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Engine Principles

Engine Principles

Paramobile Technical Service training Center

Engine Principles

index
A to Z

ABNORMAL COMBUSTION, 6
CHARACTERISTICS, 26
COMBUSTION, 4
COMBUSTION CHAMBER, 5
COMPRESSION, 3
COMPRESSION TEST, 13
CONNECTING ROD, 8
COOLING SYSTEM, 20
CRANKSHAFT, 8
ENGINE BLOCK, 7
EXHAUST, 4
EXHAUST MANIFOLD, 12
FOUR STROKE CYCLE, 2
FUEL PRESSURE TEST, 19
FUNCTION OF LUBRICATION, 25
IGNITION COIL, 14
IGNITION TIMING, 15
INTAKE, 3
INTAKE MANIFOLD, 12
LUBRICATIONS, 24
NORMAL COMBUSTION, 5
Notes, 34
OIL FILTER, 29

OIL PAN, 28
OIL PUMP, 28
OIL SCREEN, 28
PCV VALVE, 30
PISTONS, 7
PISTONS, RINGS, 8
POSITIVE CRANKCASE VENTILATION, 30
POWER, 3
PRE-IGNITION, 6
RADIATOR, 22
RADIATOR CAP, 23
RADIATOR FAN, 23
Spark Plug, 14
THERMO FAN SWITCH, 24
THERMOSTAT, 22
TIMING BELT ALIGNMENT, 16
VALVE CLEARANCE ADJUSTMENT, 16
VALVE GUIDES, 11
VALVE OVERLAP, 4
VALVE SEALS, 11
VALVE SPRINGS, 11
VALVES, 10
WATER PUMP, 21

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FOUR STROKE CYCLE


A four stroke cycle means that the piston in each cylinder must travel the length of the cylinder
four times (2 up strokes and 2 down strokes) to complete one cycle for that cylinder.
Because the engine has 4 cylinders, each piston in the cylinder will be moving in a different
stroke. It takes 720 degrees of crankshaft rotation (2 full revolutions) to complete one four stroke
cycle for each cylinder.

INTAKE STROKE - High Pressure Attempts to Equalize Low Pressure.


COMPRESSION STROKE - Volume of Gas Decreases, Temperature and Pressure Increase.
POWER STROKE - Pressure and Temperature Increase, Volume Increases.
EXHAUST STROKE - High Pressure Gas Attempts to Equalize Low Pressure Exhaust System

INTAKE
The piston is being pulled downward by the crankshaft resulting in a
low pressure area in the cylinder and the intake manifold. The
pressure in the cylinder is lower than atmospheric. The air/-fuel mix
is "pushed" into the cylinder as the higher atmospheric pressure
attempts to equalize the lower pressure area in the cylinder. The
air/fuel mix enters the cylinder past the opening intake valve, and
continues to enter the cylinder until the intake valve reaches full
closure.

COMPRESSION
After the piston reaches BDC on the intake stroke, it begins to move
upward. This is the beginning of the compression stroke. As the
stroke begins the intake and exhaust valve is closed, thus sealing the
cylinder. As the piston travels upward the air/fuel mix is compressed
and by the time the piston reaches TDC, the air/ fuel mix has been
compressed to approx. 1/8th of its original volume.
This compression causes the molecules of the air/fuel mix to move
around in the combustion chamber
The more upward in the cylinder the piston moves, the higher the
pressure in the chamber, and the faster the molecules move. This
causes the molecules to "bump" into each other and the walls of the
chamber, raising the temperature inside the chamber. As the piston
nears TDC, the spark is introduced to the combustion chamber. This
causes the air/fuel mix to begin to burn, and to expand in the
chamber.

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POWER
As the piston passes TDC and begins to travel downward on
the power stroke, the burning gases exert great pressure
on the walls of the chamber and the head of the piston. This
increase in pressure drives the piston downward, thus
driving the crankshaft and the other pistons.
NOTE:
It is during this stroke that the reciprocal (up-down) motion
of the piston is converted to the rotary (circular) motion of
the crankshaft that is used to drive the vehicle. As the
piston nears BDC the exhaust valve begins to open and the
high pressure, burned gases start to exit the cylinder.
EXHAUST
The piston begins to travel upward in the cylinder on the
exhaust stroke. The exhaust valve fully opens, then
begins
to
close
during
the
stroke.
Pressure within the cylinder when the exhaust valve
opens causes the exhaust gases to rush out of the
cylinder past the valve and into the exhaust system. The
upward movement of the piston, along with the effects of
valve overlap causes the rest of the burned gases to exit
the cylinder.

