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Table of contents

Table of contents........................................1
1.0 Introduction: Broad Statement of the
Research Problem......................................2
2.0 Background of the Study and
Research Problem......................................3
3.0 Research Objectives.............................4
3.1 To identify the amount of consumers who think promotional tools are useful in
saving money................................................................................................................4
To evaluate whether a favourable attitude towards the tools would lead to product
To determine the level of tools’ awareness as a moderating factor towards product
purchase and trial..........................................................................................................5
To examine which promotional tools are the most effective in inducing product trial
and purchase..................................................................................................................5
3.5 Research Plan - Diagram 1 (Malhotra et al, 2004)..........................................6

4.0 Justifications of the Study...................7

5.0 Literature Review................................8
6.0 Research Framework and Hypotheses
7.0 Research Methodology......................12
7.1 The sampling Design Process...............................................................................12
7.2 Method of data collection.....................................................................................13
7.3 Research instrument..............................................................................................13
7.4 Method of processing and analysis.......................................................................14

8.0 References...........................................16
9.0 Research budget.................................18
10.0 Questionnaire ..................................19

Research proposal title:
Impact of promotional tools on product trial with
attitude and awareness of tools as moderating
A Klang Valley Study

1.0 Introduction: Broad Statement of the Research Problem

We propose to investigate how close (if any), the relationship is between the
impact of promotional tools upon product trial. There has been much research in this
broad field of consumer responses to sales promotions (e.g. Bawa and Shoemaker,
1987,1989; Huff and Alden, 1998; Gupta, 1993, as cited in Ndubisi and Chew, 2006, and
Shi, Y.Z. et al, 2005). However, there has been no study specifically on the direct impact
of promotional tools such as coupons, personal selling, value packs, ‘buy one, free
one’, and loyalty or point-accumulating cards upon product trial among Malaysians,
particularly Klang Valley consumers. What makes this research even more unique is the
inclusion of consumer attitudes and their awareness of the above-mentioned promotional
tools as moderating variables to the study.
The purpose of this research is to shed more light onto this study area that has
different results and applications, across the various nations around the globe. There has

been much research carried out on Western consumer markets, less of Eastern consumer
markets, and even less so in Malaysia in particular. We have chosen to focus on Klang
Valley particularly as it has the most dense population and bustling retail environment in
Malaysia. We aim for this research to come useful for firms to determine which
promotional tools are most efficient to adopt, how significant the impact of each
promotional tool is to product trial - substantiated by statistical evidence - that will also
help prove the differences between the impacts of different promotional tools on product
trial. Therefore, this research will explore, calculate, analyze and explain the relationship
between promotional tools and product trial, with the attitude of consumers as well as
their awareness of the tools, as acting moderating factors.

2.0 Background of the Study and Research Problem

As much research has focused on coupons and price discounts, other equally
important promotional tools such as personal selling, value packs, ‘buy one free one’ and
loyalty cards, have been in want of more research coverage, especially their applications
in Malaysia. All these tools, save personal selling, are the most widely used sales
promotional tools in the grocery products industry. This research does not limit itself to,
but focuses on retail grocery outlets or the grocery products industry because it carries
many low involvement products (LIP), which, according to Ndubisi and Chew (2006),
are believed generally, to be more responsive to promotional tools compared to high
involvement products.
Due to the emergence of more and more retail grocery outlets, competition has
stiffened, and managers of especially major retail grocery outlets have had to use
promotional tools to develop competitive advantage and maintain or improve market
share (Rowley, 1998). These promotional tools can be price oriented such as coupons,
and non-price oriented such as loyalty cards. The price-oriented tools are recognized for
their usefulness in inducing product trial and increasing relative market share (Lee,
2002). Non-monetary tools like loyalty or point-accumulation cards (e.g. J-card from
Jusco, Topshop card, Sen-Q and Bonuslink) are effective because most card holders are
loyal to the card and all the brands affiliated with it, as the cards provide incentives to the
card holders to have repeat purchases and stay loyal to the brand, because reward points

