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Microfossils

Foraminifera

Test

Size

Environm Geologic

Compositio

Rang

ent

depositio

range

Calcareous

0.1m

n
Marine

Cambrian-

Agglutinated

m-

Siliceous

10cm

of age

recent

Chitionous

Radiolaria

Diatoms

Siliceous

100-

Strontium-

200

phosphate

um

Siliceous

5-200

Marine

present

Marine

um

Ostracoda

Cambrian-

Creteaceo
us-present

Calcareous

0.05-

Marine

Ordovician

Chitinous

5mm

Freshwate

-present

Calcareous
nanoplanktons

Calcareous

<20
um

Marine

Jurassicpresent

Edzel M, Dela Cruz


201211139

1. Classification of microfossils based on their composition

2. Laboratory processes for sample preparation covering forams


Processing samples to recover foraminifera

If

the sample is

unconsolidated sediment that can be easily

disaggregated, Simple Soaking will do.


1. Soak the unconsolidated sediment in distilled water or in a dilute Calgon
solution to disaggregate fine sediments (muds)
2. Once the muds have been dispersed, the sample can be washed through a
sieve (a stainless steel U. S. Standard Sieve No. 230 with mesh openings of
63 microns is recommended). Stir gently the water/sediment mixture,
introduce it gradually onto the sieve, and wash under a gentle stream of

water. The muds will pass through the sieve and be discarded wand what
remains are concentration of sand sized material including foraminifera.
3. Rinse the residue into filter paper placed within a funnel, allow the sample
to drain, and then air dry in place safe from contamination and breezes.
When dry, the grains should not adhere to one another. If they do, some mud
still remains and the soaking/sieving procedure should be repeated. When
satisfactorily clean, the dried sample should be stored in a properly labeled
vial until ready for microscopic examination.

This

Hydrogen Peroxide (H2O2) Method


involves

breaking

down

of

more

resistant

samples by soaking and boiling it in a dilute solution


of hydrogen peroxide, and then by sieving the
mixture in No. 230 sieve. The retained sample is
transferred into filter paper.

Liquid Nitrogen method


Very cheap an easy method that only requires a
well-ventilated room. In this method, the rock
sample (o5-1cm) is treated with liquid nitrogen
and hot water until the rock is suffuciently
disintegrated into a fraction containing a microfossil of interests.

Concentrating test of foraminifera


Involves floating of foraminiferal test to separate it in other sediment grains.

Soap Float

The processed sample added gently in to solution of soap and distilled water.
The soap or detergent to be used are those that produces a sudsy froth. With
frequent stirring, the foraminifera will be suspended in the surface froth

while the solid sediment particles will sink to the bottom of the container.
The froth can be decanted onto a N0. 230 sieve and washed in gentle stream
of water to remove the suds. The residue are foraminiferal test with some
very fine sands of nonbiogenic origin. It can be dried and examined under
the microscope.

Preparing smear slides


It is done by collecting a tiny fraction of the sediment sample with a
toothpick and mixing it into the water on the glass slide. The wet sediment
should be spread until it forms a thin transluscent coat across glass slide,
and then carefully place a cover slip on the slide, Smear slides can be
examined under common or petrographic light microscope.