VALVE OVERLAP
Valve overlap is the amount of time between the end of the
exhaust stroke and the beginning of the intake stroke when both
valves are open simultaneously. The amount of overlap is critical
as any increase or decrease will adversely affect emissions and
engine performance, especially idle quality. The purposes of valve
overlap are
1)
2)

to improve volumetric efficiency


to help scavenge burned exhaust gases from the cylinder.

Valve overlap improves volumetric efficiency by opening the intake


valve early enough to begin introducing a new fuel charge to the
cylinder before the down stroke of the piston. This allows the
cylinder a slightly larger charge than could be attained by opening
the valve at the beginning of the intake stroke.
Scavenging of the cylinder is improved because the incoming fuel
charge helps to push out any remaining burned gases. This action
also helps to cool the exhaust valve.

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COMBUSTION
COMBUSTION CHAMBER
The combustion chamber of the DOHC engine is referred to as having a "pent roof" shape.
This is different than a "wedge" or "hemispherical" shaped chamber. The spark plug is
positioned in the center of the combustion chamber, in line with and along the length of the
block.

NORMAL COMBUSTION
The combustions process in the automotive engine combustion chamber goes through 3
stages, sometimes termed as formation (nucleus of flame), hatching out and propagation. As
soon as the spark occurs, a small ball of flame develops in the gap. This ball is the first stage,
or nucleus of the flame. It enlarges with relative slowness and, during its growth, there is no
measurable pressure created by the heat. As the nucleus enlarges, it develops into the
hatching out stage. The nucleus is torn apart, so that it sends "fingers" of flame into the
mixture in the combustion chamber.

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This causes enough heat to slightly raise the temperature and pressure throughout the entire
A/F mix. During the 3rd stage propagation, the burning of the fuel begins to have the greatest
effect. The flame "front" sweeps across the chamber rapidly causing heat and a rise in
pressure.
This
third
stage
is
what
causes
the
piston
to
move
down.
With normal combustion, the burning is progressive, and increases gradually during the first
two stages. But, during the propagation stage the flame is very strong.

ABNORMAL COMBUSTION
Although there are a number of different types of abnormal combustion that could be
discussed, two that most relate to the automotive internal combustion engine are Pre-ignition
and Detonation.
Common causes of pre-ignition include :
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Hot carbon deposits


Valves operating at higher than operating temperature
Defects in the cooling system causing hot spots in the cylinder
Spark plugs running too hot
Sharp edges in the combustion chamber
Detonation

PRE-IGNITION
Ignition of the fuel charge before the normal ignition spark occurs.With pre-ignition the
combustion process is started too early. If the process is completed before the regular spark
occurs there may be no identifying noise. If regular spark occurs soon after the pre-ignition
combustion has begun, a pinging noise results from the collision of the two flame fronts.

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Pre-ignition can cause detonation and vice-versa. These two types of abnormal combustion
are closely linked, can be caused by many of the same problems and it is often hard to tell
one from the other.

ENGINE BLOCK
The engine block serves as a rigid metal foundation for all parts
of the engine. It contains the cylinders, the cooling system
"water jacket", and supports the crankshaft mounting points,
the oil pump, and distributor mounts. The cylinder head(s) and
accessories are usually bolted to it. The block also forms the
upper part of the crankcase.

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PISTONS
The piston is a plug driven up and down by the crankshaft
residing in the cylinder. The movement of the piston provides
the action in the cylinder. It is used to draw, compress, drive
and push. The piston alternately drives, and is driven by the
crankshaft. It changes directions at high speeds, subjected to
intense heat and friction and receives tremendous pressure
from the combustion process.

