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Theorical Overview

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Theorical Overview

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V.4.0 - D

MEASURING

TROLLEY FOR TRACK GEOMETRY

KRAB

I. THEORETICAL OVERVIEW

Tel.: +420 2 20920553, +420 2 33920183

Fax.: +420 2 20920553

2001 Copyright KV 09/2002

CONTENTS:

1.

PART I ................................................................................................................................................................. 3

PART II ................................................................................................................................................................ 3

PART III AND IV .................................................................................................................................................. 3

2.

2.1

2.2

2.2.1

2.3

2.3.1

2.3.2

2.4

2.4.1

2.4.2

2.4.3

2.4.4

2.4.5

2.5

2.6

3.

TRANSFER FUNCTIONS .......................................................................................................................... 6

Versine on the there point asymmetric chord .................................................................................. 6

FILTRATION ........................................................................................................................................... 9

Filters used by the software KRAB ............................................................................................. 9

The separation of the long-wave and short-wave part of the signal ............................................. 12

MEASURING OF THE ALIGNMENT AND TOP .......................................................................................... 12

Absolute and relative measuring according to the wave contents ................................................ 12

Direct measuring of the so-called true geometry .......................................................................... 14

Indirect measuring of the so-called true geometry........................................................................ 15

Indirect measuring on the chord geometry ................................................................................... 16

Removal of the design value from the alignment........................................................................... 16

EFFECT OF THE AXLE LOAD ON THE GEOMETRIC VARIABLES ............................................................... 17

SIGN CONVENTION OF GEOMETRY VARIABLES..................................................................................... 20

3.1

SECTION EVALUATION......................................................................................................................... 22

3.1.1

Definition of the Quality Index ...................................................................................................... 23

3.1.2

Coefficient of logarithmic transformation relation ....................................................................... 27

3.2

EVALUATING OF THE LOCAL DEFECTS ................................................................................................ 28

4.

4.1

4.2

4.3

4.4

ORE-TWIST ........................................................................................................................................ 31

OVERALL SIGNAL OF THE LOCAL DEFECTS (GSE)................................................................................ 33

EVALUATION OF REPEATED JOINTS-CYCLIC TOP ................................................................................. 33

OVERALL SIGNAL OF THE STANDARD DEVIATIONS (GSS) .................................................................... 34

1.

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Technical description for measuring trolley is divided in to four parts:

"Part I.

"Part II.

"Part III.

"Part IV.

- Theoretical Overview",

- How to assemble, dissemble and maintain"

- Description of the measuring program".

- Description of the evaluation program".

Part I

Explaining problems of the track geometry, its measuring and evaluating and to explain these

problems in view of specifications of the measuring trolley Krab. Knowledge of Part 1. is not

necessary for practical work with the Krab. The operator without prior knowledge of the track

geometry problems (Part 1) of this manual would gain a better understanding of the

manipulation with the measuring trolley, it results and evaluating programs. (Part IV).

Part II

Is a practical guide involving operating of the measuring trolley Krab. The operator should

read this part carefully and understand the working of the measuring trolley before the first

use of this equipment. The operator would in this part also find the basic information of the on

board computer HUSKY. More detailed information is available from the original manual for

this computer.

Part III and IV

Explain to the operator workings of the software supplied with the measuring trolley.

Software is divided in the following groups: measuring program, communication program and

evaluating program (you can find it in separate manual). For practical track measuring it is

necessary to be familiar with all facets of the software (Part 3 and 4). Measured data are

transferred with the help of the communication program from the measuring computer to the

evaluating PC. To operate the communication program we advise to read Part 3. chap. 3.2 and

3.3. Detailed knowledge can be gained from the original manual for the communication

program and from the diskette. Evaluation and the printing of the data is done on the

evaluating PC. The operator should be familiar with some of the basic theory in Part 1.

Recommendation: To become familiar with the measuring trolley Krab we recommend:

Study all of Part 2. and chapter 4 from Part 3. Only after understanding you

can begin with the track measuring. Become familiar with chapters 3.2 and

3.3 from Part 3 and transfer of the data to the evaluating PC. When you are

in the mood and have some time to study Part 1. Manual of evaluating

program helps you to overcome the doubts you may have by intuitively

using the evaluating program and you can successfully finished your work

with complete results printed of the geometric variables of the measured

track.

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2.

2.1

TRACK GEOMETRY

Definitions of the geometric variables

a) Geometric Order of the Track (GOT) (alignment and top of the track)

b) Construction Order of the Track (COT) (gauge and cant)

- right (left) rail: rail located right (left) from the axis of the rail in the up direction

- top of the rails: points of the common tangent for the opposing rails, coplanar in the

cross section.

- top of the rail head: intersection of the upper running edge of the rail with axis

symmetry of the rail profile.

- running edge of the rail: is a geometric point of the intersection of the inner part of

the rail 14mm under the top of the rail perpendicular to the symmetry of the rail

profile.

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Geometric order of the track (alignment and top) is given by the forming curvature:

alignment of the track: (geometric axis of the track) is given by the centre of the connecting

lines of the running edge of opposing rails.

alignment of the rails: is given by the running edge of the rails.

level of the track on axis (TOP): is given by the centre of the connecting lines on the top of

the rail.

level of the rails (TOP): is given by the running surface of the rails.

