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Design of Fixed Offshore Platforms in

Moderate Environ.
MP 02-P-01
July 1998
Scope
This ExxonMobil Engineering Practice (EMEP) covers requirements for the structural design of fixed
offshore steel platforms, modifications to existing platforms and bridges, and bridge supports for
offshore facilities in moderate environments.

Version 0

MP 02-P-01

Design of Fixed Offshore Platforms in Moderate Environ.

July 1998

Table of Contents
Scope......................................................................................................................................1
1.

References......................................................................................................................5
1.1.

Master PracticesExxonMobil Engineering Practices...........................................5

1.2.

ExxonMobil Data Sheets.......................................................................................5

1.3.

ExxonMobil Practice Tutorials...............................................................................6

1.4.

AISCAmerican Institute of Steel Construction....................................................6

1.5.

APIAmerican Petroleum Institute........................................................................6

1.6.

AWSAmerican Welding Society..........................................................................7

2.

General............................................................................................................................7

3.

Design Criteria................................................................................................................7

4.

Design Loads..................................................................................................................8

5.

4.1.

Dead Loads...........................................................................................................8

4.2.

Live Loads.............................................................................................................8

4.3.

Nominal Deck Loads.............................................................................................9

4.4.

Environmental Loads.............................................................................................9

4.5.

Construction Loads..............................................................................................10

4.6.

Appurtenance Loads............................................................................................11

4.7.

Equipment Test Loads.........................................................................................12

Design of Jackets and Appurtenances......................................................................12


5.1.

General Requirements........................................................................................12

5.2.

In-Place Analysis.................................................................................................13

5.3.

Fatigue Analysis..................................................................................................13

5.4.

Dynamic Analysis................................................................................................14

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July 1998

5.5.

Loadout Analysis.................................................................................................14

5.6.

Transportation Analysis.......................................................................................15

5.7.

Launch/Lift Analysis.............................................................................................17

5.8.

Flotation Analysis.................................................................................................19

5.9.

Upending Analysis...............................................................................................20

5.10. On-Bottom Stability Analysis...............................................................................22


5.11. Boat Landing Design...........................................................................................23
5.12. Barge Bumper Design.........................................................................................24
5.13. Mudmats..............................................................................................................24
5.14. Corrosion.............................................................................................................25
5.15. Other Requirements............................................................................................25
6.

7.

8.

Design of Piles..............................................................................................................27
6.1.

Use of Grout........................................................................................................27

6.2.

Underdrive Allowances........................................................................................27

6.3.

Preliminary Plans.................................................................................................28

6.4.

Final Plan.............................................................................................................28

Design of Decks...........................................................................................................28
7.1.

General Requirements........................................................................................28

7.2.

In-Place Analysis.................................................................................................29

7.3.

Loadout Analysis.................................................................................................29

7.4.

Transportation Analysis.......................................................................................30

7.5.

Lift Analysis..........................................................................................................32

7.6.

Deck Clearance...................................................................................................33

7.7.

Other Requirements............................................................................................33

Design of Bridges, Walkways, Access Platforms and Stairs..................................34

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9.

Design of Fixed Offshore Platforms in Moderate Environ.

July 1998

8.1.

Bridges.................................................................................................................34

8.2.

Walkways, Access Platforms and Stairs.............................................................34

Design General.............................................................................................................35
9.1.

Allowable Stresses..............................................................................................35

9.2.

Welded Connections...........................................................................................35

9.3.

Use of Tubular Members.....................................................................................35

10. Material Selection.........................................................................................................36


11. Documentation.............................................................................................................36
11.1. Design Calculation Notebooks............................................................................36
11.2. Design Drawings.................................................................................................37
11.3. Computer Analysis Output...................................................................................37
11.4. Computer Models................................................................................................38

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July 1998

1. References
The following publications form a part of this Master Practice. Unless otherwise specified herein, use
the latest edition.

1.1.

Master PracticesExxonMobil Engineering Practices

MP 02-P-04

Transportation & Loadout of Offshore Structures

MP 35-P-01

Painting - General Requirements

MP 41-P-72

Pedestal Mounted Revolving Cranes

MP 56-P-01

Cathodic Protection for Offshore Steel Structures

MP 57-P-01

Requirements for Matl. & Welding-Offshore Structures in a Moderate


Climate

1.2.

ExxonMobil Data Sheets

ExxonMobil Data
Sheets

ExxonMobil Data Sheet Home Page

T0201C01

Design of Fixed Offshore Platforms in Mod Environments - Loadout


Contractor Responsibility - Customary Units

T0201C02

Design of Fixed Offshore Platforms in Mod Environ - Seafastening


Transport - Contractor Responsibility - Customary Units

T0201C03

Design of Fixed Offshore Platforms in Mod Environ - Installation Contractor Responsibility - Customary Units

T0201C04

Design of Fixed Offshore Platforms in Mod Environ - Design - Customary


Units

T0201M04

Design of Fixed Offshore Platforms in Mod Environ - Design - Metric


Units

T0203C01

Fabrication & Loadout of Offshore Structures - Loadout - Contractor


Responsibility - Customary Units

T0203M01

Fabrication & Loadout of Offshore Structures - Loadout - Contractor


Responsibility - Metric Units

T0203C02

Fabrication & Loadout of Offshore Structures - Seafastening Transport Contractor Responsibility - Customary Units

T0203M02

Fabrication & Loadout of Offshore Structures - Seafastening Transport Contractor Responsibility - Metric Units

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T0203C03

Fabrication & Loadout of Offshore Structures - Installation - Contractor


Responsponsibility - Customary Units

T0203M03

Fabrication & Loadout of Offshore Structures - Installation - Contractor


Respons - Metric Units

D0203C01

Fabrication & Loadout of Offshore Structures - Documentation


Requirements Sheet

I0203C01

Fabrication & Loadout of Offshore Structures - Inspection & Testing


Requirements Sheet

T0204C01

Transportation & Loadout of Offshore Structures - Loadout - Contractor


Responsibility - Customary Units

T0204C02

Transportation & Loadout of Offshore Structures - Seafastening Transport Contractor Responsibility - Customary Units

T0204C03

Transportation & Loadout of Offshore Structures - Installation - Contractor


Responsibility - Customary Units

1.3.

ExxonMobil Practice Tutorials

EPT 14-T-01

1.4.

AISCAmerican Institute of Steel Construction

AISC S335

1.5.

Specification for Structural Steel Buildings Allowable Stress Design


and Plastic Design with Commentary

APIAmerican Petroleum Institute

API RP 2A-WSD

1.6.