are earned according to shopping frequency (Mauri, 2003). Moreover, if the company is
successful in creating consumer awareness towards the tools, consumers may form
favourable attitudes towards the products and hence form intention to purchase the
product in greater amounts (Shimp, 2000). Usually, expenditure on promotional tools
account for a quarter of the marketing budget, asserting its significance (Honea and
Dahl, 2005).
The marketing research problem is derived from the management decision
problem and it is the duty of the marketers to first find out what information is needed in
order to determine the management problem, before it can be solved. In this case, the
marketing research problems or questions are:
1. Which promotional tool is the most effective in inducing product trial and purchase?
2. Do consumers have favourable attitudes towards these promotional tools?
3. How aware are the consumers of these promotional tools?
4. Do the consumers respond to the promotional tools positively to the extent it induces
product trial/purchase? Which ones specifically, to what degree are they effective, and

3.0 Research Objectives

3.1 To identify the amount of consumers who think promotional tools are useful in
saving money.
 The proportion of consumers who have tried to save money using
promotional tools will inform and recommend it to other friends, indirectly promoting
the product and increasing brand awareness..
 The company, which develops the most successful or effective
promotional tool mix, will beat the other competitors and own majority market share.

To evaluate whether a favourable attitude towards the tools would lead to product
 Customers who have favourable attitudes towards the tools are likely
to purchase or try out the products on promotion.

 The tri-component attitude model (cognitive, affective, behavioural)
represent three different stages which can be conceptualized to show an integrated
picture of how the consumers respond towards the tools (Laroche, 2003).
 Most of the promotional tools tend to focus on the behavioural stage
because it leads to actual product purchase and trial (Shi, Cheung and Prendergast,

To determine the level of tools’ awareness as a moderating factor towards product

purchase and trial.
 According to the tri-component attitude model, a consumer must
firstly be aware of the tools, which is represented by the cognitive stage, and only
then can the consumer develop the “affective stage” or feel towards the product and
finally purchase it.
 The tools’ awareness is one of the most crucial factors in accelerating
and changing purchase behaviour.

To examine which promotional tools are the most effective in inducing product trial
and purchase.
 Among the promotional tools chosen are coupons, personal selling,
‘buy 1 free 1’ and loyalty cards. All these promotional tools are used heavily as
incentives for product trial (Liao,2006).
 The consumers’ evaluation of the tools is based on how successfully it
manages to induce them into purchasing the product (be it switching brands, new
product trial or even buying more quantities of the same item). This evaluation is
measured through the Likert scale system in the questionnaires.

Definition of the
Evaluation problem or opportunity Clarification

decision problem
decision making

6. Report
and presentation Marketing
research problem

5. Data preparation
3.5 Research Plan - Diagram 1 (Malhotra et al, 2004)
and analysis 2. Development of an
approach to the

4. Fieldwork or data 3. Research design

collection formulation

Establish Revise
research costs

4.0 Justifications of the Study
Diagram 2: Marketing Strategy Justification

Summary of the Implications of the study to Management Decision-

Outcomes of the Making in Marketing Strategies
and the Designation of Marketing Mix
 Get to know the current level of perceived effectiveness of most
used and least used promotional tools
Most effective  Understand how the effective promotional tools work in order to
promotional tools attract consumers towards product trials and purchase.

 Allows for examination on effectiveness of past& current

promotional tools by referring to past research, conducting
research on current promotional tools and comparing.
Purchase and  To decipher necessary steps needed to increase the purchase
trial patterns frequency and change the minds of single use consumers to
increase repeat purchase or trial by using promotional tools..

