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1/22/2016

Circular Motion
Physics Grade X

After studying this topic, you are expected to be able to:

describe qualitatively motion along circular path as


due to a perpendicular force which causes a
centripetal acceleration
express angular displacement in radians
solve problem using the concept of angular velocity
recall and use equation for centripetal acceleration
(a = v2/r, a = rw2)
recall and use equation for centripetal force (F =
mrw2, F = mv2/r)

Physics Grade X Immanuel Christian School Senior High [Bilingual Class]


Devilim, S.Si.

1/22/2016

Circular Motion

Velocity magnitude + direction


Magnitude changed acceleration
Direction changed?
There is acceleration!
Example?
Revolution of earth around sun
Solar system
Physics Grade X Immanuel Christian School Senior High [Bilingual Class]
Devilim, S.Si.

Why it moves in circle?

Move in circle there is acceleration there is


force towards the center of circle
Acceleration to the center of circle
= centripetal acceleration

Centripetal acceleration (ac) :

Force to center of circle = centripetal force


(fc):
F = m.ac

Physics Grade X Immanuel Christian School Senior High [Bilingual Class]


Devilim, S.Si.

1/22/2016

Wall of Death

Example:

Physics Grade X Immanuel Christian School Senior High [Bilingual Class]


Devilim, S.Si.

Question:

Red book p. 133 B no. 5


Red book p. 132 A no. 7
Red book p. 134 C no. 3

Physics Grade X Immanuel Christian School Senior High [Bilingual Class]


Devilim, S.Si.

1/22/2016

A certain light truck can go around a flat curve having


a radius of 150 m with a maximum speed of 32.0 m/s.
With what maximum speed can it go around a curve
having a radius of 75.0 m?
A certain light truck can go around a flat curve having
a radius of 250 m with a maximum speed of 50.0 m/s.
With what maximum speed can it go around a curve
having a radius of 80.0 m?

Physics Grade X Immanuel Christian School Senior High [Bilingual Class]


Devilim, S.Si.

A 40.0-kg ice-skater is moving at 4.00 m/s when she


grabs the loose end of a rope, the opposite end of
which is tied to a pole. She then moves in a circle of
radius 0.800 m around the pole. Determine the force
exerted by the horizontal rope on her arms.
A 50.0-kg ice-skater is moving at 5.00 m/s when she
grabs the loose end of a rope, the opposite end of
which is tied to a pole. She then moves in a circle of
radius 0.500 m around the pole. Determine the force
exerted by the horizontal rope on her arms.
Physics Grade X Immanuel Christian School Senior High [Bilingual Class]
Devilim, S.Si.

1/22/2016

How to Deal with Circular Motion?

Quantities of Circular Motion


Radian (unit for measuring angles)

unit of : radian rad

1 full circle = 360o


length (1 circle) = 2pr
360o = 2p rad

Physics Grade X Immanuel Christian School Senior High [Bilingual Class]


Devilim, S.Si.

Frequency & Period


frequency = how many full circles in 1 second
f = total circle/time
period = how many seconds to move 1 full
circle
T = total time/how many circle
rpm (rotations or revolutions per minute)
Rpm = how many circles in 1 minute
From rpm to frequency?
From frequency to rpm?
Physics Grade X Immanuel Christian School Senior High [Bilingual Class]
Devilim, S.Si.

1/22/2016

Exercise 1
Convert the unit
1. 75o = . Rad
2. 570o = . Rad
3. (2p/5) rad = . o
4. 30 rad = . o

Find w, f, T
5. Travel 120o in 2
seconds
6. Travel 400o in 5 second
7. Has 240 rpm
8. Has 1200 rpm

Physics Grade X Immanuel Christian School Senior High [Bilingual Class]


Devilim, S.Si.

Angular Displacement (q)

How much angle turned


Unit: radians (rad)

Length :

:
.

Physics Grade X Immanuel Christian School Senior High [Bilingual Class]


Devilim, S.Si.

1/22/2016

Angular Velocity (w)

How much angle turned over time


Unit: radians/second (rad/s)

Or

2
:

Physics Grade X Immanuel Christian School Senior High [Bilingual Class]


Devilim, S.Si.

Try it

Find q, w, f, rpm, v, s, ac

Going 6 turns in 5 seconds, 2 meters from


the centre of the circle
Having period of 10 seconds and diameter
of 10 meter, travels for 2 minutes
Travels 300o in 50 second, 10 cm from the
centre of circle

Physics Grade X Immanuel Christian School Senior High [Bilingual Class]


Devilim, S.Si.