Construction order of the track is defined by variables as follows:

gauge: distance between the running edges of the opposing rails.

cant: is given by angle which include common tangent of opposing tops of the rails in

horizontal position. It is measured by the shorter leg of a right angle of the rectangular triangle

where hypotenuse has length of nominal gauge (for example 1500mm).

twist: (in given cross section) is difference of cant in cross cut equidistant by half length of

the base of the twist in up direction and by half length of the base of the twist in down

direction.

Variables of the track geometry could be divided as per following schema:

geometric order of the track-GOR

horizontal

direction

Alignment Al

Gauge Ga

vertical

direction

Top Tp

Cant Ct

Measurement of the gauge and cant is relatively easy, because these variables are given

in direct cross cut of the track. In comparison, measurements of the top and alignment are

evaluating the deviation from the projected track settlement. Measuring cars and that include

the measuring trolley Krab do not know a projected placement of the track and therefore can

measured and evaluate only "smoothness" of these variables by measuring Deviations from

the substituted centre line. This line has filtered out waves, longer than for example 25m.

There are two ways how to evaluate the smoothness of the track: measuring of versine (rise of

arc above a chord) and measuring of so called true geometry. Between both kind of measuring

exists relationship and it is possible convert them (See Chap.2.4).

Measured primary geometric variables are digitised every 0.25m and are stored in the

memory of the measuring computer. The real measuring however is done every 50mm in

window of 1m so we can remove so called folding effect (anti-aliasing filtration).

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2.2

Transfer Functions

This chapter will explain basic linear dynamic system, which is important, and meaningful,

when measuring Track Geometry. Excitation of the system is done by the signal y(x). The

system itself is fully described by the transfer function H (j/). Echo of the system is exiting

signal z(x):

y(x)

z(x)

H(j/)

explanation is in the example, which calculates versine, on the chord.

2.2.1

If unevenness of the forming curve of alignment and top is measured by versine measuring on

the chord, the result is depended on the length of the chord and its asymmetry. From practical

point of view it is obvious that smaller the length of the chord the more we underestimate long

unevenness. This well-known phenomenon is possible to described, by so-called transfer

function. These functions allows calculation of the versine z(x) from the excitation signal y(x):

y

z(x)

b

y(x)

a

y(x)

y(x+b)

y(x-a)

0

z ( x)

a,b

x-a

x+b

y ( x) [ a b+b y ( x a) + a +a b y ( x + b)]

(1)

The transfer function has advantages shape when we move from independed spatial variable x

to reciprocal value 1/x (number of waves in one meter). To diferenciate spatial, and wavenumber domain, we would mark wave-number with symbol 1/ where [1/m] and length of the

wave with symbol with unit [m]. Transfer from spatial, to wave domain, is achieved by

FFT (Fast Fourier Transformation) to be applied on equation (1), and shown in equation (2):

Z ( j 2 )

j

= Y ( j 2 ) 1 ab+b e

2 a

a

a +b

2 b

(2)

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Where j shows imaginary unit.

Transfer function of the versine on the three point asymmetric chord with sections a, b have

shape:

H( j

b

a +b

2 a

a

a +b

2 b

(3)

Because we are dealing with complex function, Fig. 1 contains course of only absolute values

of this function, for three different chord lengths:

1. blue - 2.5m (a,b =1.15 , 1.35m) chord used by KRAB

2. black - 5.6m (a,b =2.5 , 3.1m) chord used on KRAB with the chord extension arm

3. red -10m (a,b =4, 6m), chord to evaluate alignment deflection for DB (German Railways)

Fig. 1

On horizontal axis of the graph, is reciprocal length of the wave. To the left, are waves long

as 100m, and on the right wave to 1m lengths. If the entry signal, have a shape of the pure

sinus-wave, y(x)=sin(2x/), value, of the transfer function for given length of the wave

coefficient, is enough to calculate the ordinate of the entry sinusoid, of the seeking versine,

z(x) also in the shape of the sinus wave.

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Fig. 2

These hypotheses, verified in practical test, are described in Fig. 1. In this drawing, in green is

a sinusoid in length of 2m, with unitary amplitude, as an entry signal y (x). To this sinusoid,

are superimposed first, and third chord from Fig. 1. First chord of 2.5m long, in blue colour,

we could see, that measured amplitude, is about 1.7, which correspond to the value of the

transfer function, for wave length of 2m. Second chord, of 10m in red, when moved anywhere

over the green sinus wave, its centre, always lie on the sinusoid, and will measure zero

value. This corresponds to the zero value, of the transfer function from Fig. 1. In other words,

chord of 10m, with chord distribution 4 and 6m, is completely blind to 2m waves. We can

also conclude, by pure observation from Fig. 1, that chords, of any length, have common

problem. They are unable to measure long wave. This is a disadvantage of measuring on the

chord.

If chord of 10m, will be symmetrical, it will be blind, to the waves of 5m, which would be

more serious. Waves of 5m are represented abundantly, in course of measuring. Asymmetry of

the chord, to certain point, helps to remove, this drawback.