Offshore Facility Layout

Recommended Practice for Planning, Designing and Constructing Fixed


Offshore Platforms - Working Stress Design Twentieth Edition; Supplement
1-1996

AWSAmerican Welding Society

AWS D1.1

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Structural Welding Code Steel Fifteenth Edition

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2. General
The requirements for the structural design of fixed offshore steel platforms, modifications to existing
platforms and bridges, and bridge supports for offshore facilities in moderate environments shall be in
accordance with requirements of this Master Practice, unless superceded by more stringent local
regulations.
The English dimensional system shall be used in all design calculations, computer analyses,
drawings and documentation, unless otherwise required.
Elevations on drawings, sketches, etc. shall be referenced to mean low water (MLW) level.
MLW shall appear as elevation 0.0 ft. Other elevations shall appear as either elevation + (plus) or
- (minus), above or below MLW, respectively, unless otherwise required.
All computer programs used for structural design and analysis require prior Company
approval.

3. Design Criteria
The design shall incorporate all requirements for the platform as specified on applicable ExxonMobil
Data Sheets for this Master Practice.
The environmental criteria (oceanographic/meteorological data) shall be provided on the
appropriate ExxonMobil Data Sheets.
Geotechnical data shall be obtained from a geotechnical investigation of the platform site by
means of borings, field tests, laboratory tests and engineering calculations. As a minimum, the
following shall be obtained from the investigation and used in the foundation design:

Undrained pile capacity versus depth curves

Ultimate pile capacity versus depth curves

Lateral soil resistancepile deflection (p-y) data

Load transfer in skin friction for tension and compressionaxial pile segment
displacement (t-z) data

Tip resistance in end bearingpile tip movement (q-z) data

Mudline bearing capacity

The contractor shall work with the fabrication contractor and the installation contractor to
ensure consistency with the design assumptions. Identification of the contractor's responsibilities
is shown in the appropriate ExxonMobil Data Sheets.

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July 1998

4. Design Loads
4.1.

Dead Loads
Dead loads will not change during the normal design life of a platform. They include the
following, as a minimum:
1. Weight of platform structural components, including decks, jackets and piling where
appropriate
2. Weight of platform appurtenances such as boat landings, barge bumpers, sumps,
risers, anodes, etc.
3. Weight of equipment, flare towers, piping, cables, cable trays, etc. that are
permanently mounted on platform decks
4. Weight of any bridge's connecting platforms
5. Hydrostatic forces acting on platform members below the waterline (including
external pressure and buoyancy)

4.2.

Live Loads
Live loads may change in magnitude, position and/or direction during the normal design
life of a platform. They include the following, as a minimum:
1. Weight of equipment that can be added to or removed from the platform.
2. Weight of variable supplies and liquids (including extreme conditions).
3. Helicopter design landing loads.
4. The forces exerted on a platform by deck cranes. These forces shall be determined as
specified in MP 41-P-72.
5. Vessel impact loads based on local marine operations, as specified in the appropriate
ExxonMobil Data Sheets.
6. Drill rig pull load of 907 metric tons (1000 short tons) at any well location, if the
platform is designed to support a platform drilling rig (unless otherwise required).
7. Uniformly distributed area loads.

4.3.

Nominal Deck Loads


In the absence of specific loads, nominal deck loads shall be used as specified in Table 1.
If actual loads differ, appropriate checks shall be made.

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Table 1: Nominal Deck Loads


Platform

Deck

Nominal Area Load


kg/m2 (lb/ft2)

Note

Drilling/ Production

Drill (except well


bay)

4880 (1000)

May be adjusted if
actual data known

Well Bay

1465 (300)

May be adjusted if
actual data known

Other

1953 (400)

May be adjusted if
actual data known

Main

1953 (400)

May be adjusted if
actual data known

Cellar

1709 (350)

May be adjusted if
actual data known

488 (100)

May be adjusted if
actual data known

Production

Bridges

The nominal deck loads shall be applied as follows:


Structural Component

Area Load Percentage

Decking (plate and deck beams)

100%

Girders, trusses, deck legs, piles

75%

4.4.

Environmental Loads
Environmental data, including meteorological and oceanographic data, is provided in the
appropriate ExxonMobil Data Sheets. The criteria for determining environmental loads
follows:
1. Wave kinematics shall be determined by using the 10th Order Stream Function
formulation. Other formulations are subject to Company approval.
2. The Morison's equation shall be used to calculate wave loads, using the following
coefficients, unless otherwise required in the appropriate ExxonMobil Data Sheets.
a) Drag Coefficient 0.7
b) Inertia Coefficient 1.4
3. Wave loads shall be maximized over the specified wave period range.
4. Reduction of wave loads due to conductor shielding is generally not allowed.
Exceptions require Company approval.

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5. Wave loads shall be adjusted by a Dynamic Amplification Factor (DAF) if the


platform natural period is greater than three seconds. The dynamic analysis procedure
to determine the DAF shall be approved in advance by The Company.
6. Current loads shall be calculated as specified by API RP 2A-WSD and applied in the
same direction as the wave, unless otherwise required on the ExxonMobil Data
Sheets.
7. Wind loads shall be calculated according to API RP 2A-WSD. The overall wind force
for any storm direction shall not be greater than the force on the projected deck
silhouette using a shape coefficient of 1.0.
8. Earthquake loads for platforms in the United States shall be determined according to
API RP 2A-WSD. The seismicity of other regions shall be established on a sitespecific basis for Company approval.

4.5.

Construction Loads
4.5.1.

Loadout Loads
The contractor shall develop loadout loads on decks, jackets and piling for
each unique lift or movement condition, as specified by API RP 2A-WSD
and MP 02-P-04, and submit same to The Company for approval prior to
beginning corresponding analyses.
A preliminary load out plan shall be developed to form the basis of
engineering analysis and design. The preliminary loadout plan shall include
the following:
1. Loadout method and equipment
2. Attachment points
3. Skidway and barge layout (if skidded)
4. Any other special characteristics of the loadout
5. Description of environmental effects expected during the loadout as well
as the operational limits due to tides, currents, wind and expected surge
effects of nearby marine traffic
Load conditions for analysis shall be developed from the preliminary loadout
plan and shall include the effects of misalignment of supports and pulling
forces and all environmental effects.
The final loadout plan prepared by the fabrication contractor shall be
reviewed to ensure consistency with the preliminary loadout plan.

4.5.2.

Transportation Loads
The contractor shall develop transportation loads on decks, jackets and piling
for each tow route, as specified by API RP 2A-WSD and MP 02-P-04, and

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submit to The Company for approval prior to beginning transportation


analyses.
The contractor shall also provide the environmental criteria, barge
characteristics and barge motions used to develop the transportation loads.
A preliminary transportation load shall be developed to form the basis of the
engineering analysis and design.

4.5.3.

Offshore Lift Loads


The contractor shall develop offshore lift loads on decks, jackets and piling
for each unique offshore lift, as specified by API RP 2A-WSD and MP 02-P04, and submit to The Company for approval prior to beginning lift analyses.

4.6.

Appurtenance Loads
The exposed wave loading area of the appurtenances (boat landings, barge bumpers,
conductors, risers, caissons, sumps, etc.) shall be simulated in the structural analysis
model to calculate the additional wave loads applied to the jacket. The model shall
neglect the stiffness contribution of the boat landing to the total jacket stiffness.
The exposed wave loading area of sacrificial anodes does not need to be explicitly
simulated but shall be considered by increasing the total wave load, increasing member
wave diameters or some other acceptable rational approximation.