1/22/2016

Angular Acceleration (a)

Change of angular velocity (w) over time


Unit: radians/second2 (rad/s2)

Because : .

Physics Grade X Immanuel Christian School Senior High [Bilingual Class]


Devilim, S.Si.

Compare circular and linear motion


Circular motion
q
w
a

Linear motion
s=r.q
v=r.w
a=r.a

In this case, a is not centripetal acceleration,


but is called tangential acceleration
(acceleration with same direction as its linear
velocity)
Physics Grade X Immanuel Christian School Senior High [Bilingual Class]
Devilim, S.Si.

1/22/2016

Compare circular and linear motion


Motion with constant acceleration
Circular motion
.
1
.
.
2
2. .

Linear motion
.
1
.
.
2
2. .

Physics Grade X Immanuel Christian School Senior High [Bilingual Class]


Devilim, S.Si.

QUIZ

For no. 1 until 4, find its q, w, f, rpm, v, s, ac.


1. Going 540o in 4 seconds, radius 5 m
2. Going 1000o in 2 minutes, radius 10 m
3. Going 10 turns in 10 minutes, diameter 6 m
4. Going 20 turns in 10 seconds, diameter 10 m
5. Have frequency of 1/50 Hz and radius of 1 m, find its w, v, and
rpm
6. Have frequency of 1/25 Hz and radius of 4 m, find its w, v, and
rpm
7. A tire with diameter of 1 m rotates 500 rpm for 5 minutes.
Find its q, w, v, total distance travelled, and ac.
8. A tire with diameter of 2 m rotates 400 rpm for 5 minutes.
Find its q, w, v, total distance travelled, and ac.
Physics Grade X Immanuel Christian School Senior High [Bilingual Class]
Devilim, S.Si.

1/22/2016

Applications of Circular Motion

Gears

Road Reaction
Roller coaster
Banked road

Physics Grade X Immanuel Christian School Senior High [Bilingual Class]


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3 types of gears
relationships:

GEARS

r2

r1

r2
r1
r2

r1
Physics Grade X Immanuel Christian School Senior High [Bilingual Class]
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1/22/2016

GEARS CONNECTION

How are the ws and the vs?


r2

r2

r2

r1

r1

r1

Same centre
Same w

Different centre
Different w

Different centre
Different w

Notconnected
edge
Different v

Connected edge
Same v

Connected edge (use


string)
Same v

Physics Grade X Immanuel Christian School Senior High [Bilingual Class]


Devilim, S.Si.

Road Reaction

On top of the hill:

When passing through a dip:

.
.

If N1 0 (no contact with road, you feel The difference (N2 mg) provides the
like flying), then:
centripetal force

Physics Grade X Immanuel Christian School Senior High [Bilingual Class]


Devilim, S.Si.

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1/22/2016

Roller Coaster

Same concept with road reaction

Physics Grade X Immanuel Christian School Senior High [Bilingual Class]


Devilim, S.Si.

Banked Road

on flat road:
Fc car friction between tires and the
road.
Car crash if it exceeds limiting
friction cant travel fast
on banked road:
Fc car provided by N on the car.
Certain speed: no sideways friction
in the tires.
vertically:
. cos
.
horizontally: . sin

combined together, it becomes:


tan

Physics Grade X Immanuel Christian School Senior High [Bilingual Class]


Devilim, S.Si.

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1/22/2016

A stone is tied to a string and then rotated horizontally at


an angular velocity of 200 rpm. If the length of the string
is 10 cm, calculate:
a) the frequency of motion of stone

b) the period of motion of the stone

c) the angular speed of the stone (in rad/s)


d) the linear speed of the stone

Physics Grade X Immanuel Christian School Senior High [Bilingual Class]


Devilim, S.Si.

At an airshow, an 2000-kg aircraft is moving in


circular path of diameter 500 m at a constant speed of
1000 m/s. Calculate:
a.its angular velocity

b.its centripetal acceleration


c.its centripetal force

Physics Grade X Immanuel Christian School Senior High [Bilingual Class]


Devilim, S.Si.

13

1/22/2016

The figure shows a cylinder of radius 0.7 m


rotating about its axis at 10 rad/s. Calculate the
speed of point P.