PISTONS, RINGS
The piston rings must seal in compression, transfer heat, clean
the cylinder walls, withstand high pressures, and have a long
wear rate. Most piston designs incorporate three rings for two
purposes. Usually the two rings toward the top of the piston are
compression rings. The third and lowest of the rings is actually
a combination of parts making up the oil control ring.
The compression rings must keep the pressures of combustion
from passing into the crankcase and must create a seal against
the cylinder walls for the cylinder to become a low-pressure
area during the intake stroke. The rings are designed to allow
the forces of compression and combustion to come in behind
them and force them out against the walls of the cylinder. The
rings not only have to seal at the cylinder walls, but also in the
ring-groove/ring-land area.
CONNECTING ROD
The connecting rod connects the piston to the crankshaft. It is
subjected to very high tensile, compression and bending stresses
and carries the bearings for the piston pin and the crank pin.
Upper side of connecting rod is called small end which is
connected to piston by piston pin. Lower side of connecting rod is
named big end which is connected to crank pin. The length of the
connecting rod is determined by the piston stroke and the crank
pin radius.

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CRANKSHAFT
The crankshaft is the point at which the
reciprocating motion of the piston and rod is
changed to the rotary motion needed to power the
driveline of the vehicle. The crankshaft revolves in
bearings called the "main" bearings. These
bearings are housed in the main bearing bores of
the engine block and are manufactured under very
close tolerances to withstand extreme loads.

CAMSHAFT
The second rotating shaft in the engine is
the camshaft and its function is to
operate the valve train. Cam shape or
contour is the major factor in the
operating characteristics of the engine.

NOTE
:
Camshafts are also used to drive other
engine components such as the oil pump
and fuel pump. Pushrod engines have the
cam located in the block, and operate the
valves through lifters, pushrods, rocker
arms, etc. Overhead cam engines have
the cam in the cylinder head. This
eliminates the lifters and pushrods, and
there is less lost motion in the valve train.
Because the valve follows the cam more
closely, the valves can operate faster,
and the engine can operate with less
valve overlap. This allows a high-speed
engine to idle more smoothly.

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The function of the cam is to open and close the valves.
The closing force for the valves is applied by the valve
springs which are also responsible for maintaining contact
between the cam and the valves.
Cam lobe shape has more control over engine
performance than any other single engine part. The
shape of the lobe determines when the valves open, how
far they open, and how long they are open. This
determines the amount of valve overlap. The cam
controls the amount of air that comes into the engine,
and that goes out. Any change in the shape of a cam lobe
results in a change in engine performance.
VALVES
In most automotive engines
there are two valves per
cylinder : an intake valve
and an exhaust valve. The
intake valve is the larger of
the two. When the intake
valve is opened, the only
force driving the mix into the
cylinder
is
atmospheric
pressure.
The exhaust valve can be smaller because the motion of the piston combined with the high
pressures in the cylinder forces the burned mix out.
The valve used today is the beveled poppet valve. Its cone shaped seating surface makes it
self-centering when it closes. This closes the valve tightly to seal in the combustion gases,
and helps to transfer heat from the valve face, to the seat, to the cooling system.
Temperatures at which a valve operates are extremely high.
One of the most common causes for a burned valve is poor cooling system performance at
the seat or guide area.
NOTE:
Cooling of the valve during operation is done in a number of ways. An intake valve average
running temperature will rarely get above 480 to 540 degrees. The exhaust valve commonly
operates at 760 degrees C and higher. The cylinder head is designed to bring coolant very
near to the valve seats and guides. About 75% of valve heat is lost through the seat and 25%
through the guide. The casting of the head also incorporates "deflectors "in the water
passages to circulate the coolant around these hot spots. Exhaust gases can reach 1650
degrees C.

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VALVE GUIDES
The main function of the guide is to keep the valve centered
over the seat and secondarily it must transfer heat from the
valve to the cooling system. Because of friction and heat,
the guide area is a high wear point.

VALVE SEALS
Valve seals are used to keep engine oil out of the
combustion chamber. They are attached either to
the valve stem or to the valve guide boss in the
cylinder head.