4.7.

Equipment Test Loads


Deck structures supporting equipment subject to test loading shall be designed to carry the
additional loads. Only one equipment item shall be tested at a time. The loads shall only
be used for sizing structural members local to the equipment and shall not be included in
overall deck or jacket structure analysis.

5. Design of Jackets and Appurtenances


5.1.

General Requirements
Preliminary analyses of the jacket, piles and appurtenances may be performed
independently of the deck with only global deck loads being imposed on the jacket. The
final in-place analyses shall be conducted on a combined deck and jacket, which also
account for significant deck loading variations such as drill rig location, rig hook loads
and rig set-back loads.

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5.1.1.

July 1998

Computer Analyses
Computer analyses shall be provided for the design of the following
conditions:
1. In-place conditions, including coupled non-linear interaction of soil-pile
system with jacket
2. Fatigue analysis for in-place conditions
3. Dynamic analysis (if required by Section 5.4)
4. Fabrication conditions
5. Loadout conditions
6. Transportation conditions
7. Jacket launch/lift conditions
8. On-bottom stability analysis

5.1.2.

Manual Analyses
Manual analyses are acceptable for design of the following items, but do not
preclude computer analyses:
1. Boat landings
2. Barge bumpers
3. Mud mats
4. Anode attachments
5. Pad eyes
6. Rigging

5.2.

In-Place Analysis
A static three-dimensional in-place analysis of the platform shall be performed as
specified by API RP 2A-WSD. The computer model shall include jacket, piles and an
appropriate simulation of the deck. Non-linear pile/soil interaction shall be included in
the model.
Each platform shall be designed for all realistic combinations of design loads, as defined
in Section 5, and consistent with API RP 2A-WSD. Load combinations shall include but
not be limited to the following:
1. 100-year return period wave and associated wind and current
2. Operating wave, wind and current

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3. Dead loads
4. Live loads
5. Hydrostatic loads
The maximum wind, wave and current loads shall be applied concurrently and in the same
direction on the platform. Directional variations shall be used in platform design. Design
magnitudes and directions (if applicable) are provided in T0201C04 and T0201M04.

5.3.

Fatigue Analysis
Fatigue life of all platforms shall be twice the expected service life, with a minimum
fatigue life of 40 years. Higher fatigue lives may need to be specified for critical joints or
joints in areas difficult to inspect.

5.3.1.

Simplified Analysis
A simplified fatigue analysis shall be performed in less than 122 m (400 ft)
of water for each platform constructed of ductile steels with redundant
structural framing and with natural periods less than three seconds for the inplace condition, as specified by API RP 2A-WSD. This procedure will
determine the maximum allowable hot spot stresses resulting from the
application of the fatigue design wave.
The X-Prime S-N curve shall be assumed in calculation of allowable peak
hot spot stresses. The procedure described in API RP 2A-WSD is calibrated
for the typical Gulf of Mexico wave climate, but it can be adapted to other
regions with different long term distribution of cyclic loads.

5.3.2.

Three-Dimensional Analysis
A detailed three-dimensional dynamic spectral fatigue analysis shall be
performed for platforms with natural periods greater than three seconds. The
analysis shall consider the uncertainties inherent in calculating the natural
period of the platform. Therefore, cyclic stresses used in the fatigue analysis
shall be maximized for design by considering a 10 percent variation in
natural period. The contractor shall submit the fatigue analysis procedure to
The Company for approval.
The stress concentration factor parametric equations to be used shall
be approved by The Company in writing.
The wave regime or spectra to be used for the fatigue analysis, if
required, is provided in the appropriate ExxonMobil Data Sheets.

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5.4.

Design of Fixed Offshore Platforms in Moderate Environ.

July 1998

Dynamic Analysis
A dynamic analysis is required for platforms with natural periods greater than three
seconds.
A DAF approach shall be used to determine the increased loads resulting from the
dynamic behavior of the platform. The dynamic analysis shall not decrease the total
environmental loading on a fixed platform below the level determined by the static
application of the design wave.
The methodology used to determine the DAF shall be approved by The Company.
Alternate methods may be used with Company approval.

5.5.

Loadout Analysis
A three-dimensional analysis is required for any jacket that is skidded onto a
transportation barge. The analysis shall include a sufficient number of positions during
the skidding operation to maximize member stresses. The analysis shall also comply with
any further requirements in MP 02-P-04.
Member stresses and punching shear in all permanent and temporary members and joints
shall be determined. Localized bearings at structure support points shall also be checked.
Stresses in the structure shall not exceed the requirements of API RP 2A-WSD for tubular
and tubular joints and AISC S335 for structural shapes and built-up members. Stresses
shall be limited to basic allowables.

5.5.1.

Load Conditions
The structure shall be analyzed for the forces imposed during the loadout. In
defining the load conditions, consideration shall be given to the operational
restraints of the loadout system. Among the conditions to be considered are
the following:
1. Incorrect trim or draft due to tidal fluctuation or wind
2. Barge movement due to nearby marine traffic
3. Location, slope or settlement of skidways

5.5.2.

Final Criteria
Based on the analysis, deflection criteria shall be established that
give the allowable deflection tolerance for the structure as it moves along
the skidway.
Re-analyses may be required as a result of the final loadout plan
prepared by the fabrication contractor.

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A review of the selected barge shall be performed to ensure that the


barge has the structural strength to withstand the expected static and
dynamic loadings from the loadout operation.

5.6.

Transportation Analysis
A detailed transportation analysis shall be performed for each jacket as specified by API
RP 2A-WSD and MP 02-P-04. Motions of the barge-jacket system shall be determined
and subsequently used to calculate the jacket member stresses.

5.6.1.

Criteria Requirements
The selection of comprehensive or reduced design criteria is indicated in the
Scope of Work:

5.6.1.1.

Comprehensive Criteria

An environmental report shall be obtained detailing the characteristics


(significant wave height and period, and applicable wave spectrum) of a 10year recurrence internal maximum storm for the specific route and time of
year.

5.6.1.2.

Reduced Criteria

Simplified criteria shall be established and reviewed by The Company.

5.6.2.

Positioning
The selection of the structure's position on the barge shall be based on both
engineering and operational considerations. Among these considerations are
the following:
1. Minimize transportation-induced forces on the cargo
2. Locate structure over "strong" points
3. Minimize overhang
4. Minimize blockage of access ways
5. Locate away from barge fitting and tank vents

5.6.3.

Load Conditions
The structure shall be analyzed, using the transportation ballast
configuration, for forces resulting from the application of the appropriate
forces to the barge/cargo system.

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Maximum loadings shall be applied in appropriate


combinations to determine the structural integrity of the cargo and
seafastening.

A variety of storm approach directions relative to the barge


axes shall be taken into account. Load conditions shall consider the
effects of roll, pitch, heave, sway, surge, yaw, wind and wave slam.
Structure stress analysis for the structure, including seafastening,
shall be performed using the loads, and the seafastening and support
locations defined above.