 To reward the current customers using reward points or coupons
(single usage, according to their purchase amount and hence turn them into
multiple, trial) loyal customers.
 To determine rate of trial usage and how to transform trial into
adoption and long-term usage
 Enable management to emphasize on tools that need more
improvement or change and thus positively change the
consumers’ attitudes toward the tools and the products.
 Understand consumer attitudes better, hence allowing for better
prediction of future purchase behaviour .
 Comprehend the consumer’s attitude in a better perspective so
that the management can satisfy them by adjusting or tailor-
making the promotional tools according to their needs and
 Investigate current level of tools’ awareness of the consumers so
that the management can increase the awareness of the tools by
employing more advertising through mass media.
Level of  Identify certain promotional tools (unpopular, costly/ ineffective)
awareness of the to be eliminated, so new and more popular tools such as loyalty
consumer towards card (in higher demand) can be added into the Promotion and
promotional tools marketing mix.
Degree of  Predict future behaviour of consumers towards product purchase
Satisfaction and product trial.
 Find out customer’s favourite tools – the ones that we need to
place more emphasis upon, expand tool usage, invest more

5.0 Literature Review

Promotion is one of the key 4Ps in the marketing-mix (Kotler, 2000), and is
concerned with making the customers aware of the organization’s products offered
(Rowley, 1998). Sales promotion like coupons, ‘buy one, free one’, and value packs,
according to Shimp (2003), is basically any incentive used by a firm to induce the trade,
and/or consumers to buy a brand, as well as encourage the sales force to aggressively sell
it. Other promotional incentives such as loyalty cards and personal selling are used to
encourage desired behaviours from consumers such as loyalty, higher frequency of
purchase or repeat purchase, or more money spent in that particular store (Mauri,2002;
Bellizzi and Bristol, 2004).
Generally, sales promotion tools are more short-term oriented and capable of
influencing behaviour (Ndubisi and Chiew, 2005). Specifically, sales promotion tools

which are price oriented particularly such as coupons increases brand awareness, market
share, encourages brand switiching as well as induces product trial usage (Lee,2002).
Shea (1996, as cited in Lee 2002) compares non-price promotions’ use instead, like
loyalty cards which are adopted for their ability to meet longer-term objectives such as
increasing brand loyalty, enhancing brand image and brand associations. Furthermore,
non-price promotions are framed as “gains” whereas price-oriented promotions are
perceived as “reduced losses”. Lee suggests that managers (especially in the competitive
retail grocery industry) use price-oriented promotions more because they are concerned
more with short-term pressures compared to building the brand’s long term health.
Moreover, Kahneman and Tversky (1979, as cited in Lee,2002)’s prospect theory states
that people generally place more importance on avoiding losses than seeking gains. Shi et
al (2005) however, posit that coupons are favoured less by consumers, compared to price
discounts and in-store displays because they require greater involvement, and contrary to
Lee’s observation of managers’ preferences, are relatively less effective in product trial
and brand switching.
Loyalty cards besides having the motive of repeat purchase and brand loyalty,
also serves the purpose of tracking consumer purchase histories as well as creating a
customer profile database to better meet the demands of their customers (Bellizzi and
Bristol, 2004). However, Mauri (2003) had come to the same conclusion as Bellizzi and
Bristol, that is, that not all subscribers to a loyalty card are all even card-loyal. They
found that these loyalty card holders had many ‘loyalty’ cards. Bellizzi and Bristol (2004)
found that both card usage and card ownership are inversely related with supermarket
loyalty, and that card users were actually less likely to be loyal supermarket shoppers.
Personal Selling is “face-to-face interactions with one or more prospective
purchasers, for the purpose of making sales’ (Rowley,1998,p.384), particularly famous in
business-to-business marketing. Kim and Merrilees (1998) put deeper meaning to
personal selling, as they attribute it as an important tool for relationship marketing. They
find that consumers are increasingly turning to salespeople as a source of information and
reliability, more applicable to medium and high-price retail firms, compared to low
involvement products.

Buy-One-Free-One offers may be offered at the regular price, thus adding value
to the product – persuading consumers to buy the product because an additional amount
is given free of charge (Shi et al, 2005). It is also used to trigger unplanned purchases
(Inman et al.,1990, as cited in Laroche et al.,2003). However, further researched showed
that it only proved most effective in stockpiling, but least effective in product trial usage.
Value packs are considered similar to Buy-One-Free-One offers as it gives more value
compared to the usual retail package.

