating the
positive environment for the teachers and pupils to use the English Language within the
school compound or during assemblies. Pupils are being ridiculed for trying to use the
language in school. Worst still, teachers are using Bahasa Melayu or Mandarin while teaching
English due to the assumption that this could help pupils to understand better.

http://www.thestar.com.my/story/?sec=nation&file=%2f2012%2f12%2f3%2fnation%2f12391099

SJK C Kung Ming is one of the rural schools in Beaufort districts. Presently, I am teaching
Year 3 pupils of mixed ability plus 4 LINUS pupils. My dilemma is that pupils of LINUS
programme have not shown any noticeable progress and improvement in the mastery of
reading skills. Due to their inhibition, they are very reluctant to learn and participate in any of
the activities conducted by the teachers.
Their daily communication is Malay Language and Chinese. So naturally these two subjects
have become their second language while English Language as a foreign Language. Some of
the pupils can read and write well but majority do not master the skills yet. Therefore in a
regular classroom, learners with learning difficulties especially the LINUS pupils are often
left behind in any kinds of activities conducted by the teachers. Overtime, they become
inhibited and developing a sense of inferiority complex in their learning. The become shy,
slow and most of the time take longer time to complete their class task.
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
Managing learning difficulties is one of the significant aspect in the new curriculum.
Progressive action must be taken to ensure that pupils from all levels will be able to cope in
the face of various changes and challenges . Therefore LINUS programme is expected to be
utilized by teachers and stake holder at all level to ensure effectiveness of KSSR. This is due
to the fact that from

this study, it will be able to help the other teachers of KSSR to

implement more effectively which is adhering to the requirements . Appropriate teaching


methods can be practiced to complement and provide adequate space in for the pupils to
prepare themselves. Thus, lead to an increase in academic achievement, especially in the
learning English language . In addition, this study may also help teachers and parents have
better understanding and cooperation for the future of of the pupils .

The Research Aims


The objectives of this study is to identify the obstacles encountered by the teachers and how
cooperation from parents can contribute to positive learning attitude and eventually generating
interest and motivation. The respondents of this research only consist of

an English

Language teacher , 4 LINUS Year 3 Pupils and their parents.


This study illustrates that pupils are able to master literacy in the area of introducing PreVocabulary if teachers and parents working together on common ground to improve the pupils
ability. Therefore, a study conducted to identify the issues and obstacles and the teachers and
parents contribution in order to break that barrier.
In addition, the new programme also hopes to empower students to:
i)

respond and react personally to vocabulary.

ii)

be more aware reading skills employed in order to read better.


1.5 Research Questions

Therefore, this research is trying address the following question:


1. Is parents interventions an effective approach for teaching vocabulary to young children?
2. Is there evidence that vocabulary interventions in the early age enhance childrens
performance ?
3. To enhance pupils acquisition of English by providing examples of language in contexts
which are authentic and interesting.

SCOPE OF STUDY
This study investigated the problems in Reading in English among weak rural LINUS
primary school students and discovering whether these pupils ability is in anyway influenced
by attitude and parental awareness in supporting used appropriate reading strategies employed
by the teacher in school and at home. Reading is a process which require the learner not
only to understand what the writer is trying to say but also to communicate understanding in
the raised issue. Rural refers to areas far away from towns and lack most of the facilities
available in the town areas. LINUS is the acronym for the Literacy and Numeracy Screening
(LINUS) programme is aimed at ensuring that all Malaysian children acquire basic literacy
and numeracy skills after three years of mainstream primary education.
1.6 Significance of Study
Smith et al. (2007) believes that parental involvement is the involvement of parents in the
upbringing of their own child both at home and at school. If parents get themselves involved
to give their encouragement or motivation, their children will be motivated and inspired to
work diligently to achieve academic success. It is established that parental involvement is
important in childrens learning . When children experiences early reading with their parents it
prepares them for the benefit of formal literacy instruction. Parents involvement with reading
activities at home has a significant positive influence not only enhance their reading
achievement, comprehension and interactive languagr skills but also on childrens interest in
reading and their motivation towards improving theur literacy.
According to Flouri and Buchanan (2004), parental involvement in the childrens reading
practice was more powerful force than any other family backgrounds, while Organisation for

