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AVR$SVR COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING: KURNOOL

CIVIL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT


IV B.TECH. (SCHEME 2009)
ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY
TITLE: Test Procedure to determine
Various forms of Alkalinity in a Water Sample
1.AIM:
To determine the various forms of Alkalinity in the given water
Sample(s).
2.APPARATUS:
Burette (50ml) with burette stand, Pipette(20ml), Conical flasks(250ml)
and Beaker(100ml).
3.REAGENTS:
Standard Sulphuric acid (H2So4) , Phenolphthalein indicator and Methyl
orange indicator .
4.PRINCIPLE:
Alkalinity of a water sample can be estimated by titrating with standard
sulphuric acid. Titration up to decolourization of phenolphthalein indicator
(pH 8.3) will indicate complete neutralization of hydroxide (OH -) and half
of the carbonate (CO3 -), while sharp change from yellow to pink of
methyl orange indicator (pH 4.5) will indicate total alkalinity (complete
neutralization of hydroxide, carbonate and bicarbonate).
5.PROCEDURE:
1. Clean all the apparatus with distilled water and rinse with respective
solutions.
2. Pipette out 100ml water sample in to a 250 ml clean conical flask.
3. Add one or two drops of phenolphthalein indicator. If the sample
becomes pink, titrate the sample with sulphuric acid from the
burette until the pink colour just disappears.
4. Note down the volume of sulphuric acid solution run down.
5. Add one or two drops of methyl orange indicator and continue the
titration until yellow colour changes to pink colour .
6. Note down the volume of sulphuric acid solution run down.
7. Repeat the same procedure for concurrent values of burette
readings.
8. Repeat the above procedure for the given any number of samples.
6.OBSERVA TIONS:
S.NO.

Description
of sample

Vol. of
Sample
Taken
(ml)

7.CALCULATIONS:
Normality of H2So4 (N)

Phenolphthalein Indicator

Methyl orange Indicator

Burette readings

Burette readings

Initial

Final

Vol.of
H2So4
used
( P ml )

Initial

Final

Vol. of
H2So4
used
( M ml)

Total Vol.
Of
H2So4
used
( T ml)
T=P+ M

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Page 1 of 3

AVR$SVR COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING: KURNOOL


CIVIL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT
IV B.TECH. (SCHEME 2009)
ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY
TITLE: Test Procedure to determine
Various forms of Alkalinity in a Water Sample
Volume of H2So4 required to neutralize alkalinity
in the presence of phenolphthalein indicator ( P )

Volume of H2So4 required to neutralize alkalinity


in the presence of methyl orange indicator ( M )

Volume of H2So4 required to neutralize total alkalinity (T) =

(a) When P=T


Strength of hydroxide

P x N x 1000 x 50
mg/l as CaCO3
Volume of water sample

(2P-T) x N x 1000 x 50

(b) P > T
Strength of hydroxide
CaCO3
Strength of carbonate
CaCO3

mg/l as

Volume of water sample


=

2(T-P) x N x 1000 x 50

mg/l as

Volume of water sample

(c ) P=1/2 T
Strength of carbonate
CaCO3

2P x N x 1000 x 50

mg/l as

Volume of water sample

(d) P<1/2T
Strength of carbonate
CaCO3
Strength of bicarbonate
CaCO3

2P x N x 1000

x 50

mg/l as

Volume of water sample


= (T- 2P) x N x 1000

x 50

mg/l as

Volume of water sample

(e) P =O
Strength of bicarbonate
CaCO3

T x N x 1000 x 50

mg/l as

Volume of water sample

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Page 2 of 3

AVR$SVR COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING: KURNOOL


CIVIL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT
IV B.TECH. (SCHEME 2009)
ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY
TITLE: Test Procedure to determine
Various forms of Alkalinity in a Water Sample
Value of P and T
P= 0
P <1/2 T
P =1/2 T
P> 1/2 T
P =T

Alkalinity due to
Hydroxides
Carbonates
0
0
0
2P
0
2P
2P-T
2T-2P
T
0

Bicarbonates
T
T 2P
0
0
0

8.RESULT:
The alkalinity of the given water sample(s) in mg /l as CaCO3
Hydroxide alkalinity

Carbonate alkalinity

Bicarbonate alkalinity =
Total alkalinity

9.INFERENCE:
The given water sample may/may not be used for domestic purpose.
The given water sample may/may not be used for construction purpose.
10.PUBLIC HEALTH SIGNIFICANCE ;
The alkalinity of a water has little public health significance . Highly
alkaline waters are usually unpalatable.

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