Procedure used for the versine calculation by means of the transfer function was used for pure

sinusoidal signals in our example. This procedure can be generalized on the signals occurring

in practice. Every continuous signal can be projected as sum of sinusoids with different

wavelength. For each sinusoid, we know the multiplication coefficient. After application,

partial results are sum-up. If, for decomposition of the entry signal, we use Fast Fourier

Transformation (FFT), the procedure is very effective. It is called Fast Convolution or Fast

de-convolution. It is depending, if we know the entry signal and calculating the versine, or if

we know versine, and calculating the entry signal. In case of de-convolutions, the calculations

also need to take in count, the properties of the transfer function; the suggested process is only

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to explain the procedure. In practice the calculation of the de-convolution, need to take in

consideration, also the noise of the measured signal.

2.3

Filtration

can describe the used filters, as a linear dynamic system. The transferred functions, has

characteristics of the frequency filter.

2.3.1

FIR-Kaiser (blue)

Trapezoidal (green)

Triangular (red)

Butterworth (violet)

First three filters, are non-recursive, and are applied in the spatial domain, by analogue

equation (1), and last, is equivalent to Butterworth recursive filter of the 4th order. It is used in

the manner there-back, to prevent phase displacement. In the KRAB software,

application is by method of Fast convolution in frequency domain as an analogue equation (2).

Fig. 3

On the Fig. 3 we see absolute values, of the frequency transfer function, of all four filters, in

the shape of low-pass filtration of up to 25m.

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Definice: Bordering wavelength of the filters, used by software KRAB, are defined as a

wavelength, for which frequency transfer function, has a characteristic value 0.5.

First three non-recursive filters, in the track domain, are applied as weighted moving average.

Weighted windows, of these filters, are on the Fig. 4. From their shape, it becomes obvious,

from where the two remaining filters have they name. The name of the first filter, FIR-Kaiser,

is adapted from English Finite Impulse Response, which is the characteristic of the nonrecursive filters. The attribute Kaiser, means, that when calculating weight, we used Kaisers

window of the order 3.5.

The chosen filters are very often used by other measuring systems. Butterworth and Triangular

filters are very common. The Trapezoidal filter is an improvement of the Triangular filter, as

we can see from the frequency characteristics. Trapezoidal filters do not have so large side

lobes, as a Triangular filter. Both can be transferred to double filtration, simply by the moving

average. The Triangular filter has both moving averages of the same length, and in case of the

Trapezoidal filter; one moving average has a 2/3 length of the second.

Fig. 4

On the Fig. 5, we can see characteristic of the three Butterworth filters. Marked red is

Butterworth filter of the order N0=4, with bordering wavelength 0=25m, used once (there).

Marked blue, is a same filter used twice (there-back). We can see, that the wavelength of

the Butterworth filter (there) does not correspond with definition stated above, but

frequency characteristics, for the bordering length, are equal to the value 2/2. The values 0.5

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is attain for =0*3^(1/2N0)=21.8m. Only then, the same filter, used (there-back), the

bordering wavelength are true to the definition. Marked green, is a spare Butterworth filter

used only (there), which should substitude blue filter (there-back). Its order, and

bordering wavelength, where determined, by the condition in such order, so its amplitude

frequency characteristics, intersects the bordering wavelength 0=25m, on the level 0.5 and

has on the same point, common tangent. These condition exactly corresponds with the order

of the filter N = 4/3N0 = 5.33 and bordering length of the wave is =0*3^(1/2N)=27.7m. In

practice, we can, for Butterworth filter apply, in the track domain, only all-number order, filtre

N=5.

Fig. 5

At the bottom part, of the Fig. 5, are derivations of the frequency characteristics, which fulfill

the conditions, for the common tangent for filter (there-back), and for spare filter used only

there. Detection of the equivalent Butterworth filter, (as it is applied in the software

KRAB), to the filter (there) has a practical significance.

Question:

Inertial measuring coach, using for on-line filtration, of the gauge signal, to find long-wave

part, Butterworth filter, of the order N= 4, with bordering wavelength =25m. Which filter

should be used in the software KRAB to achieve the similar results?

Solution:

Because we are looking for on-line results, we known it is a Butterworth filter, used only

(there). Bordering length, of the wave, corresponds with the value, of the frequency

characteristics 2/2. It is a red filter, from the Fig. 5. It should be substituted by a different

Butterworth filter, accessible by the software KRAB in the system (there-back). It is an

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inversion of the example above. First, we must specify the order of the spare filter. It must be

smaller, because, it will be used (there-back). The order increases 4/3* (it is) Nn = 3/4*N =

3/4*4=3. The bordering length of the wave, is calculated by the algorithm, n=/3^(1/2N n) =

25/3^(1/6) =20.8m.

2.3.2

With the help of filtration, we could separate the given signal, into low-pass filtration (the

example of these filters is in the Fig. 3), which gives us so-called long- wave component. By

subtracting the original signal, and its long wave part, we will get the short-wave component.

Same effect is achieved, when using filter, with the high-pass filter, providing, that both filters

are complimentary.

H low pass filter ( j ) = 1 H high pass filter ( j )

(4)

Ga full

= Ga dyn

+ Ga quass

(5)

All low-pass and high-pass filters to be used in practice are not complementary. For example,

low- and high-pass Butterworth filters in track domain (there) are not complementary.