economic co-operation and Development (2002), said reading for enjoyment is more
important for childrens educational success than their families socio- economic status.
Research also shows that the earlier parents become involved in their childrens reading, the
more profound the results and the longer lasting the effect (Williams et al. 2002; Desforges
2003). The national reading campaign spearheaded by the ministry of education , promoted
reading for entertainment and leisure to all level of the society in which reading is a source of
inspiration and help its people to develop their reading skills. Parents who promote the view
that reading is a valuable and worthwhile activity have children who are motivated to read
for pleasure (Baker and Scher 2002). Reading skills were the important keys for learning. In
addition, children should be expose to any kind of activities which are meaningful and fun can
contribute to their reading skills and understanding capabilities. Furthermore, in order for the
children to develop and master the art of reading, the role of parents is very critical as they are
their first mentor and teachers who can start and enhance the actual process of developing
the reading habit.
The Benefit of Parental Involvement in Reading The benefits of parental involvement were
clear. A growing body of research shows successful parents involvement improve not only
childrens behaviour and attendance but also positively affect childrens achievement
(Dearing et al. 2004; Patall 2008). The relationship between schools and parents caused a
significant stress in their job. Below are some other benefits of engaging children in reading.
By supporting children to read in their leisure time at every age, by looking at reading through
picture or chapter books for example, parents can help to ensure that children are equipped
with the necessary skills to succeed in later life. The Rose Review (2008) independent review
of the primary school curriculum argued that: A deep engagement with storytelling and
great literature link directly to emotional development in primary children. This implies that
story telling play an important role in the development of reading skills. A study by the

National Literacy Trust (2004) also showed that the number of children who read above the
expected level of their age and have books of their own is higher than for those children who
do not have their own books and read at their level. This correlation between an appreciation
for books and reading levels demonstrate the importance of children gaining exposure to texts
at a young age. Reading Helps to Develop a Number of Skills In To Read and Not To Read
(2007), The National Endowment for the Arts states that leisure reading makes students more
articulate, develop higher order reasoning, and promote critical thinking. Once children have
mastered the ability to read, they are able to have access to a wider breadth of languages that
they can use in their oral and written communication.
1.7 Limitations of Study
1. Pupils Learning Patterns
This research has identified the obstacles the teacher has gone through throughout the pupils
learning journey. Their level of awareness with regards to the importance of learning reading
where literacy is concerned is very much low.
Pupils who are unable to master the specific skills in reading have the potential to tend to
develop unhealthy attitude. For examples, students tend to be undisciplined, having high
intensity of ignoring orders or instructions from teachers and short attention.

2. Parents Level of Awareness


It was identified that the parents failed to provide ways and means of mastering basic skills
at home . Parents educational background influences the awareness of the importance of
education among students themselves. A study about parents academic level translates
parents active support towards their childs academic development. The study (Weigel,

Martin, and Bennett 2006) found that mothers who believed they played an active role in
building their childrens knowledge actually created a more literacy-rich home.
It was also discovered that those mothers interviewed believed that schools responsible for
teaching their children therefore they did not foster literacy development at home. Parents
can actually

help children develop these pre-literacy skills at home as a means of

supporting what their children learn in early care and education classrooms (Honig,
Diamond, and Gutlohn 2013).
Another issue identified from the interview was that 75% of the parents had very limited
knowledge about LINUS, its objectives and its purpose.

CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK
The research is based on 3 theories of learning theories They are Behavioral Theory,
Cognitive Theory and Humanistics.
Behaviorism Theory
Albert Bandura in his social learning emphasizes human behavior and believes that learning
begins when the students act upon a stimulus Children observe the people around them
behaving

in

various

ways.

This

is

illustrated

during

the

famous bobo

doll

experiment (Bandura, 1961).In addition, this theory states that the teaching and learning
process will not run smoothly if the student is not interested. According to Bandura, students
interest is important to accelerate the learning process. This is were a LINUS teacher comes
into the picture. That is to utilise suitable methods or approaches to generate students interest

and ultimately learning process. The parents as well create the suitable and conducive
environment to accelerate learning and be a role model for their children to imitate.
Cognitive Theory
Piagets believed that one's childhood plays a vital and active role in a person's development 2
. According to Piaget, Knowledge can be further enhanced by sensory observation of the
students. Therefore this explains how LINUS teachers stimulate LINUS pupils cognitive
process so that they will be able to understand the concepts that have been taught. Thus
LINUS teachers can device suitable materials and activities based on the pupils age and
stage of development. Many parents have been encouraged to provide a rich, supportive
environment for their child's natural propensity to grow and learn.
Humanistic
Abraham Maslows theory primarily put much emphasize on pupils readiness and potential
as well as the humans uniqueness . According to Maslow, humans have basic needs. If
achieved, it will motivate themselves to achieve whatever they one. According to Kort (1987)
motivation is a result of both internal and external manipulation alone. This element can be
seen in Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs. This element is very helpful

during implementation

LINUS program. When the researcher collects data through observation during the LINUS
Teaching and Learning session, the researchers perceived the implications of Learning Theory
on LINUS students. Here the researcher will investigate whether all the needs in Maslow's
Hierarchy of Needs has been met or not .
METHODOLOGY