VALVE SPRINGS
Valve springs hold the valves against the seats. One end of the
valve spring is seated against the head. The other end is secured,
under compression to the valve stem by a valve spring retainer
and a valve spring keeper. Problems associated with valve
springs include when a spring becomes weak it can cause the
valve to bounce on closure, to close too slowly, or not close at all.
In extreme cases it should be replaced, otherwise a shim can be
placed under it.
Another problem is spring oscillation or surge. When the valve is
opened and closed at high speeds, a vibration can start to set up
in the spring's coils. If severe, the spring will begin to oscillate, or
extend and compress on its own. It can become great enough to
open and close the valve.
A weak or oscillating spring can contribute to "floating" the valve train. A number of devices have been
used to combat valve spring oscillation. These are called vibration dampeners. The most used method
is the closed coils. The spring is built so the last coil on each end of the spring rubs against the second
last coils. This gives the spring a variable rate of tension. It is stronger when compressed than when
extended. Another method is the flat coiled damper inside the spring. The damper looks like a flat
spring with the flat sides facing in and out. The damper rubs against the inside coils of the valve
spring. It adds some spring tension to the entire assembly, and causes a turning action in the spring
assembly when the valve is returned to its seat.
This helps the valve to "wipe" the seat clean during operation. Multiple valve springs are used where
large lifts are required and one spring cannot control the valve. Multiple springs have their coils wound
in opposite directions to control valve spring surge and excessive rotation.

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INTAKE MANIFOLD
The intake manifold is a series of tubes for carrying
the air/fuel mix from throttle body to the cylinder
intake ports. Manifold sizes are a compromise. They
must have a cross section large enough to allow
enough charge to flow for maximum power and
small enough to keep flow velocities high to keep
the droplets in suspension. Manifold heat is
necessary to evaporate the fuel droplets efficiently.
The intake charge temperature must be above 3855 degrees C to evaporate correctly. This is why
intake manifolds have special runners through
which exhaust is passed to heat the manifold.
Exhaust heat is only provided during engine warmup to prevent the manifold becoming too hot. Some
engines use coolant to warm the fuel charge.
Coolant is used where a uniform temperature is
needed. In today's engines there is normally an
additional opening in the intake manifold for E.G.R.
purposes.

EXHAUST MANIFOLD
The exhaust manifold is designed to collect the high
temperature spent gases from the cylinder head
ports and send them to the outside air. This must
be done with the least possible restriction or back
pressure while keeping system noise to a minimum.
Exhaust gas temperature will vary according to the
power output of the engine. Severe bends have
little effect on the flow of exhaust gas. A large
cross-sectional area must be maintained in the
manifold runners and the exhaust system, as the
gases expand at a very high rate. Small diameter
runners and exhaust pipes will cause too much back
pressure.

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COMPRESSION TEST
PURPOSE
To check the condition of piston rings,
cylinder head gasket, valve seat, valves and
valve springs
CHECK CONDITION
Engine oil level, starter motor and battery are
normal
CHECK PROCEDURE
1. Remove the spark plugs
2. Attach the compression gauge to the
spark plug hole
3. Depress the accelerator pedal to fully
open the throttle valve
4. Crank the engine and read the gauge
5. Repeat step 2 through 4 on all
cylinders and check the pressure
differential for each cylinders
LIMIT MAX. 1.0/ BETWEEN
CYLINDERS
6. If a cylinder pressure or pressure
differential is below specification, add
a small amount engine oil through
spark plug hole.

If the addition of oil brings the


compression up
suspected items : worn cylinder and
piston rings, piston or ring broken

If same compression pressure after adding oil


suspected items : valve, valve spring, valve
seat, cylinder head gasket

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IGNITION COIL

12 volts in 30,000 + volts out


Step up transformer
When current flows magnetic
field is developed
quick clean interruption of
current field collapses the
magnetic field

Spark Plug
The spark plug ignites at the compressed
mixture to fire it according to the spark arc
by the high voltage generated from the
ignition coil.
spark plug is classified as 14mm, 12mm, and
10mm according to the size of attaching
screw.

The spark plug, during driving, is affected by


the various temperatures. The most affecting
temperature is the combusted amount of fuel
mixture per time. As the engine is high
speed, the temperature of plug will be high.
Even in the same driving condition, the
temperature differs according to the heat
range of the plug.

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IGNITION TIMING
PURPOSE
The fuel system and ignition system should be
correctly functioning for the engine to run smoothly.
Hence, proper operation of the fuel system and
ignition system must be determined prior to
troubleshooting. Therefore, the purpose of ignition
timing is to check if the ignition system is operating
properly.

CHECK CONDITION

Warming up temperature
All electrical loads off
A/T : "P" or "N"
Idle rpm is normal

CHECK PROCEDURE
1.
2.
3.
4.