Long-wave component, of the signal, is also called quasistatic component, short-wave

component dynamic, in accordance with the arousing effect of the components, which they

have on the forces, between the wheels and the rails.

2.4

2.4.1

Absolute and relative measuring according to the wave contents

In the previous chapter, we mentioned that real, continuous signal, could be projected as a

sum of the sinusoid curves. Example of the sum of the sinusoids, Fig. 6.

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Fig. 6

On the top graph are four sinus curves, with wave length, amplitude and phase shift over axis

x according to the following table:

Colour

Blue

Green

Red

Violet

64

1

16

1

8

1

2

0.3

9

0

-2

0.5

Tab. 1

In the middle graph is a sum of all four sinusoids, which are classified, as an entry signal y (x)

from equation (1). In the bottom graph, is signal y (x), transferred into linear dynamic domain,

function (Y j2/) from equation (2). Here the function has only four non-zero values, giving

amplitudes of each individual sinus curves depending on the wavelength as in the Tab.1. From

this example we can see the advantage, of using Fourier transformation: blue signal y (x)

could represent shape of the forming curve of alignment of the real rail. On the section of

40m, when sampling every 0.25m, we would need 160 real numbers. By using Fourier

transformation, we would need only 9 numbers (Tab.1.)

In the chapter 2.1, we discussed the difference, in measuring of the value COT (Construction

order of the track, gauge and cant) and GOT (Geometry order of the track alignment and

top). Values of COT are direct measuring on the rail, and have a full wave spectrum. They

contain waves, of all length, from the longest, (hundreds of meters) to the shortest, (1m). Its

measuring is absolute by which we mean, that for its identification, on the given location of

the rail, we need only distance measurement, and only at that location. Formed waves of the

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GOT, have also full wave spectrum, but for the measuring by the same method, we would

need to know also the exact position of the ground, which is not possible and therefore we

measure only the smoothness of the curves. If we measure the smoothness on the chord, we

need to known the location of the forming curve, not only at the place of the measuring, but

also behind and ahead. This is a reason why we call this type of measuring relative. The chord

measuring, have limited wave spectrum. The final signal does not contain long waves. Natural

endeavour is to increase the wave band towards the long waves. For tracks, where train speed

is up to 160km/h, the expected wave band is <25m, on track over 160km/h at least <50m.

2.4.2

By true geometry, we understand horizontal (alignment) and vertical (top) shape of the

forming curve. As we explained in the chapter 2.4.1 even, that these curves have full wave

spectrum, they are very difficult to measure. In practice, however, the true geometry is

measured in limited wave bands. Most common direct measuring method is inertial,

implemented by fast moving recording cars. The measurement is done by indirect method on

the chord, and then is recalculated to true geometry.

When using the inertial measuring, we measure ordinates from forming curves, against the

centre line. The centre line is in the middle of the curvature, which inertial system seeking, in

accordance to the principals of the inertial measuring. Essentially, we measure the movement

on the curve in the space coursed by acceleration. After double integration of acceleration,

created deflection, after the filtration describes, and projects, the centre line of the forming

wave. Double integration however, has very similar problems as de-convolution, described in

the chapter 2.2.1. The problem is, that it could not be very accurate over long waves. That is a

reason, why measuring is done in the limited wave band, implementing other technical tricks.

The advantage of the inertial measuring is that it gives as picture of the (real) true geometry.

In our example, the forming curves, without the long waves.

Example:

Fig. 7

On the Fig. 7 is comparison of the entry signal y (x) (blue) with the same signal, which have

long wave part (green) removed. In this case, the sinus curvature of the 64m-wave length is

not included. The blue signal could be taken for forming curve, green for measuring signal by

the inertial system, which measuring in the band of 1<<25m.

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2.4.3

This measuring method is used by the track geometry measuring trolley KRAB and by the

small track recording car MMD . It measures versine, of the forming curvature on the

chord. After, by the fast de-convolution, calculates the true geometry in the limited wave

band. The procedure is illustrated in the following example:

On the track, on which one rail has horizontal shape of the curvature y (x) (Fig. 7 blue line),

track recording trolley KRAB is moved and measure versine on the asymmetric chord

1.15/1.35m. Measuring of the versine z (x) is simulated by the equation (1). In the upper part

of the Fig. 8 is y (x) blue and z (x) green.

Now, we can apply on the versine z (x) de-convolution with the transfer function curvature

y(x). In the bottom part of the Fig. 8 is an original signal y (x) in blue and re-calculated green.

The small difference is because of the imperfection of the chord to measure very long waves.

Fig. 8

Now, we will solve the same example, but we will use chord 4/6m, which is on the Fig. 1

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Fig. 9.

In the upper part of the Fig. 9 is again forming curve (blue) and re-calculated versine (green),

this time on the chord 4/6m. In the bottom part, is in blue forming curve, and in green an

attempt to re-construct the curvature, from the versine. It is visible, that the re-construction is

not containing wavelength 2m. Information of this wavelength is lost, due to the blind

window of the chord, as described in the chapter 2.2.1.

