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Many early engine blocks were manufactured from cast iron alloys primarily due to
its high strength and low cost. But, as engine designs became more complicated, the weight
of the engine (and the vehicle) had increased. Consequently, the desire among manufacturers
to use lighter alloys that were as strong as cast irons arose. One such material that was being
used as a substitute was aluminium alloys. Used sparingly in the 1930s (due to problems
with durability) aluminium alloy use in engine blocks increased during the 1960s and 1970s
as a way to increase fuel efficiency and performance. Together, these two metals were used
exclusively to fabricate engine blocks. As of late, however, a new material process has made
a magnesium alloy suitable for use in engines. The alloy, called AMC-SC1, weighs less than
both cast iron and aluminium alloys and represents new possibilities in engine manufacturing.
In diesel Engines of trucks, The repetition Of the start up and shut down of engines
causes severe mechanical loading in some parts of the engine, such as cylinder blocks and
heads and this may lead to localized cracking due to stresses that develop as a result of
thermal gradients and thermal mismatch. This phenomenon is known as Thermo Mechanical
Fatigue (TMF). TMF is believed to be the dominating process responsible for cracks
developing in engine components.
Increase of Fuel efficiency and good performance of cylinder heads at high
temperatures are essential. The performance of any component is inherently related to the
material properties and thus to its microstructure. Any variation in the micro structural aspect
will Lead to a variation of mechanical properties such as strength and fatigue toughness, but
may also] affect important physical properties such as thermal conductivity. The most
common material used in cylinder heads is pearlitic compacted graphite cast iron (CGI),
which consists of two main components: coral like graphite particles embedded in a pearlitic
steel matrix and cast iron .

1.1 History
Cast iron has its earliest origins in China between 700 and 800 B.C.
Until this period ancient furnaces could not reach sufficiently high
The use of this newly discovered form of iron varied from simple tools to a
complex chain suspension bridge erected approximately 56 A.D.
Cast iron was not produced in mass quantity until fourteenth centaury A.D.
In 1325 A.D. water driven bellows were introduced which allowed for a
greater draft to be fed to the pit, thus increasing temperatures.
The next significant development in cast iron was the first use of coke in
1730 by an English founder named Darby.

Coke could be used more efficiently than coal, thus lowering the cost and
time necessary to yield a final product.
In 1885 Turner added ferrosilicon to white iron to produce stronger gray
iron castings.
In the later 20th century the major use of cast irons consisted of pipes,
thermal containment units, and certain machine or building entities which
were necessary to absorb continuous vibrations.