5.6.4.

Allowable Stresses
Structure member stresses shall not exceed the API RP 2A-WSD
requirements for tubular and tubular joints, and AISC S335 requirements for
structural shapes and built-up members. Allowable stresses shall include a
one-third increase over AISC S335 allowables.

5.6.5.

Shear/Other Analyses
Punching shear at the structure and tiedown tubular joints shall be
checked for the load condition forces and stresses.
Structure fatigue analysis for the transportation period shall be
provided. The fatigue analysis shall be based on the environmental
conditions expected along the tow route. The fatigue lives shall be
established using appropriate stress concentration factors.
A vortex shedding analysis shall be provided for the structure, based
on the environmental conditions expected along the tow route.

5.6.6.

Seafastening and Reinforcement


Structural members that do not meet the requirements of the
allowable stresses and that have fatigue lives usation factor of 0.5 or
greater, shall be reinforced.
Seafastenings shall be designed according to the transportation
analyses. Seafastenings shall be located at hard points on the jacket and
framed barge deck areas and shall be designed to restrain the structure
when subjected to the design towing conditions. Consideration shall also
be given for the efficient removal of the seafastening when selecting their
location and design.
Gusset plates to alleviate a punching shear overstress condition at a
structure tubular joint shall be avoided. Gusset plates are acceptable to
spread load in the barge deck or at an intersection with structural shapes.

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Seafastening and reinforcement shall be detailed to provide good


fatigue characteristics under cyclic loading. Sharp corners,
discontinuities and other stress concentrations are not permitted.
A limiting weather condition shall be determined that reflects the
criteria used for the stress analysis of the structure and seafastenings.

5.6.7.

Final Review
Re-analyses and design may be required as a result of the final
transportation plan prepared by the installation contractor.
A review of the selected barge shall be performed to ensure that the
barge has the structural strength to withstand the expected static and
dynamic loadings from the tow operations.

5.7.

Launch/Lift Analysis
A three-dimensional launch/lift analysis shall be performed for each jacket, as specified by
API RP 2A-WSD.

5.7.1.

Preliminary Plan
A preliminary launch/lift plan shall be developed that will include prelaunch/lift, launch/lift and post-launch/lift operations. The preliminary
launch/lift plan shall include the following:
1. Rigging plan
2. Marine equipment position and site layout drawings for launch/lift
operations
3. Sequence for all operations
4. Barge ballasting plan for launch
5. Limiting environmental conditions

5.7.2.

Launch Trajectory Analysis


For launched jackets, a launch trajectory analysis shall be performed. The
analysis shall provide the following:
1. Time histories of jacket position, including depth and profile of dive
2. Launch velocities of jacket members
3. Accelerations of jacket members
4. Barge-to-jacket clearances
5. A determination of the need for auxiliary flotation tanks

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6. An optimization of the initial barge parameters, such as trim and ballast


conditions

5.7.2.1.

Considerations

The launch trajectory analysis shall consider the following:


1. Initial trim angle of barge
2. Ballast condition of barge
3. Use of auxiliary buoyancy
4. Range of coefficients of friction
5. Expected environmental conditions
6. Three-dimensional barge-to-jacket interaction
7. Barge motions caused by the launch
The final launch trajectory shall consider the limitations of barge
submergence, provide a bottom clearance of 40 ft and preclude the possibility
of jacket-to-barge impact.
For launched jackets, the structural integrity of the jacket, launch runner and
launch truss framing during launch shall be verified by a launch stress
analysis.

5.7.3.

Launch Stress Analysis


The launch stress analysis shall consider jacket and appurtenances weight
(including contingency factor), buoyancy, inertial loads and rocker arm
reactions. It shall be based on the results of the launch trajectory analysis.
The contingency factor for preliminary design shall include an allowance for
additional weight as the jacket design progresses. The support simulation
shall consider the flexibility of the rocker arm.
Jacket members shall be checked for hydrostatic collapse if the dive depth or
upending condition and depth for a given member is greater than the installed
condition.

5.7.3.1.

Required Calculations

The following calculations are required:


1. Stress analysis for jacket members, launch truss and launch runners
2. Jacket joint punching shear analysis
3. Launch leg stress analysis
4. Wave slam analysis

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5.7.3.2.

July 1998

Allowable Stresses

Jacket member stresses shall not exceed the API RP 2A-WSD requirements
for tubular and tubular joints, and AISC S335 requirements for structural
shapes and built-up members. Allowable stresses shall include a one-third
increase over basic allowables.
Any jacket leg section or joint not meeting allowable stresses shall have ring
stiffeners added as reinforcements.

5.7.4.

Final Review
Re-analyses may be required as a result of the final launch/lift plan
prepared by the installation contractor.
A review of the selected barge shall be performed to ensure that the
barge has the structural strength to withstand the expected static and
dynamic loadings from the launch operations.

5.8.

Flotation Analysis
For jackets to be floated, a flotation analysis shall be performed for the jacket to determine
its final equilibrium floating position.

Buoyancy/weight distribution shall allow the jacket to be near horizontal in


its final floating position, with the top end of the jacket above the waterline so that
slings, upending controls or other upending equipment are accessible to personnel.

A final equilibrium floating position that is not horizontal may be


recommended to The Company, for approval, if proved to be technically acceptable
and economically advantageous.

5.8.1.

Variables
A range of the following variables shall be investigated to ensure that there
are no other unfavorable equilibrium floating positions for the jacket:

Center of buoyancy

Center of gravity

Total weight and buoyancy

The jacket shall exhibit a fully submerged reserve buoyancy value of at least
12 percent in its launch weight condition, with auxiliary buoyancy if
required.
The jacket shall exhibit righting moments at a range of roll angles and sea
states in its final floating position.

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5.8.2.

July 1998

Damaged Jacket Cases


Flotation analysis and stability checks shall be performed for damaged jacket
cases, assuming that buoyancy is lost at selected locations on the jacket.
The Company shall approve selection of damaged cases.

5.8.3.

Auxiliary Buoyancy
When jacket weight or buoyancy distributions require the use of auxiliary
buoyancy to satisfy launch or upending requirements, closure plates,
diaphragms and flotation tanks shall be considered.
Closure plates and diaphragms shall be used in free-flooding members of the
jacket to maintain complete or partial buoyancy. These members include
jacket legs, skirt pile sleeves, pre-installed skirt piles and conductors.
Additional flotation tanks shall be considered only after the use of free
flooding members has been exhausted or deemed impractical. When
flotation tanks are required, they shall be designed in accordance with API
RP 2A-WSD and use ring stiffeners or another method to provide the most
cost-effective design. The maximum hydrostatic head to which the flotation
tanks are expected to be exposed during the installation process, shall
determine design pressure. The design of flotation tank connections shall
minimize offshore removal time and effort.

5.9.