2.4.4

alignment and of top, on the chord of the certain length (usually shorter), and re-calculation of

these signals on the versine, of the chord of the different length. In practice, this method is

used for example by the track geometry measuring trolley KRAB (chord 1.15/1.35m) and

representation of the final versine for instance as for DB (German Rail requirements), where

the length of chord must be 2.6/6m for top and 4/6m for alignment.

In principle, however, the calculations is done by the same method as in the example of

calculation of the true geometry, only the core, of de-convolution contain part of the transfer

functions on presented chord, and part of the measuring chord.

2.4.5

The versines of the alignment have thanks to existence of the curves, typical shape of the

trapezoid. Transitional curves, corresponds to the leading edge of the trapezoid, tangents to

the zero values, and pure curves to the constant values. Because by the imperfections when

constructing the railway track, the basic shape contains unevenness, which is superimpose on

the trapezoid. The reason for geometry measuring is to define this unevenness. It is important,

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to separate the trapezoid part, from the signal of the versine. If we use the filters described in

the chapter 2.3.1, in the short-wave component we always find parts of the basic trapezoid,

particularly apex of the trapezoid. This phenomenon is unwanted, because it creates apparent

unevenness. It is significant in the curves with radius R<150m, switch points etc.

Fig. 10

In the software KRAB, is for separation of the trapezoidal components, included special filter

Linear approximation. Its separates the signal of the versine, by the break points in the

locations of anticipated peaks of the trapezoid. Signal, between the two adjacent break points

inserts equalizing line, by the method of the smallest quadrants. Ordinates of the ending points

of the lines, from the two adjacent locations, are averaged with the weight given by the length

of each individual area. By this method, we can achieve continuity of the linear incline line

between the break points. In the case, that some of the incline line sloping horizontally

(tolerance of the deflection from horizontal can by adjusted), it is again equalised by the

method of the smallest quadrants, to the horizontal, and its ending points becomes initial point

of the adjacent inclined equalising line. Finally, the linear incline line, is filtered, by simple

moving average

On the Fig. 10, we could see green signal of the versine of the alignment, measured on the

chord 0.9/1.0m travelling between the two switch points. Locations of the vertical violet lines,

indicating the break points. The dark line is a linear approximation. From this example, we

can deduct, that placement of the break points, which are placed by the operator, and its

results, are affected by human factor. In general, the anticipated shape of the trapezoidal

component is achieved, by the minimal amount of the break points.

2.5

When defining the geometric values, we are assuming that the Rail track is unweighted. The

wheels of the rail vehicles, however, by its weight and dynamics, deforming the track. These

deformations, under certain circumstances, are affecting the geometry values. Chapter 2.5

investigates the conditions, formation, and size of this accompanying unevenness

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Fig. 11 Equipment for continual measuring of the Track stiffness, Rail Station Luice

17/05/2001

Change of alignment and gauge of the rail, under weight is significant only in the case of

flexible fastenings, with soft plates, under the heel of the rail of the track. In other cases, the

measuring of these differences is not measurable by conventional measuring equipment, and

its significance is very small.

In railway fraternity, however, is widely assumed, that the differences of geometric values are

considerable, between weighed and unweighed tracks on the vertical versine (top, cant and

Twist), when measured under the weighed and unweighed tracks. Until 1999, the experiments

where not conducted, which would prove the magnitude and significance of these differences

one way or another. Thanks to the grant agency of the Czech Republic in the year 2000, the

research started, to ascertain the effect of weight on the vertical track geometry. The

experimental equipment is on the Fig. 11. It consists of modified tamping machine, type

400.1; where, instead of the tamping heads, is a pushing mechanism, which can induce a force

of 80kN on each of the rail. In addition, there is a system of two side beams, which allow

measuring of the versine of top on both rails, on the long chord 20.8m.

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Fig. 12

On the Fig. 12 is shown result, of 100m section measuring left rail in Czech Republic. Two

signals, with thin lines showing versine of the top, under the weight of Q=80kN. Similar

measurements where done in the other localities in Czech Republic. 1. Luice (New track), 2.

Merovice-Nemcice (Main line track), 3. Kojetin-Tovaov (Regional track).

Analysis of these three track measurements confirms, that the Standard deviations of the

versine of the top are almost same when measuring unweighed, or weighed track. See the

following table:

Location

SDO versine of the top SDO versine of the top SDO of vertical

unloaded track [mm] loaded track [mm]

sagging [mm]

1.70

1.69

0.13

Mrovice-Nmice

5.95

6.10

0.80

Kojetn Tovaov

7.42

7.36

0.72

Another conclusion is, that the SDO of the vertical sagging is approximately 8-12% SDO of

the versine of the top measured on chord of 20.8m. We have also calculated correlation

between sagging, as a deformation component on the one end, and versine as a geometric

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value on the other. In both cases the results where zero. This experiment explains the

agreement of the SDO of the versine, with and without the weight, or why the SDO of

sagging, is not adding up with the SDO of the versine without the weight.

We arrived to the very important conclusion:

Section evaluation of the geometry of the track is not effected by the vehicle axle loading.