Install a timing light


Ground the ignition timing adjust terminal
Check the ignition timing through timing light
Adjust the ignition timing if the ignition timing
is out of specification

If the timing can not be adjusted(some of engine


ignition timing can not be adjusted), please check the
relevant component
NOTICE !
Do not use the scan tool to check the ignition timing .
The ignition timing shown in current data on the scan
tool is not actual ignition timing but it is electrical
timing.

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VALVE CLEARANCE ADJUSTMENT
MECHANICAL LASH ADJUSTER
VALVE CLEARANCE CAN BE ADJUSTED BY SHIM.

PROCEDURE
1.
2.
3.
4.

Set no1 cylinder to TDC


compression
Check TDC position of camshaft
Measure the clearance for
#1 intake valve, exhaust valve
#2 intake valve,
#3 exhaust valve
5. Turn the crankshaft one revolution

6. Measure the clearance for


#2 exhaust valve,
#3 intake valve
#4 intake valve, exhaust valve
7. If the valve clearance is not within the specification, replace the adjusting shim
Specification (20c)
Intake 0.12 ~ 0.28mm
Exhaust 0.2 ~ 0.36mm
Use special tools to replace adjusting shim
See the adjusting shim selection chart See page 32-33

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TIMING BELT ALIGNMENT

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BETA ENGINE - ELANTRA(96MY)

SONATA DOHC

EF SONATA 2.5L

XG 3.0L

TIMING BELT ALIGNMENT -OMEGA 4.5

1. Align the camshaft timing mark on camshaft


cap timing mark

2. Align the sprocket timing mark and camshaft


timing mark

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3. Align timing mark


between sprocket and
head(Left bank)

4. Align timing mark


between sprocket and
head(Right bank)

5. Align timing mark


between crankshaft
sprocket and front case

6. Install the timing belt as


following order

Check the timing mark after 8 rotation of crankshaft

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Checking the timing mark on the vehicle

Checking the timing mark on the vehicle

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FUEL PRESSURE TEST


CHECK PROCEDURE
1. Reduce
the
internal
pressure of the fuel pipes
and
hoses
(disconnect the fuel pump
connector start the engine
and turn the ignition switch
"off" after it stops by
2. Itself connect the fuel
pump connector)
3. Install a fuel pressure
gauge and a fuel pressure
gauge adapter
4. Start the engine and check
that there is no fuel
leakage
5. Disconnect the vacuum
hose from the pressure
regulator and plug the
hose end. Measure the fuel
pressure
6. Measure the fuel pressure
when the vacuum hose is
connected to the pressure
regulator
SUSPECTED ITEMS

Fuel pressure too low Fuel filter, fuel pressure regulator, fuel pump
Fuel pressure too high Fuel pressure regulator, return hose or pipe
Fuel pressure drops slowly after engine has stopped Injector leakage
Fuel pressure drops immediately after engine has stopped Check valve of the fuel pump

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COOLING SYSTEM

INLET CONTROL TYPE


DIAGRAM

OUTLET CONTROL TYPE


GENERAL DIAGRAM

WATER PUMP

For a cooling system to operate effectively, it must have the ability to circulate the coolant.
Engine temperature needs to be controlled to maximize engine tolerances and to insure good

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lubricating conditions.
If oil is too cool or too hot, inadequate lubricating conditions exist that could result in scuffing
and other wear problems. Water pumps are usually belt driven off a crankshaft pulley. Water
pumps are die cast housing construction with a stamped steel impeller. The pump has an inlet
that leads to the center of the impeller. The water pumps of the centrifugal-type will pump
the water outwards to the impeller tips. This flow of water is then discharged through an
outlet in the pump and into the cylinder block. Once in the engine block it will circulate over
the outside of the cylinders and then flow upward into the cylinder head, intake manifold and
heater core.

THERMOSTAT
The thermostat has the
responsibility of regulating
the coolant temperature in
the engine. When the
coolant is not up to
operating temperature, the
thermostat will not allow
the coolant to go on to the
radiator.
Instead, the coolant will be directed back to the water pump to be recirculated through the
engine to be heated to operating temperature. Think of the thermostat as a valve that opens
when its hot and closes when its cold. When the engine water does reach the rated
temperature of the thermostat, the valve will open and direct water to the radiator for
cooling.
The inside air of coolant passage must be
vented through the jiggle valve in order to
prevent the engine from overheat. The jiggle
valve opens by weight of jiggle valve when the
air exists around the jiggle valve. The air can
be vented through the jiggle valve hole. The
jiggle valve closes when the water is reached
to the jiggle valve.
If the jiggle valve is installed on bottom side, it
blocks the its hole before air ventilation. The
thermostat can not open even if the coolant
temperature is over than opening temperature,
because the coolant can not be reached to the
pellet by air. Therefore, jiggle valve should be
located on top side.