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In order to address the problems and issues, I will choose the qualitative method 3in this
research . Qualitative method is primarily exploratory research. It is used to gain
understanding of underlying reasons, opinions and motivations. It provides insights to the
problems or help to develop ideas or hypotheses for potential qualitative research. Data were
collected using interviews, document analysis and observation Moreover, the researcher
believes that teachers challenges in getting pupils to enhance their literacy mastery lies on the
intervention of parents at home is the key.
Literature Review
ATTITUDES AND PARENTAL SUPPORTS.
Attitudes and motivation have a very clear link with the language learning process (Ellis,
1997; Gardner, 2001b). Gardner (1985) believes that students with positive attitudes and high
level of motivation will be more successful compared to those with negative attitudes and no
motivation
ATTITUDE
Attitude is considered one of the factors that enhance and contribute to learning success in
pupils. Positive attitude in students enables them to take part actively in a language learning
classroom . According to Gardner and Lambert, students attitudes positively correlate with
their achievement in English. Holmes (1992) too believes that when people feel positive
towards target language users, they will be highly motivated and consequently more
successful in acquiring the target language. In contrast, Littlewood (1983) indicates that
negative attitudes resulted in losing interest towards learning since such attitudes produce an
obstacle in the learning process and prevent them from obtaining new L2 knowledge.
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http://atlasti.com/quantitative-vs-qualitative-research/

Similarly rural areas schools show lack of effort in learning English. The pupils do not really
display positive attitudes towards learning the language. Not much effort has been done
whether inside and outside the classroom to improve their competency . Therefore it is timely
that an Action Research is to be conducted to find out ways to help these pupils in the rural
areas so that their proficiency can be further enhanced .
PARENTAL SUPPORT
Parental support is of utmost importance in the learning of English.Parent can provide
support whether monetarily or motivation. Therefore it provides learner the inspiration and
desire for greater achievement in life. Parental support further changes pupils mindset and
awareness in learning the language because they can see the future and acknowledge the
importance of English as second language.

Direct Intervention From Parents Develops Early Literary Skills in Pupils of


Learning Disabilities.
The inconsistency in the developmental of language puts children at risk for longterm social interaction , emotional being

and difficulties in academic development.

Researches have demonstrated that children begin developing awareness of literacy during
their school years but given that parents must have direct role or the awareness in their
children's literacy development. The purpose of this study was to translate research findings
that are linked to best practices in a particular school readiness to improve child literacy
outcomes and promote parent involvement in school readiness.The effectiveness of the
intervention was examined through pre and post- 3 assessments on children and then
compared with children from a comparison group who did not receive the eight-week

intervention. Do parent involvement interventions related to early literacy influence child