In other situations, as in the local defects (Fig. 12) is also important to take in count, that the

deformations of the rail in our 100m recording have amplitude only 1mm. In the case of

sudden deformation of the track (mud holes etc.), we measured much bigger maximum vertical

sagging about 4-5mm. This sort of differences are much more serious. However, spots as these

are usually well known to the repairers, and are visually obvious. From collected data is

noticeable, that weight has effect on top, alignment and twist, only on the tracks, that is in the

bad condition where diagnostics can be done by visual inspection. The track geometry

measuring trolley KRAB is designed for hand diagnoses of the track, and is fully equipped to

collect the information from visual inspection. That way, we retain the loss of track geometry

information, in locations with serious defects of ballast beds, or rail fastening system.

2.6

of the geometric variables, which are

independent of the direction of travel

and location of the trolley and using the

real kilometre locations. By using these

conventions we are eliminating a

confusion between the marking on the

graph of the geometric values and

direction of travel to the individual rail.

Plus (+) value of the alignment is

a deviation to the left, if you stand in the

direction of the rising kilometre. It

means, quasi static part of the alignment

(curvature or flip over value of the

radius) is plus value for a right hand Fig. 13 Positive values of the track geometry parameters.

corner.

Plus (+) value for the gauge is wide gauge.

Plus (+) value for cant occurs if the left hand rail is higher than the right hand rail. That

means in the right hand curve the theoretic value of the cant is plus.

Plus (+) value of the top is an upward direction. Downward direction is a minus.

The twist is a calculation of the cant (chapter 2.1).

The following relationships are true between values of the GOT (Geometry order of the track

alignment and top) on the left and right rail:

1) For true geometry (the wavebands and type of filters must be same):

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Al dyn L =

Al dyn R + Ga dyn

(6)

where Al, Tp is an alignment and top of the rail,

index dyn means dynamic shortwave part and L,R left and raight rail.

2) For versine geometry, (the wavebands, type of filters and length of chords must be same):

Al _ L =

Al _ R + vsGa

(7)

Tp _ L = Tp _ R + vsCt

where vsGa, resp. vsCt is so-called versine of the gauge resp. cant. These formal

values arise when equation (1) is applied on gauge resp. cant:

vsGa( x)

(8)

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3.

When you finish measuring the rail track the next task is to evaluate the measuring

results if it corresponds with the quality you want. The evaluating software of the measuring

trolley KRAB which has basically two modules: Section evaluation and evaluation of the

local irregularities. Both modules have been made to European railways requirements (eg.

CSN 73 63 60), however they could easily be changed to any requirements you may need.

3.1

Section evaluation

(typically 200m to 1km). There are several methods of the section evaluation. These common

ground is a standard deviation (STD) of the individual geometric variables. Under older

methodology the number of quality (NQ) is determined from standard deviation according to

equation:

NQ =

where Al GCt Tp w -

2

2

2

2

wAl. Al + wG . G + wCt. Ct + wTp. Tp

(9)

Gauge

Cant

Top of the Rail (Level)

weight of the geometric variables

Standard deviation of the individual geometry variables

This method is called evaluation by Number of quality NQ. The advantage of evaluation by

Numbers of Quality is that it can be used to evaluate any kind of railway track. It is up to the

user to determine values of the individual Standard Deviations for each geometric variable

and numbers of quality, which is appropriate for the given track limits.

You can see the example of the STD limits comprising of the certain Quality index (see

Chap. 3.1.1) in the following tables:

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STD[mm] Align. Gauge

SZ1

3.0

2.5

SZ2

2.5

2.2

SZ3

1.8

1.8

SZ4

1.1

0.9

STD Limit for QI = 3.3

STD[mm] Align. Gauge

SZ1

2.3

1.9

SZ2

1.9

1.8

SZ3

1.5

1.4

SZ4

0.8

0.7

Cant

2.3

2.1

1.8

0.9

Top

4.2

3.6

3.1

1.5

STD[mm]

SZ1

SZ2

SZ3

SZ4

Align. Gauge

2.0

1.7

1.8

1.6

1.3

1.3

0.8

0.6

Cant

1.6

1.5

1.2

0.6

Top

2.8

2.6

2.0

1.0

Cant

1.3

1.3

1.0

0.5

Top

2.2

2.1

1.5

0.7

Cant

1.8

1.7

1.4

0.7

Top

3.2

2.8

2.3

1.1

STD[mm]

SZ1

SZ2

SZ3

SZ4

Align. Gauge

1.6

1.4

1.4

1.3

1.1

1.0

0.6

0.5

A more modern way of evaluation is in the conversion of the Standard Deviation to so-called

Quality Index QI, with the same significance for:

- any speed zone of the track

- any geometric variables.

SZ1

SZ2

SZ3

SZ4

3.1.1

V 60 kph

60<V90 kph

90<V120 kph

120<V160 kph, V - track speed in [kph]

The Quality Index is designed that it has in given speed zones Gaussian distribution

probability with the average 3 and standard deviation s80=1.188, which guarantees that 80%

of all values of any QI would be smaller than 4 (Fig. 14).

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Used indexes:

- Quality Index (QI) of individual geometric variables (namely QI of alignment,

gauge, cant and top).

- Overall quality index OQI is used for evaluation QI of the track as a whole and

summarises indexes of the four basic geometric variables.