Upending Analysis
For jackets to be floated, a step-by-step procedure shall be established for upending the
jacket from its final equilibrium floating position to its upright floating position. The
combination of lifting with crane vessel and/or sequential ballasting of jacket and flotation
tank components shall be analyzed.

5.9.1.

Preliminary Plan
A preliminary jacket upending and placement plan shall be developed during
the engineering and planning phase of the project. This plan shall form the
basis for all offshore operations concerning the upending and placement of
the jacket. The plan shall include the following:
1. Upending procedure, including jacket ballasting plan
2. Upending and placement sequence
3. Marine equipment position and site layout drawings for upending and
placement operations
4. Rigging plan
5. Contingency plans

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5.9.2.

July 1998

Upending Operation
The jacket shall maintain stability during the upending operation. Sufficient
righting moment shall be displayed during all stages of the upending
operation to prevent the occurrence of any rolling or heeling of the structure.
Additionally, the jacket shall have at least a 4.5 m (15 ft) bottom clearance at
all times during the upending operation.

5.9.3.

Contingency Procedures
Contingency upending procedures shall be established assuming failure of
any part of the upending system. Such failures shall include loss of
buoyancy or inoperative ballast valves. The Company shall approve
contingency upending procedures.

5.9.4.

Padeyes
Padeyes that carry the upending loads shall be checked at multiple stages of
the intended operation, considering the hookload variation and different
sling-to-padeye angles. Padeyes shall be checked for the jacket vertical
position and the maximum hookload experienced before jacket set down.

5.9.5.

Jacket Placement
The system for the upending and placement of the jacket shall be designed to
be compatible with and fulfill the requirements of the upending procedure.

5.9.6.

Reach Rods
Reach rods are the preferred system for operating ballast valves where the
length of the reach rod length is less than 91 m (300 ft). When the intended
reach rod length exceeds 30.5 m (100 ft), the following special precautions
shall be considered:
1. Use of gearbox operators to minimize torque requirements of valves
2. Use of low-friction reach rod guides
3. Increased reach rod section modulus to limit wind-up
4. Increased number of guides to offset launch induced forces
5. Reach rod support method to prevent full weight of reach rod acting on
valve
6. Alignment tolerance for reach rod guides and reach rods

5.9.7.

Alternatives to Reach Rods


As an alternative to reach rods (where environmental conditions pose no
danger to umbilical hose heading from jacket to the crane vessel), a system

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of metered pumping of seawater into jacket legs, through manifold piping


from crane-vessel-mounted pumps, is acceptable.
For cases where the use of reach rods is prohibited by length, for harsh
environmental conditions, or where controlled pile sleeve ballasting is
required, remotely actuated (hydraulic) ball valves for ballasting are
preferred. For power and control of the hydraulically actuated valves, a
central control console is required. The control console can be bargemounted with an umbilical leading to the jacket. Otherwise, the console
shall be jacket-mounted (above waterline in the jacket's final equilibrium
floating position) and subject to launch forces and submersion during launch.
Detail design of the console shall include description of components,
specifications, operational requirements, arrangement drawings, schematics
and other information relevant to procurement, fabrication, testing,
commissioning and operation.

5.9.8.

Final Review
A complete description of equipment necessary to fulfill the requirements of
the contingency upending procedures shall be provided.
Re-analyses may be required as a result of the final upending and
replacement plan prepared by the installation contractor.

5.10. On-Bottom Stability Analysis


A static on-bottom stability analysis shall be performed for each jacket to ensure stability
before and during pile driving. Installation aids, such as mud mats, shall be designed
using these results.

Overturning stability of the jacket while in the most critical position shall be
checked using the Operating Wave Criteria, as specified on ExxonMobil Data Sheets.

The criteria to be used for the stability analysis shall be as specified on


T0201C04 and T0201M04.
An on-bottom stability analysis shall be performed to determine the limiting sea states in
which the unpiled jacket shall maintain a stable, free standing and level condition. Such
condition shall be maintained with or without pile sections in the jacket legs, whichever is
more critical. The limiting sea state shall be used as weather criteria for decisions to lift or
launch the jacket from the barge.

5.10.1.

Considerations
The on-bottom stability analysis shall consider the following:
1. Determination of limiting sea state for jacket with or without pile
sections in the jacket legs, whichever is more critical
2. Determination of stability for one-year storm conditions

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3. Check of soil bearing capacities


4. Check of mud mat and jacket structure strength
5. Determination of jacket instability point

5.11. Boat Landing Design

Two boat landings shall be installed on opposite sides of the jacket or as


specified on T0201C04 and T0201M04.
Each boat landing shall have two levels with tops of the upper landing at
elevation +2.7 m (+9.0 ft) and the lower boat landing at elevation +2 m (+6.5 ft).
The bottom elevation of the boat landing shall be at elevation -1.2 m (-4 ft),
to preclude boats in the wave trough from contacting the underside of the boat
landing.
The boat landing design shall consider provision for field adjustment from
the design elevation.

The boat landing shall be designed for a load of 113,600 kg (250,000 lb)
normal to the face of the landing plus 22,700 kg (50,000 lb) tangential to the face.
Each single horizontal truss shall be designed for two-thirds of this load. The supports
shall be designed for the maximum support reaction, determined by applying the load
at end of truss.

Two swing ropes shall accompany each level of landings. Each boat landing
shall be equipped with an emergency ladder penetrating a minimum of 1.5 m (5 ft)
into the water.

5.12. Barge Bumper Design


Barge bumpers using shock-cells shall be designed to meet the following requirements:
(The shock-cell vendor shall provide calculations demonstrating that the requirements are
met.)
1. Energy absorption shall be 30,400 kg-m (110 ft-tons), minimum. Maximum reaction
at a post support shall not exceed 148,000 kg (325,000 lbs).
2. Barge bumpers shall extend from elevation -2.7 m (-9 ft) to elevation +4.6 m (+15 ft).
3. Contact surface height of the bumper post shall be 7 m (23 ft), minimum.
4. Load shall be applied halfway between the post supports for sizing the supporting
shock cells.
5. Load shall be applied at one-third points for sizing the supporting shock cells.
6. Allowable steel stresses shall not be increased one-third when sizing steel
components.

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7. Shock cells shall be checked assuming that the applied load is applied in the plane of
the barge bumper and at an angle of 20 degrees to the plane of the barge bumper.
8. The energy absorbing units and flanged connections to the stubs on the jacket shall be
designed to fail at 1.5 times the forces induced by the impact requirements specified.
They shall be designed to fail in such a fashion that the jacket and the impacting
vessel are not subject to hazard caused by system element collapse or detachment.
9. Barge bumper assemblies shall be designed such that the bumper face is at the
minimum practical distance from the jacket leg.
10. All internal and external surfaces, other than those coated with rubber, shall be painted
as specified by MP 35-P-01.
11. Design of barge bumpers shall provide for a field elevation adjustment of 0.9 m (3 ft).

5.13. Mudmats
Mudmats shall be located such that their bottom is flush with or slightly below the bottom
of the jacket horizontal braces at that level.