6.0 Research Framework and Hypotheses

The frame work design of this research falls under conclusive research design, in
particular descriptive research; as it is known that descriptive research examines the
consumer’s characteristics (Malthora et al., 2004, p.65), such as the influence of attitudes
and tool awareness on the impact of promotional tools on product trial. The conclusive
research is going to be used in order to determine the relationship between the five
independent variables (promotional tools) and the dependent variable(product trial) with
the moderating variables of consumers’ affective attitudes and awareness. The descriptive
design is divided into cross-sectional and longitudinal designs. This research will use the
cross sectional study as it is the most frequently applied descriptive design in marketing
research. Furthermore, the research entails collecting data from the target population once
Diagram 3: Research Framework

Personal Selling
Value Pack Product Trial
Buy 1 Free 1
Loyalty cards


The following hypothesis for the study was developed based on the preceding review of

H1 : There is a significant positive relationship between “Coupon” and product trial.

H2: There is a significant positive relationship between “Personal selling” and product

H3: There is significant positive relationship between “Value pack” and product trial.

H4: There is significant positive relationship between “Buy 1 free 1” and product trial.

H5: There is significant positive relationship between “Loyalty cards” and product trial.

7.0 Research Methodology

7.1 The sampling Design Process

There are five steps in this process; they are to define the target population, determine the
sampling frame, select sampling technique(s), determine sample size, and execute the
sampling process (Malthora et al, 2004, p. 226).
1. Determine the target population - It must be identified precisely otherwise the results
would be misleading and ineffectual. The research target population are those who
patron the major retail grocery outlets, hypermarkets and supermarkets and malls
throughout the Klang Valley.
2. Determine the sampling frame –this in turn, is used to identify the target population.
Sampling error will arise if there are elements that are irrelevant or not related to the
list of population elements. Based on the determined target population, the sampling
frame is limited to people who particularly shop in the various Giant, Tesco, Jaya
Jesco, Carrefour and Makro outlets throughout the Klang Valley.
3. Select sampling technique – We have chosen judgmental sampling which is a Non-
probability sampling technique, where we select people who happen to be at the
right place at the right time – selection process is at the discretion of the field
4. Determine the sample size – In this research, the sample size would be 150 people, 75
females and 75 males are targeted. The survey would be done through handing out
questionnaires to be filled in, as well as a brief face-to face interview to clarify any
doubts in the questionnaires. We predict the respond rate to be 90% - 100% of the
targeted sample size of 150. Unfortunately, due to time, financial and manpower
constraints, the sample size is limited to that small amount.
5. Execute the sampling process – Performing the actual survey with all the above
mentioned steps in full view.

The judgmental sampling technique will be performed at the aforementioned central

locations. The advantages of this is that of low cost, time efficiency, and plenty of
samples to pick from due to the good flow of people traffic. The processing of
information will also be faster due to everything already being documented on the

questionnaires. It also means that face to face communication between interviewer and
respondent is enabled, which means that the interviewer can screen the most suitable
respondents, and has the chance to pick up more samples should the ones already
collected be faulty (Malhotra et al, 2004, pp. 224-232).

7.2 Method of data collection

The data that is collected in this research is mainly primary data (Shi, Y Z., et al, 2005),
in the form of first-hand data collection questionnaires (survey) but is also backed up by
secondary data such as research and journals spanning the past 10 years. The primary
data in the survey method will be narrowed down to mall intercept. This research will use
mall intercepts because it is less time-consuming and more cost-saving than home
interviews. On the other hand, the research is carried out to analyze how promotional
tools influence consumers’ product trial with the moderating factor of attitude and
awareness of the tools. The research also needs a clear requirement and identification of
the six W’s which are Who, What, When, Where, Why and the Way of the research
(Malhotra et al., 2004, p.65 and p.66).