- Tamping index TI is used to make a decision whether to apply a tamping machine

and differs from the OQI that dose not use a gauge, as a tamping machine can not tamp a

gauge.

Scale of indexes are similar to school marking (1 to 5). Where index 4 is rendered

unacceptable. From above characteristic probability of density of indexes is clear that 20% of

the track has indexes worse than 4.

Relationship between QI and standard deviation STD (for any geometric variable) is

realised by logarithmic transformation relation (Fig. 14):

Ln(

QI =

STD

)

b

m

(10)

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where constant number b and m are necessary to determine for each individual railway net

from the statistical values of STD files, appropriate geometric variables and appropriate speed

zones (this values are used in evaluation program.

Overall index of quality OQI and tamping index TI is calculated from the indexes

of the individual geometric variables based on the hybrid criteria equation:

(11)

where weight w of individual geometric variables are in the Table 1. and they are different for

OQI and TI:

TAB.1

wAl

wGa

wCt

WTp

TI

0.97

0.0

0.42

0.618

OQI

0.485

0.485

0.412

0.618

Weight coefficients where given on the assumption of the correlation analyses are valid for

almost any railway net. Multiplier factor k and cumulative constant q in equation (3) are given

on assumption of multidimensional statistical analyses on condition that OQI and TI must be

probable variables with same probability density as individual QI (Gaussian with average 3

and standard deviations s80=1.188, Fig. 14.)

TAB.2

SZ 1

1.35

-1.52

SZ 2

1.19

-0.95

SZ 3

1.28

-1.18

SZ 4

0.91

0.27

The example of the m and b' set of coefficients for speed zone SZ1 to SZ5 is shown in

the table below. SZ5 is recommended for tram track. User can use this values in evaluating

program.

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3.1.2

This chapter is important for the user, who wants to used section evaluation by QI for the

railway net other then Czech Railway (tram nets etc.)

The number coefficient b and m visible in logarithmic transformation relation (2) are given

from the statistical values (mean value p and standard deviation s), which are correct for file

STD given geometric variable and given speed zone with equation:

Ln((

m =

s 2

) + 1)

p

0.81 (

s80

b = p e-m(

s

)

p

(12)

s280 m + 3)

2

(13)

Fig. 15

Fig. 16

complicated they actually represent really smooth functions (Fig. 15 and Fig. 16).

In TAB.3 are given statistics measured by inertial measuring car of Czech Railways in

waveband 2-25m (measuring 1999).

TAB.3

Alignment

Gauge dyn.

Top

SZ

S/p

s/p

s/p

s/p

SZ 1

0.495

2.266

0.420

1.884

0.382

1.737

0.425

3.110

SZ 2

0.424

1.909

0.313

1.724

0.342

1.641

0.370

2.746

SZ 3

0.430

1.422

0.392

1.365

0.411

1.339

0.471

2.239

SZ 4

0.519

0.836

0.609

0.696

0.499

0.705

0.609

1.104

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3.2

Evaluation of local defects are done by comparison of the geometric variables with

permitted limits of the track. For each individual speed zone are given two values of the

limits. For periodic control of the geometry, these limits are divided to Level 1 (maintenance

- M) and Level 2 (instantaneous maintenance - I). The abb. M and I can be seen during the

measuring on the screen of the measuring computer. Level 1 is smaller and therefore is used

as a stricter criterium (and is seen more often on the track, which is evaluated as a fault).

Level 2 is higher and has a smaller amount of the deficiencies). If the readings are over the

limit, the printout of the local defects would show the length in [m] by how much these limits

are over, with the slash (/) sign, pending if the values are over limits 1 or 2 (example 07/2).

The limits are given in the Table 4.

In the case of the Gauge the evaluation is individual for positive values (wide gauge)

and negative values (narrow gauge). In the printout of the local defects it shows in the Gauge

column as " + " and " - " instead of the slash sign (Fig. 17). Other variables are calculated

symmetrically to the zero line.

In this Table are the values of the permitted variables for the Europe Union ( CSN 736360):

TAB.4

Wide Gauge

Top of rail

Ga+ [mm]

Ga- [mm]

Ga/m [mm]

Tp [mm]

a)

b)

c)

d)

e)

a)

b)

c)

d)

e)

a)

b)

c)

d)

SZ1

26

35

-2

-3

-3

-4

-5

SZ2

18

30

-2

-3

-3

-4

-5

SZ3

10

20

-2

-2

-2

-3

-5

SZ4

10

-2

-2

-2

-3

-5

SZ5

10

-2

-2

-2

-3

-5

e)

a)

b)

c)

d)

e)

4(5) 5(6)

15

20

4(5) 5(6)

10

15

10

( ) ....... Values in the bracket ( ) are valid only for the curves

TAB.4

Twist

Alignment

Cant

Cont.