5.13.1.

Sizing
Mudmat areas shall be sized for the following conditions:

Maximum unpiled jacket on-bottom weight

Allowable soil bearing pressure on all mudmats and horizontal


braces at the mudline

5.13.2.

Basic allowable stresses

Conditions
Based on the mudmat areas, the members shall be checked for the following
conditions:

Maximum unpiled jacket on-bottom weight

Ultimate soil bearing pressure on half the mudmats and horizontal


braces at the mudline

Basic allowable stresses increased by one-third

5.14. Corrosion

Corrosion protection for all steel surfaces below elevation +2.4 m (+8 ft)
MLW shall be provided by anodes, as specified by MP 56-P-01.

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Corrosion protection for all steel surfaces above elevation -2.4 m (-8 ft)
(including the deck) shall be provided as specified by MP 35-P-01.

An additional wall thickness of 12.7 mm (1/2 in) shall be provided for all
main jacket members in the splash zone from elevation -2.4 m to +2.4 m (-8 ft to +8
ft).
This additional thickness cannot be used to provide strength or stability to the
member in structural analyses.
The weight of this additional steel shall be considered in the buoyancy
calculations, launch/lift analysis and mud mat design.

5.15. Other Requirements


5.15.1.

Boat Cleats
Where boat cleats, etc. are required, consideration shall be given to their
design.

5.15.2.

Annulus between Jacket Leg and Pile


The annulus between the jacket leg and pile shall be 25 mm (1 in)
and ungrouted, unless otherwise specified by The Company.

5.15.3.

Jacket to main pile connections shall be shimmed and welded.

Pile Spacers
Pile spacers shall be employed at all hard points and at an elevation from 0.6
m (2 ft) above the mudline and continuous to the bottom of the jacket.
Pile spacers shall net a 12.7 mm (1/2 in) clearance for the pile and shall be
spaced at no more than 457 mm (18 in) centers around inside of the jacket
leg at the upper hard points and at no more than 203 mm (8 in) centers at the
lower hard point to the bottom of the jacket.

5.15.4.

Conductor Guides
Conductor guides shall be provided as required for conductor pipe supports.
The inside diameter of guides shall be 50 mm (2 in) greater than the outside
diameter of the well conductor. Submerged conductor guides shall be
designed to minimize fatigue.

5.15.5.

Marine Growth
Marine growth shall be accounted for by adding 25 mm (1 in) to the
radius of jacket members, conductors, caissons and risers between
elevation MLW and 45.7 m (-150 ft).

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For members from elevation 45.7 m (-150 ft) to the mudline, 12.7
mm (1/2 in) shall be added to the radius.

5.15.6.

Requirements for local conditions may be different.

Scour
A minimum of 1.5 m (5 ft) of scour shall be allowed for in the design, unless
a greater amount is specified in T0201C04 and T0201M04 of the
ExxonMobil Data Sheets for this Master Practice.

5.15.7.

Jacket-Leg Penetrations
Jacket leg mudline penetrations shall be governed by local soil conditions.
Generally, jacket legs shall penetrate 3 m (10 ft) for softer soil and 1.5 m (5
ft) for stiffer soils. The jacket leg shall be designed to share in resisting
bending moment of the pile in the extension area.

5.15.8.

Sea Floor Movement Forces


The platform shall be designed to resist the lateral and vertical forces
imposed by sea-floor movements, if specified in T0201C04 and T0201M04
of the ExxonMobil Data Sheets for this Master Practice.

6. Design of Piles
The contractor shall design the piles (that is, specify the outer diameter), wall thickness, steel quality,
pile segments and final penetration based on pile loads determined by the platform structural analysis,
the axial pile capacity data included in T0201C04 and T0201M04 of the ExxonMobil Data Sheets for
this Master Practice and geotechnical data.

Stresses during pile installation, due to weight of the hammer on the pile, shall be checked.

A pile driveability analysis shall be performed to determine that piles can be driven to design
penetrations and to select the appropriate pile hammers.

6.1.

Use of Grout
Typically, piles will not be grouted. However, if the piles are grouted, every effort shall be
made to protect the grouting and control lines during transportation, launching/lifting, and
installation. Backup systems shall also be designed and installed in case of accidental
damage.

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6.2.

Design of Fixed Offshore Platforms in Moderate Environ.

July 1998

Underdrive Allowances
Allowance for underdrive shall be considered for piles having variable wall thickness.
Provisions shall be made for extra length of heavy wall material so the pile will not be
overstressed at the wall transitions if the design penetration cannot be reached. The
amount of underdrive allowance permitted will depend on the degree of uncertainty
regarding the penetration that can be attained.

6.3.

Preliminary Plans

A preliminary loadout plan shall be developed to form the basis of


engineering analysis and design. The preliminary loadout plan shall include
attachment points. Stresses shall be limited to basic allowables.

A preliminary transportation plan shall be developed to form the basis of


engineering analysis and design. The preliminary loadout plan shall include
attachment points. Stresses in the piles shall not exceed the requirements of API RP
2A-WSD. Stresses shall include a one-third increase over basic allowables.

Sea fastenings shall be designed according to the transportation analyses.


Sea fastenings shall be located on framed barge deck areas and shall be designed to
restrain the piles when subjected to the design towing conditions. Considerations
shall also be given for the efficient removal of the seafastening when selecting their
location and design.

A preliminary lift plan shall be developed to form the basis of engineering


analysis and design. The preliminary lift plan shall include attachment points.
Stresses in the piles shall not exceed the requirements of API RP 2A-WSD. Stresses
shall be limited to basic allowables.

6.4.

Final Plan
Re-analyses may be required as a result of the final loadout plan prepared by the
fabrication contractor and/or the final transportation and installation plan prepared by the
installation contractor.

7. Design of Decks
7.1.

General Requirements
The structural design shall consider any major or unique topside facilities and, as a
minimum, include the following:

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1. Preliminary analyses of the jackets, piles and appurtenances may be performed


independently of the deck with only global deck loads being imposed on the jacket.
The final in-place analyses shall be conducted on a combined deck and jacket (with
non-linear coupled piles), which shall also account for significant deck loading
variation such as drill rig location, rig hook loads and rig set-back loads.
2. Computer analyses are required to design for each of the following conditions:
a) In-place conditions
b) Loadout conditions
c) Transportation conditions
d) Deck-lift conditions

7.2.

In-Place Analysis
A static three-dimensional analysis shall be performed for each complete platform deck, in
accordance with the provisions of API RP 2A-WSD and AISC S335. The computer
model shall include all the main members of the deck.
Each deck shall be designed for all realistic combinations of the following load
conditions, as defined in Section 6.0 and API RP 2A-WSD. The combinations shall
include but not be limited to the following:
1. 100-year return period wind
2. Operating wind
3. Dead loads
4. Live loads, including multiple positions of moveable equipment such as drilling rigs
5. Equipment test loads

7.2.1.