Physics Grade X Immanuel Christian School Senior High [Bilingual Class]


Devilim, S.Si.

Look at the following figure. It is known that


diameter of gear A is 4 times diameter of gear B.
If diameter of A is 20 cm, and gear A rotates with
constant angular speed of 10 rad/s, calculate:
a. linear speed of A
b. angular speed of B
A

Physics Grade X Immanuel Christian School Senior High [Bilingual Class]


Devilim, S.Si.

14

1/22/2016

Suppose that a 2000-kg car passes over a bump


in a roadway that follows the arc of a circle of
radius 20 m, as in Figure below.
(a)What force does the road exert on the car as
the car passes the highest point of the bump if
the car travels at 9 m/s?
(b)What is the maximum speed the car can have
without losing contact with the road as it
passes this highest point?

Physics Grade X Immanuel Christian School Senior High [Bilingual Class]


Devilim, S.Si.

Physics Grade X Immanuel Christian School Senior High [Bilingual Class]


Devilim, S.Si.

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1/22/2016

Physics Grade X Immanuel Christian School Senior High [Bilingual Class]


Devilim, S.Si.

Physics Grade X Immanuel Christian School Senior High [Bilingual Class]


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1/22/2016

Two wheels are identical but wheel B is


spinning with twice the angular velocity of
wheel A. What is the ratio of centripetal
acceleration of wheel B to wheel A?

Physics Grade X Immanuel Christian School Senior High [Bilingual Class]


Devilim, S.Si.

A wheel rotates with constant angular


acceleration 3 rad/s2. If the angular speed of the
wheel is 2 rad/s at ti = 0,
a. Through what angle does the wheel rotate
between 0 s and 2 s? (give answer in radians)
b. What is the angular speed of the wheel at 2
second?

Physics Grade X Immanuel Christian School Senior High [Bilingual Class]


Devilim, S.Si.

17

1/22/2016

A flywheel rotating at 12 rpm is brought to rest


in 6 seconds. Calculate the magnitude of
angular acceleration of the flywheel.
A flywheel rotating at 20 rpm is brought to rest
in 5 seconds. Calculate the magnitude of
angular acceleration of the flywheel.

Physics Grade X Immanuel Christian School Senior High [Bilingual Class]


Devilim, S.Si.

An airplane propeller slows from an initial angular


speed of 12 rev/s to a final angular speed of 5
rev/s. During this process, the propeller rotates
through 20 revolutions. Find the angular
acceleration of the propeller in radian/second2,
assuming its constant.

Physics Grade X Immanuel Christian School Senior High [Bilingual Class]


Devilim, S.Si.

18

1/22/2016

In a compact disc player, as the read head moves out


from the center of the disc, the angular speed of the disc
changes so that the linear speed at the position of the
head remains at a constant value of about 2 m/s.
(a) Find the angular speed of the compact disc when the
read head is at r = 2.0 cm and again at r = 5.6 cm.
(b) An old- fashioned record player rotates at a constant
angular speed, so the linear speed of the record
groove moving under the detector (the stylus)
changes. Find the linear speed of a 45.0-rpm record
at points 2.0 and 5.6 cm from the center.
(c) In both the CD and phonograph record, information is
recorded in a continuous spiral track. Calculate the
total length of the track for a CD designed to play for
Physics
Grade X Immanuel Christian School Senior High [Bilingual Class]
1.0 h.
Devilim, S.Si.

A flywheel rotating at 12 rpm is brought to rest


in 6 seconds. Calculate the magnitude of
angular acceleration of the flywheel.
A flywheel rotating at 20 rpm is brought to rest
in 5 seconds. Calculate the magnitude of
angular acceleration of the flywheel.

Physics Grade X Immanuel Christian School Senior High [Bilingual Class]


Devilim, S.Si.

19

1/22/2016

A compact disc rotates from rest up to an angular


speed of 30 rad/s in a time of 0.8 s.
(a)What is the angular acceleration of the disc,
assuming the angular acceleration is uniform?
(b)Through what angle does the disc turn while
coming up to speed?
(c) If the radius of the disc is 4 cm, find the final
tangential speed of a microbe riding on the rim
of the disc.
(d)What is the magnitude of the tangential
acceleration of the microbe at the given time?
Physics Grade X Immanuel Christian School Senior High [Bilingual Class]
Devilim, S.Si.

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