Tw [1:n]

Al [mm]

Ct [mm]

1.8

6.0

12

d)

SZ1

250

320

320

SZ2

250

336

336

250 (1.8)

SZ3

250

640

640

SZ4

250

832

832

SZ5

999

999

999

e)

a)

b)

c)

d)

e)

a)

b)

c)

d)

e)

15

20

15

20

167 (1.8)

10

15

10

15

250 (6.0)

250 (6.0)

10

10

333 (12)

333 (12)

SZ1 V 60 km/h

SZ2 60 < V 90 km/h

SZ3 90 < V 120 km/h

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SZ5 160 < V 200 km/h, V - track speed [kph]

EU Recognizes five kind of limits of the sections defects for:

a) New Track acceptance with new material,

b) Track acceptance with old material,

c) Acceptance of other works.

d) Working conditions, limits for the maintenance,

e) Working conditions, limits for instantaneous maintenance (defects to be fixed

immediately),

Fig. 17 Limit values for Gauge in speed zones SZ1 and SZ2

Evaluating program and measuring program krab5.exe using values limits from the Table 4.

User can edit these values within evaluating program.

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4.

4.1

ORE-Twist

Input values

Parameter

Type of Filtration

Symbol

Unit

Cant

GH

[mm]

Quasistatic Cant

GH_TP

[mm]

Curvature

KRG_TP [1/m]

Algorithms

Computation of the individual twists for basis increasing in step 1.5m Vw-a (i)

Normalization:

Normalization according to SR 100:

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For each sample the maximum value has to be found:

VwORE - SR 100 (i) =

VwORE-Grenzw (1) =

Max [Vw-1,5 m Grenzw(i) ... Vw-19,5m-Grenzw(i)]

If maximum value is on base 1.5m the length of exceeding must be longer then 2m else next

base is taken into account.

Conclusion ORE-Twist

If the signal exceeds limit SR100:

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4.2

4.3

Some, mainly four-wheel, rail vehicles with leaf-springs are susceptible to a series of

consecutive failures in top. If sagging sleeper joints form a group with mutual distances of

approximately 10 to 30 meters, significant cumulative frequency swinging of the coach body

may occur, that the clearance in the axle guide stay of the wheel set line gets exhausted due to

the amplitude of the coach body, and a buoyancy of the wheels may occur, possibly resulting

in derailment. On a quantitative basis this process may be described by an algorithm which

serves as the basis for evaluation of what we refer to as cyclic top (abbreviation CT in the list

of local defects).

The algorithm calculates the cumulative quantity K (which simulates the amplitude of the

coach body and consists of the following steps:

1. Within the first step (see block 1 of Fig. 18) the signal of the top of the left and right rail is

transferred to only one signal in such a way that from each sample of both signals the

higher number is selected for the absolute value. By this action the effect of deviations of

the rail in cant is partially evaluated. The signal acquired in the previously described

fashion will be modified by the band filter (see block 2), which suppresses undulations

longer than 25 m and shorter than 3.5 m. The modified signal indicates an easily

distinguished local minimum. In practice in order to realize the aforementioned filter it is

sufficient to use a simple moving average of the length p = 5 m in the modification for a

low-frequency filter because the upper limit is ensured by the fact that this is the so-called

dynamic signal.

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2. Each sagging sleeper joint with a depth of vi causes a coach body amplitude of Vi. This

amplitude Vi is determined by the product of the depth of the sleeper joint vi and the

dynamic coefficient d(vi), which expresses amplification by the dynamic system of the

coach. The graph of the dependence of the dynamic coefficient on the depth of the sleeper

joint is in Block 4 of Fig. 18. With respect to nonlinear dynamic features of coaches, the

inconsistency in vi of the coefficient is not surprising.

3. Before the coach approaches the next failure, the amplitude is partially cushioned by the

friction dampers of the coach. This fact is described by the reduction of amplitude Vi

using the quotient qi. With respect to the aforementioned cushioning by friction dampers

the quotient qi is dependent on the extent of the amplitude Vi and therefore also on the

depth of sleeper joints vi as seen in Block 5 of Fig. 18. Moreover, the quotient is jumpdependent also on the distance between sleeper joints di. If the distance between sleeper

joints is greater than the value D (usually 20 meters) the quotient has a half value, and if

the distance is greater than 2D it has zero value, which means that within this distance, any

major amplitude is completely cushioned.

4. Another sleeper joint will contribute to the reduced extent of the previous amplitude Vi

with the new contribution Vi+1, which is again determined as the product of the depth of

the sleeper joint and the appropriate value of the dynamic coefficient. If the extent of

accumulated amplitude exceeds clearance in the axle guide stay clip (approximately 60

mm), local failure of the "repeated sleeper joint" quantity is indicated. The column with

this parameter is marked CS in the table of local failures.

Parameters for calculations are formed by the following quantities:

U, B permissible limit of value for the quantity K of the first or second level of importance

in the table of points of fracture of functions 0 < (vi) < 10 and 0 < q(vi) < 10,

D

p

length of moving average, 1 < p < 10m,

The calculation of the quantity K illustrates an example of running through four top failures:

di

vi

[mm] [m]

(vi)

q(vi)

Vi= vi . i

[mm]

for di D is K i = K i-1 . qi-1 /2 + Vi

for di 2D is K i = 0

0

1

2

3

4

0

16

22

19

20

0.0

1.5

1.9

1.7

1.75

0.0

0.4

0.6

0.48

0.54

0

24

42

32

35

0

0 0.0 + 24 = 24

24 0.4 + 42 = 52

52 0.6 + 32 = 63..... U exceeding U

63 0.48/2 + 35 = 50

4.4

0

0

20

20

40

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