Vibration Considerations
The structural response of decks supporting rotating machinery or other
sources of vibration shall be investigated to ensure that unacceptable
excitation of the deck structure will not occur.

7.2.2.

Deflection Limitations
Deflection of deck beams and girders shall be limited to 1/300 of the
span under dead load plus live load. For cantilevers, a limit of 1/150 of the
overhang shall be used.
For girders supporting turbines, the deflection under dead load plus
live load shall be limited to 1/500 of the span. For cantilevers, a limit of
1
/250 of the overhang shall be used.

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7.3.

Design of Fixed Offshore Platforms in Moderate Environ.

July 1998

Loadout Analysis
A three-dimensional analysis shall be required for any deck section that is skidded onto
the transportation barge. The analysis shall include a sufficient number of positions
during the skidding operation, so as to maximize member stresses. The analysis shall also
comply with any further requirements of MP 02-P-04 and the ExxonMobil Data Sheets.
Member stresses and punching shear shall be determined in all permanent and temporary
members and joints.
Stresses in the structure shall not exceed the requirements of API RP 2A-WSD for tubular
and tubular joints, and AISC S335 for structural shapes and built-up members. Stresses
shall be limited to basic allowables.

7.3.1.

Load Conditions
The structure shall be analyzed for the forces imposed during the loadout. In
defining the load conditions, consideration shall be given to the operational
restraints of the loadout system. The following are among the conditions to
be considered:
1. Incorrect trim of draft due to tidal fluctuation or wind
2. Barge movement due to nearby marine traffic
3. Location, slope or settlement of skidways
4. Based on the analysis, deflection criteria shall be established that give the
allowable deflection tolerance for the structure as it moves along the
skidway

7.3.2.

Final Review
Re-analyses may be required as a result of the final loadout plan prepared by
the fabrication contractor.
A review of the selected barge shall be performed to ensure that the barge has
the structural strength to withstand the expected static and dynamic loadings
from the loadout operations.

7.4.

Transportation Analysis
A detailed transportation analysis shall be performed for each deck in accordance with
API RP 2A-WSD and MP 02-P-04. Motions of the barge-deck system shall be determined
and subsequently used to calculate the deck member stresses.

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7.4.1.

July 1998

Criteria Requirements
The selection of comprehensive or reduced design criteria is indicated in the
job specifications.

7.4.1.1.

Comprehensive Criteria

An environmental report shall be obtained detailing the characteristics


(significant wave height, period and applicable wave spectrum) of a 10-year
recurrence, internal maximum storm for the specific route and time of year.

7.4.1.2.

Reduced Criteria

Simplified criteria shall be established, with review by The Company.

7.4.2.

Positioning
The selection of the structure's position on the barge shall be based on both
engineering and operational considerations. Among these considerations are
the following:
1. Minimize transportation induced forces on the cargo.
2. Locate structure over "strong" points.
3. Minimize overhang.
4. Minimize blockage of access ways.
5. Locate away from barge fitting and tank vents.

7.4.3.

Load Conditions
The structure shall be analyzed, using the transportation ballast
configuration, for forces resulting from the application of the appropriate
forces to the barge/cargo system.

Maximum loadings shall be applied in appropriate


combinations to determine the structural integrity of the cargo and
seafastening.

A variety of storm approach directions relative to the barge


axes shall be taken into account.

Load conditions shall consider the effects of roll, pitch,


heave, sway, surge, yaw, wind and wave slam.
Structure stress analysis for the structure, including seafastening,
shall be performed using the loads and the seafastening and support
locations defined above.

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7.4.4.

July 1998

Allowable Stresses/Shear
Structure member stresses shall not exceed the API RP 2A-WSD
requirements for tubular and tubular joints, and AISC S335 requirements for
structural shapes and built-up members. Allowable stresses shall include a
one-third increase over basic allowables.

7.4.5.

Other Analyses
Punching shear at the structure and tiedown tubular joints shall be
checked for the load condition forces and stresses.
Structure fatigue analysis for the transportation period shall be
provided. The fatigue analysis shall be based on the environmental
conditions expected along the tow route. The fatigue lives shall be
established using appropriate stress concentration factors.
A vortex shedding analysis shall be provided for the structure, based
on the environmental conditions expected along the tow route.

7.4.6.

Reinforcement and Seafastenings


Structural members that do not meet the requirements of the
allowable stresses and that have a fatigue life usation factor of 0.5 or
greater shall be reinforced.
Seafastenings shall be designed according to the transportation
analyses. Seafastenings shall be located at hard points on the deck and
framed barge deck areas, and they shall be designed to restrain the
structure when subjected to the design towing conditions. Consideration
shall also be given for the efficient removal of the seafastening when
selecting their location and design.
Gusset plates shall be avoided to alleviate a punching shear
overstress condition at a structure tubular joint. Gusset plates are
acceptable to spread load in the barge deck or at an intersection with
structural shapes.
Seafastening and reinforcement shall be detailed to provide good
fatigue characteristic under cyclic loading. Sharp corners, discontinuities
and other stress concentrations are not permitted.
A limiting weather condition shall be determined that reflects the
criteria used for the stress analysis of the structure and seafastenings.

7.4.7.

Final Review
Re-analyses and design may be required as a result of the final transportation
plan prepared by the installation contractor.

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A review of the selected barge shall be performed to ensure that the barge has
the structural strength to withstand the expected static and dynamic loadings
from the tow operations.

7.5.

Lift Analysis
A three-dimensional lift analysis shall be performed for each deck section in accordance
with API RP 2A-WSD and MP 02-P-04. One analysis may serve for several deck sections
of similar size and weight.
Lifting padeyes, spreader bar(s), sling and shackle designs shall be governed by the lift
analyses, API RP 2A-WSD and MP 02-P-04.

7.5.1.

Preliminary Plan
A preliminary lift plan shall be developed that will include pre-lift, lift and
post-lift operations. The preliminary lift plan shall include the following:
1. Rigging plan
2. Marine equipment position and site layout drawings for lift operations
3. Sequence for all operations
4. Limiting environmental conditions

7.5.2.

Allowable Stresses
Deck member stresses shall not exceed the API RP 2A-WSD requirements
for tubular and tubular joints, and AISC S335 requirements for structural
shapes and built-up members. Allowable stresses shall include a one-third
increase over basic allowables.

7.5.3.

Final Plan
Re-analyses may be required as a result of the final lift plan prepared by the
installation contractors.

7.6.

Deck Clearance
The bottom-of-steel of the cellar deck shall be at an elevation above MLW that is obtained
as described on the appropriate ExxonMobil Data Sheets.

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7.7.

Design of Fixed Offshore Platforms in Moderate Environ.

July 1998

Other Requirements
7.7.1.

Flooring
Deck flooring shall be a minimum of 8 mm (5/16 in) skid resistant steel plate
or 25 mm (1 in) depth steel serrated bar grating (hot dipped galvanized after
fabrication) for closed and open deck areas, respectively.

7.7.2.