early literacy outcomes?
This reviews describe the role of the school, teacher and parent collaboration in mastering
learning . Bloom (1981) asserts that "Learning goes on in both the home and the school, and
it is the relationship between these two institutions that explains much of the learning success
of some students and the difficulties of other students" The parents become the main
facilitator for their childrens mastery of reading skills and vocabulary building. According
to Ensie (1998) 1,the teacher can serve as a facilitator, creating a bridge between two cultures
that will impact the ultimate success or failure Teachers on the other hand administer
learning procedure in normal classroom following designed teaching method while parents
involvement in direct intervention by playing a very significant role at home in the
continuation of their childrens learning for a certain period of time. The hypothesis is that
the use of parent-teachers collaboration greatly influence childrens progress in mastering
reading skills and enhancing vocabulary input. Awareness of the importance of collaboration
between teachers, parents, and parents intervention on their childrens literacy is essential to
the process Teachers must then lead parents into participation through planned activities.
Topics covered in this literature review include (a) Humanistic theory; (b) Piaget Cognitive
theory; (c) Behavioural/Behaviourism Theory.
1. Cognitive Development.
Piaget (1959) is a comprehensive theory about the nature and development of human
intelligence. Piaget believed that one's childhood plays a vital and active role in a person's
development2. The theory focused on the development of cognition as a process of adaptation
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and the childrens childhood and plays an important role their development. For the purposes
of this review, Piagets theory will be touched briefly to highlight its important in the growth
and development of a childs cognitive level. According to Piaget, there were 4 stages in
cognitive development, namely The Preoperational Stage, The Concrete Operational Stage
and Formal Operational Stage. To Piaget, cognitive development was a progressive mental
processes resulting from biological maturation and environmental experience. Piaget claimed
that cognitive development is at the center of the human organism, and language is
contingent on knowledge and understanding acquired through cognitive development3. So this
is where parents have encourage their children and to provide a conducive and supportive
environment for their child to grow and learn naturally.
For the benefit of this studies we are going to utilize the Period of Concrete Operations (7-11
years). LINUS year 1 to Year 3.
During this stage, the thought process becomes more rational, mature and 'adult like', or
more 'operational', Although this process most will usually carried on into the teenage years.
In this Concrete Operational stage, the childs ability to develop logical thought about an
object and ability to manipulate will be obviously seen. However, in the Formal Operations
stage, the thoughts are able to be manipulated and the presence of the object is not necessary
for the thought to take place4. As teachers and parents, we need to understand cognitive
development so that we can recognize their strengths and limitations, and provide stimulating
academic and intellectual environments.
Thus, the intellectual mind of the child depends on obtaining language. Meaningful speech
is a union of word and thought (Vygotsky, 1962). On the other hand, Vygotsky said that it was

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http://ehlt.flinders.edu.au/education/DLiT/2000/Piaget/stages.htm#concrete operations

the utmost

importance of social factors on their

language development. The emphasis

Vygotsky places on parents as partners in their childs life is crucial as he believed that
everything a child learns is through the interactions with knowledgeable partners (Brooks,
2011) He stated the need and support for parents to provide children with early literacy
materials creating a social environment with print. These information for parents will better
equipped them as the role models for their children in their physical and mental development.

2. Behavioural Theory
The social learning theory of Bandura4 emphasizes the importance of observing and modeling
the behaviors, attitudes, and emotional reactions of others. Bandura (1977) states: "Learning
would be exceedingly laborious, not to mention hazardous, if people had to rely solely on the
effects of their own actions to inform them what to do. Bandura also stated that human learns
behaviour by observing his of her surroundings or in other words through modelling. Because
it encompasses attention, memory and motivation, social learning theory spans both cognitive
and behavioral frameworks. Bandura's theory improves upon the strictly behavioral
interpretation of modeling provided by Miller & Dollard (1941). Vygotsky , a well known
psychologist also agreed with Banduras Social Learning. People adapt their behavior and/or
attitudes to what is going on around them, and they have a tendency of imitating what they
see being done by those people who have the power to influence them (Bandura, 1963).
Adolescents are exposed to a number of influences, attitudes and behaviors that they later
imitate. Adolescence is a stage which is characterized by many changes including cognitive
change ( Papalia & Olds, 1998). Adolescents are not yet cognitively mature, which means that
they are not capable of thinking rationally (Craig, 1996). The inability to think rationally puts
them at a risk of inability to understand the importance of learning. Parents literacy
44

intervention is very effective in increasing young childrens Vocabulary . The results from
this study showed intervention in the primary school , the young children learning is at its
best. The post-test scores showed a significant result the intervention group. Pre-Test and
Post-comparison test scores in the intervention group increased. Thus, we can conclude that
the intervention was effective in increasing LINUS childrens ability in remembering what
they learned. However, there was limitation of this study. It was the number of pupils was
too small which was 4 only . This study can be improved by adding more pupil samples and
duration of the study could improve this study.

3. Humanistic Theory
There are five different levels in Maslows hierarchy of needs:
1.

Physiological Needs
These include the most basic needs to survive, such as the need for water, air, food, and
sleep. Maslow believed that these needs must be met otherwise the body cannot function as
expected

2.

Security Needs
Safety and security. Human needs life to be fully secured. For instance, the need for a
secured and permanent job , and shelter and medical care.

3.

Social Needs
Needs for belonging, love, and affection. Humans need to feel a sense of belonging and
acceptance. They need to love and be loved by others. Companionship and acceptance

such as friendships and families help fulfill this need . Besides there is also needs for
involvement in community or religious gatherings.
4.

Esteem Needs
After the first three needs have been satisfied, esteem needs is another vital part of needs.
They include the need for personal worth, social recognition, and accomplishment.