RADIATOR
The radiator's only function is to transfer heat from the coolant to air by radiation. The
construction of a radiator is rather simple. There are long water tanks that are connected by

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thin tubes and attached to these tubes are fins for the purpose of absorbing heat to be cooled
by air. The two most common types of radiator constructions are the tube-fin and the ribboncellular.
Radiator assemblies can be made from a variety of materials. The most common materials are
copper, brass, plastic or aluminum.

Construction of a ribbon-cellular
radiator core

Construction of tube and fin


radiator core

RADIATOR CAP

The purpose of the radiator cap is to seal the radiator to prevent contaminants from entering
and to pressurize the cooling system.The reason for pressurizing the cooling system is to raise
the boiling point of the anti-freeze. The boiling point will increase by pressure. A pressurized
system can run hotter and dissipate heat better for improved cooling.

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RADIATOR FAN
The radiator has to have air flow
through it to be able to do its job.
When the vehicle is stationary or
moving at low speeds below 60 mph,
there is insufficient air flow for cooling
to be effective. Therefore, a fan is
installed to produce adequate air flow.
The fan on some vehicles is mounted
on the water pump pulley shaft and is
belt
driven
off
the
crankshaft
pulley.The shroud acts as a suction
chamber to draw more air through the
entire radiator surface. Without a
shroud, the area that the fan would
draw air through would be restricted
to the fan diameter. The fan shroud
also prevents underhood air from
recirculating behind the radiator. Both
functions help to increase the flow of
cool air through the radiator.

THERMO FAN SWITCH


The thermo fan switch grounds an
electromagnet in the fan relay to turn
the fan on. It is not directly connected
to the fan.

LUBRICATIONS

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LUBRICATION(Elantra)

LUBRICATION(Sonata)

FUNCTION OF LUBRICATION

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The power plants used in today's vehicles convert fossil fuels to mechanical power. Side
effects of this conversion process are heat and friction. Heat is created either from the
combustion process or from the friction
1. Residual Oil Only, shaft Rests on bearing
2. Oil Rotating, Journal Shaft Rotation
3. Oil has wedged shaft up Bearing and journal will not touch
of the rubbing, sliding, or rotation of metal engine components against one another. It is
impossible to eliminate all of the friction but oil will eliminate most of the damaging friction.
Oil will do its best to keep the moving engine parts from coming in direct contact and creating
heat due to friction. When friction occurs, the oil will absorb much of the heat and convey it to
another area for cooling.
The oil also does a few other little favors like improving sealing of the piston rings to prevent
combustion leakage, washing away abrasive metal or dirt particles from friction surfaces, and
retaining their characteristics in cold or hot operating conditions.
REDUCE WEAR AND POWER LOSS
Oil molecules can be thought of as tiny ball bearings that roll over each other to eliminate
friction in rotating or sliding parts. The primary responsibility of oil is to prevent wear of
engine parts as much as possible. Oil use in automobile engines needs two qualities to do its
job. One is to create a hydro-dynamic film of oil for parts to rotate or slide on. This eliminates
metal contact and prolongs engine life. Two, when high pressure squeezes out the oil
lubricant, some sort of additive is deposited on parts when oil flows over them.

CHARACTERISTICS
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COOLING
As oil flows throughout the engine, it picks up heat from engine parts it comes in contact
with. This oil will eventually find its way to the oil pan where it is cooled by air passing over
the outside of the oil pan.
It is important to have this transfer of heat from the oil to outside air in order to keep the
lubricant at an ideal temperature to maintain performance.
SHOCK ABSORPTION
The shock load of the piston and connecting rod assembly as it bottoms out on the power
stroke is absorbed by the film of oil on the connecting rod and crankshaft main bearings. This
shock force can be upwards of two tons and can cause a pounding noise which is cushioned
and quieted by the film of oil.
COMBUSTION CHAMBER SEALING
Oil sprayed on cylinder walls not only provides lubrication, but it also improves cylinder
sealing. This improved sealing helps prevent combustion gases from escaping past the piston
compression rings. The oil compensates for small unevenness between the piston ring and
cylinder wall by filling in the gaps.