Drainage
Trough-type deck drains shall be provided on closed decks.
Whenever possible, an open trough shall be used for gathering all
drainage to a central opening into an 200 mm (8 in) O.D. pipe
downcomer to the sump. Downcomer pipes shall have a minimum 10
degree slope. Downcomer pipes from drilling areas shall have a
minimum 30 degree slope. A screen type drain clean-out shall be
provided at the entrance into the downcomer. Also a trash stopper shall
be provided at ends of each lateral trough into the main trough.
Drain troughs and other drainage inlets shall be covered with
galvanized bar grating. (Fiberglass grating may be used, subject to
Company approval.)

7.7.3.

Cranes
On drilling platforms, consideration shall be given to a crane
laydown area extending outside the top deck to accommodate placing
crane loads in the cellar deck during drilling and producing operation.
If facilities layout allows, access hatches in upper deck levels shall
be provided for crane access to lower deck levels.

7.7.4.

Support Pads
Support pads shall be provided for aids-to-navigation, as required.
Equipment shall be readily accessible for maintenance purposes.

8. Design of Bridges, Walkways, Access Platforms and


Stairs
8.1.

Bridges

Three-dimensional computer analyses are required for in-place and lift


conditions.

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Deflection of bridges shall be limited to 1/300 of the span under dead load plus
live load.

Long-span bridges shall be cambered to compensate for dead load plus live
loads. Short-span bridges may not require camber.

8.2.

Walkways, Access Platforms and Stairs

Walkways, access platforms and stairs shall be designed for 488 kg/m 2 (100
psf) live loading and have a minimum width of 0.9 m (3 ft).

Primary access to main operating levels, main service levels and roofs of
buildings supporting major equipment shall be by stairways. Main operating and
service levels shall be those serving grouped equipment that requires frequent
attention of operating and maintenance personnel. Primary access to platforms
attached to vessels and to auxiliary service platforms shall be by ladders.
Handrails shall enclose all platforms and stairways. Handrails shall be fixed
or removable, as specified in the job specification.
Toe plates shall be provided at the perimeter of all platforms and stair
landings, and around floor openings for permanent equipment. The latest OSHA
standards shall be followed. Except for areas where collection of surface drainage
is required, the bottom edge of all toe plates shall be 6.3 mm ( 1/4 in) above the
floor level.

Safety gates or chain shall be provided across ladder openings at all landings.
Cages shall be provided for ladders extending over 3.7 m (12 ft) above deck or
landing and shall start 2.4 m (8 ft) above deck.

Access shall be provided to change out swing ropes and other high
maintenance items located under the cellar deck.

9. Design General
9.1.

Allowable Stresses
All platform members shall be designed according to the basic allowable stresses
specified by AISC S335 or API RP 2A-WSD.
Where stresses are due in part to the lateral and vertical forces imposed by design
environmental conditions, the basic AISC S335 allowable stresses may be increased by
one-third. The required section properties computed on this basis shall not be less than
required for design dead and live loads computed without the one-third increase.

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MP 02-P-01

9.2.

Design of Fixed Offshore Platforms in Moderate Environ.

July 1998

Welded Connections
All welded connections shall be designed as specified by AWS D1.1.

9.3.

Use of Tubular Members


All structural members, braces, supports, etc. below the cellar deck elevation shall be
designed using tubular materials.

10. Material Selection


Steel types specified in Table 2 are recommended for use in platform fabrication. Substitutions shall
not be allowed without prior written approval by The Company. In addition, reference shall be made
to MP 57-P-01.

Table 2: Recommended Structural Materials


Material Designation
ASTM A36

Areas of Usation
Mild steel for general purpose, including rolled
tubulars, beams, girders, trusses, plates, bar
grating, stiffeners, padeyes, braces, deck legs,
jacket legs, jacket braces, crane pedestals, piles,
conductors, followers, conductor guides

ASTM A633

Grades A, B, C, D

Pad eyes, jacket legs, piles

ASTM A53

Grade B

Tubulars (welded or seamless), handrails,


conductor guides

ASTM A106

Grade B (Norm)

Tubular (seamless for high temperature use), vent


boom

ASTM A307

Grade A or B

Standard bolts and nuts

ASTM A325

High strength bolts

ASTM A668

Grade F or G

Vent boom pins

API 5L

Grade B

Tubulars (line pipe), deck trusses, jacket braces

API 2H

Grade 42 or 50

Deck leg joint cans, crane pedestal joint cans,


jacket braces, jacket joint cans, padeyes

API 5LX

Grade X52

Tubulars, jacket braces, J-tubes

API A572

Grade 42, 50

Caissons, piling, crane pedestal, deck leg

Local national requirements and designations shall be addressed when appropriate.

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MP 02-P-01

Design of Fixed Offshore Platforms in Moderate Environ.

July 1998

11. Documentation
11.1. Design Calculation Notebooks
A complete set of design calculations shall be suitably bound in 216 x 280 mm (8 1/2 x 11
in) format.

The information shall be indexed and sorted according to major platform


components and analyses. It shall contain the design criteria, summaries of storm and
operating loading, pile loading summaries, critical member and joint loads, as well as
summaries of member stresses encountered during loadout, lifting, launching and
transportation.

Sketches showing unity check ratios, with the controlling condition where
applicable, for all members of the deck, jacket and piling shall be prepared and
included in the design notes.

The documentation shall include area take-offs for cathodic protection, from
mudline to the MLW line, and from below the mudline to the bottom of the piles.

The contractor shall perform detailed weight calculations for the various
components of the structure and furnish them in an itemized format as part of the
calculation notebook design.

A registered professional engineer or equivalent, according to local practice


shall certify all documentation.

11.2. Design Drawings


Drawings shall be drafted on standard "D" size, 559 x 834 mm (22 x 34 in) sheets. Also,
280 x 417 mm (11 x 17 in) half-size reproductions of all drawings shall be furnished.
Deviations in drawing size according to local customs shall be provided by The Company
when necessary.

Conductor slots (for new platforms when applicable) shall be numbered


numerically (1, 2, 3, ...) beginning in the northwest corner and progressing left to
right, unless the job specifications indicate otherwise.

Each drawing shall use the standard title block of the operating Company
affiliate and shall be identified as the property of said Company affiliate.

Platform north shall be oriented to the top or to the left of the page of each
drawing. Deck layouts shall show the longitudinal deck trusses lettered alphabetically
as Row A, etc. from west to east and transverse trusses numerically as Bent 1, etc.
from north to south.

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MP 02-P-01

Design of Fixed Offshore Platforms in Moderate Environ.

July 1998

Each deck plan drawing shall contain a key drawing reflecting the design
load for each area.

A registered professional engineer or equivalent, according to local practice,


shall certify all drawings.

11.3. Computer Analysis Output


Copies of all final computer analyses shall be provided.

11.4. Computer Models


A copy of the final deck, jacket and piling (including appurtenances) computer models
used for the design analyses shall be provided to The Company in ASCII format on 140
mm (51/2 in) or 89 mm (31/2 in) magnetic diskette.

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