5.

Self-actualizing Needs
The peak and the highest level of the hierarchy of needs is Self-actualization. According to
Maslow, self actualisation represents growth of an individual toward fulfillment of potential
and meaning in life.

According to Abraham Maslow, human needs form a hierarchy which is from basic
physiological needs to self-actualization. Needs at the lower levels must be satisfied first
before he or she turns to the higher levels. For example, a child who do not received
sufficient food and love would not likely to develop much intellectual ability
The effects of parent involvement on the early literacy skill development of their
children were examined. In Maslows experiment, forty children and their parents were
selected to take part in a two week literacy intervention. Significant scores from pre- to posttest were obtained The results from this study showed evidence success. Through this context,
young children learn best when their needs to be love and cosy environment are provided. As
a conclusion the parents intervention was effective in increasing literacy awareness in
children.
Finally, those the teachers and parents who are working with young childrens literacy
skill development must be educate themselves that there are certain developmental levels that
are suitable for a child to achieve. In addition children need to be cognitively ready to adsorb

to inputs given to them. Their needs must be provided and fulfilled in order to gain effective
motivation and success in learning .

Findings after the intervention of parents.


The research begins with a pre test whereby pupils are given a series of reading and word
recognition test. Marks were recorded carefully. Before the post test parents were invited to
school to be interviewed . After the face to face meeting parents were invited to observe the
teachers lesson .Then parents were given a set of instruction to be carried out at home
whereas parents were to spend at least 30 minutes on daily basis to help their children. After a
week the teacher reassessed the pupils in which the marks are to be compared with the
previous tests.

The table below shows the difference in achievement Pre and


Post Test.

Pre Test
PUPILS

FAILED

Pupils A

-/

Pupils B

-/

Pupils C

-/

Pupils D

-/

PASSED

Post Test
PUPILS

FAILED

PASSED

Pupils A

-/

Pupils B

-/

Pupils C
Pupils D

-/
-/

DISCUSSION
In carrying out this program, I had two aims: firstly to see whether it would lead to gains in
pupils confidence and motivation, and secondly, to encourage local teachers, with headmaster
support, to adopt a reading strategy teaching approach.
The program resulted in a marked increase in student motivation and confidence. After the
first few sessions, students would come to me to and telling me how appreciative they are
that they do feel at ease when reading. Parents also show some sort of interest and concern in
their childs education development. They would come frequently to have a discussion on
their childs progress. They really developed the sense of confidence in themselves as they no
longer feeling inferior and fearsome when attempting to read the given word be it individually
or in groups or in front of the class
My next aim is to have other teachers to observe and implement this teaching approach and I
believe it is achievable . With the implementation of Professional Learning Community in
school which started a couple of years ago, I feel that I can persuade other LINUS teachers to
join in the programme so that proper management can be provided for other LINUS pupils as
well.

RECOMMENDATIONS
Based on the findings of the study, lack of understanding of the LINUS Program among
parents is the contributing factor to the inability of pupils to master the skills in class . The
rest was due to parents low academic level. So it is important for both the teacher and parents
to collaborate which can be taken initiatives through variety of activities or programs . Parents
should be spending time with their children more often to develop their pre vocabulary
mastery at home. Their master will be further enhanced and developed in school. This type of
collaboration will also further strengthen parents teacher relationship for the pupils sake.

References
Education National Key Result Area (2010). The conference of education national key result
area (NKRA) 2010. The Performance Management and Delivery unit, (PEMANDU).
Ozola A. (2008). Factors influencing reading literacy at the primary school level. Journal
Problems of Education in the 21st Century.
Reading and writing skills : Literacy in primary education. Kuala Lumpur: Ministry of
Education. Jamian, A.R (2011).
Maslow, A.H. (1943). A theory of human motivation. Psychological Review .
Mercer, C.D., & Mercer, A.R. (1998). Teaching students with learning problems. (5th ed.).
Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill Merriem, S.B. (1998).
Internet References
http://www.thestar.com.my/story/?sec=nation&file=%2f2012%2f12%2f3%2fnation
%2f12391099
http://www.learningandteaching.info/learning/piaget.htm
http://atlasti.com/quantitative-vs-qualitative-research/
http://proxy.wexler.hunter.cuny.edu/login?url=/login?
qurl=http://search.credoreference.com.proxy.wexler.hunter.cuny.edu/content/entry/conscitech/
developmental_psychology/0