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Brainstem: the part of the brain that connects to the brain to the spinal cord.

It
controls the functions basic to the survival of all animals. It is the most primitive
part of the human brain.
Medulla: located near the lower part of the brain stem, it carries out life sustaining
functions such as breathing and heart rate. All of its functions are involuntary, or
done without though.
Reticular formation: a set of interconnected nuclei located throughout the brain
stem. Its functions includes regulating sleep cycles and motor control in balancing
and posture.
Thalamus: located at the top of the brain stem, the thalamus acts as a relay
station. It directs information from the spinal cord to the cerebrum and sends
information from the cerebrum to the nervous system.
Cerebellum: meaning little brain, and located just above the brain stem, controls
skilled, coordinated movements. It is made up of two hemispheres.
Hypothalamus: located below the thalamus, is responsible for the release of
hormones and the balance of bodily functions, such as blood pressure, temperature,
and weight and appetite.
Hippocampus: located deep inside the brain, the hippocampus is responsible for
memory forming, organizing, and storage. Hippocampus is Latin for seahorse, it was
named this way because it looks like a seahorse.
Amygdala: almond shaped mass of nuclei located deep within the temporal lobe of
the brain. It is responsible for arousal and emotions.
Cerebral cortex: the thin layer of nerves that cover the cerebrum. The cerebral
cortex has folds in it to increase its surface area thus expanding the quantity on
information it can process. Parts of it divided into lobes that each have a specific
function.
Corpus callosum: thick band of nerve fibres that divides the cerebrum into left
and right hemispheres. Its primary function is to integrate motor, sensory, and
cognitive performances between the cerebral cortex on one side of the brain to the
same region on the other side.
Frontal lobes: located near the front of the cortex and is responsible for regulating
voluntary movements.
Parietal lobes: located near the upper back of the cortex and processes sensory
information that has to do with touch, taste, and temperature.
Occipital lobes: located at the bottom back part of the cortex it is mainly
responsible for processing visual information from the eyes.
Temporal lobes: located at the bottom middle part of the cortex, it is responsible
for processing auditory information from the ears.

Motor cortex: it is located near the rear portion of the frontal lobes. It generates
neural impulses that controls the execution of movement.
Somatosensory cortex: located near the bottom of the parietal lobes, its main
function is to receive and interpret data from the sense of touch.
Brocas area: a region at the lower right of the frontal lobes, it is responsible for
speech production.
Wernickes area: located near the left of the temporal lobes, is it responsible for
processing and understanding language.
Pituitary: a pea-sized gland at the base of the brain, it makes the hormones that
affect growth and function of other glands in the body.
Visual cortex: located at the back of the brain and in the occipital lobe, the visual
cortex is responsible for processing visual information.