CLEANSING
As the oil circulates, it picks up particles of dirt, carbon, metal particles, and various other
foreign particles. As the oil finds its way back to the pan, the heavier particles will go to the
bottom where they could be picked up and circulated through the lube system. The pick-up
screen prevents the large contaminants from going into the lube system and the oil filter
blocks out the small particles that could potentially cause engine damage.

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COMPONENTS
OIL PAN
The oil pan seals the crankcase of
the engine and is also the engine
oil reservoir. The pan has an
added responsibility of cooling the
engine oil. Air passing over the
outside of the pan will cool the oil
(radiator) and help keep it within
operating temperature range of
about
220F.
Baffles
are
sometimes added to the oil pan to
help prevent oil from washing
away from oil pickup under
extreme turns, acceleration or
deceleration conditions.

OIL SCREEN
The oil screen is a tube assembly attached to the suction side of the oil pump. The other end
of the oil screen tube has an integral screen filter to help filter out large particles that could
damage the oil pump.
The screen sits on the bottom of the oil pan and ideally should be submersed in the oil at all
times to prevent air from entering the lubrication system.
OIL PUMP
The oil pump is the heart of the lubricating system. The pump draws oil from the oil pan,
through the pickup tube, pressurizes the oil and sends it on to the oil filter.

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An integral part of most oil pumps is a pressure relief valve. This valve will control high
pressure so the oil filter or other engine components would not be damaged. The pressure is
determined by the spring tension. Any additional pressure would not be beneficial and would
instead result in parasitic losses because of the extra engine power used to drive the pump.
Oil pumps are usually driven off the camshaft, but there are cases when the pump will be
driven off an intermediate shaft or crankshaft. The two most commonly used styles of pumps
are the gear pump and the rotor pump. Both are positive displacement pumps which are
necessary to insure lube pressure at low engine speeds.
OIL FILTER
Although the oil pickup tub has a screen that
filters out large particles, the oil filter is still
responsible for the bulk of the filtering
duties. Most filters today filter out particles
between 20-30 microns or 0.008 to 0.0012
inch. The filtering medium in the filter is
pleated paper or fibrous material that is
enclosed in a spin-on, throw-away type
assembly.
Oil enters the filter on the outside of the
filtering element and flow towards the center.
The reason it flows that way is because there
is more filtering area exposed to the oil, and
it is able to hold increased amounts of
contaminant also resulting in longer life. If
the filter ever becomes plugged and unable
to flow a sufficient supply of oil, a by pass
valve will open.
This is a built-in safety feature that will
prevent an engine catastrophe. This by-pass
will open when there is a pressure differential
of 5 to 15 psi between the outside and inside
of the filtering element.

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FILTER ADAPTER
The filter adapter is mounted on the engine block or oil pump, if the pump is externally
mounted. The adapter has two functions. One is to retain the oil filter. The second purpose is
to prevent the oil filter from draining back through the engine galleries when the engine is not
running. To do this function, it has a spring loaded check valve that comes unseated at
approximately 1-2 psi. This is to keep the oil filter filled at all times so when the engine is
started there will be an almost instantaneous supply of oil to the engine.

POSITIVE CRANKCASE VENTILATION


COMPONENTS

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Paramobile Technical Service training Center

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PCV VALVE
No Vacuum

High Vacuum

Engine : Not running

Engine : Idling or
decelerating

PCV Valve : Not


perating
Vacuum Passage :
Restricted

PCV Valve : Fully


operating
Vacuum Passage :
Small

Moderate Vacuum

Low Vacuum

Engine : Normal
Operation

Engine :
Accelerating

PCV Valve :
Properly Operating

PCV Valve : Slightly


Operating

Vacuum Passage :
Large

Vacuum Passage :
Much
Larger

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Notes

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Paramobile Technical Service training Center

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Paramobile Technical Service training Center

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Paramobile Technical Service training Center

Engine Principles

Paramobile
Shed No 5, Press Complex, M.P. Nagar, Bhopal-462011
Tel: 0755-4275381, 2554850
Mo: 9425300405
E-mail id: paramobilebcs@gmail.com

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Paramobile Technical Service training Center