7.3 Research instrument

Data collection of this research is being collected via questionnaire. The questionnaires
are to be distributed inside the hypermarkets, grocery stores and shopping area, with
particular focus on people who are sitting down for a meal or resting so chances of good
response are better. The questionnaire itself is modeled after and adapted from various
sources. “Buy 1 free 1” and coupon surveys are adapted from Shi T Z., (2005); Loyalty
card is adapted from Mauri C., (2003) and Bellizzi & Bristol, (2004); whereas personal
selling and value pack surveys were adapted from Ndubisi and Chew (2006). A seven
point Likert scale, ranging from 1(strongly disagree) to 7(strongly agree) is used as our
constructive dimensions (Ndubisi & Chew, 2006). The measurement of the impact of
each promotional tool on product trial will be shown in the questionnaire attached to this
research proposal.

7.4 Method of processing and analysis

The method of processing and analyzing the data of the impact of promotional tools on
product trial is as follows (Malhotra, 2004, pp. 254-262):

• Questionnaire checking: involves reviewing all questionnaires for full completion

and interviewing quality. It is to be inspected to determine its viability and
applicability for use in the study.

• Editing: involves reviewing questionnaires with the objective of increasing data

accuracy and precision. It consists of screening questionnaires to identify
illegible, incomplete, inconsistent, or ambiguous responses.

• Coding: is the process of grouping and assigning numeric codes to the various
responses to a particular question. It allows the transfer of data from the
qualitative nature of the answers in the questionnaire to numerical, quantitative
data in the computer.

• Transcribing: involves transferring data from the questionnaires or coding sheets

on to electronic devices whereby the data is transferred by using mark sense
forms, optical scanning, or computerized sensory analysis.

• Descriptive Analysis: It is the transformation of collected data into a summary

format that will make data easily understandable and interpretable. Descriptive
analysis is the foundation for subsequent analysis. Examples include calculation
of averages, frequency distributions, mean, median, standard deviation and
percentage distributions.

• Inferential Analysis: This is used to make presumptions about the characteristics

of the target population based on the results generated by the sample data.
Inferential statistics include hypothesis testing and estimating true population
values based on the sample information collected.

• Associative Analysis: It examines if and how two variables are related. For
instance, can the promotional tools induce consumers to trial purchase? Basic
associative analysis methods used in marketing research are cross-tabulations and

• Graphic representation of data: is used to present data to provide a clearer picture

of the research findings. This explains the cross-tabulation and statistical analysis
to help us identify important findings. Graphs are the best way to show our
findings to the firm’s management, whereby the most commonly used data
graphics are bar charts and pie charts.

8.0 References
Bellizzi, J.A. and Bristol T. (2004), “An assessment of supermarket loyalty cards in one
major US market”, Journal of Consumer Market, Vol. 21, No. 2, pp. 144-154.

Honea, H. and Dahl, D.W. (2005), “The Promotion Affect Scale: Defining the Affective
Dimensions of Promotion”, Journal of Business Research, Vol. 58, pp. 543-551.

Kim, S.F. and Merrilees, B. (1998), “Cultural Values and Personal Selling, a comparison
of Australia and Hong Kong’s retailers’ promotion preferences”, International Marketing
Review, Vol. 15, No. 4, pp. 246-256.

Laroche, M. et al. (2003), “A model of consumer response to two retail sales promotion
techniques”, Journal of Business Research, Vol. 56, pp.513-522.

Lee, C.W. (2002), “Sales promotion as strategic communication: the case of Singapore”
Journal of Product and Brand Management, Vol. 11, No. 2, pp.103-114.

Liao, S.L. (2006), “The effects of non monetary sales promotions on consumer
preferences: The contingent role of product category”, The Journal pf America Academy
of Business, Cambridge, Vol.8, No.2, pp. 196-203.

Mauri, C. (2003), “Card Loyalty: A new emerging issue in grocery retailing”, Journal of
Retailing and Consumer Services, Vol. 10, pp. 13-25.

Ndubisi N. O. and Chew T M. (2006), “Awareness and usage of promotional tools by

Malaysian consumers: the case of low involvement products”, Management Research
News, Vol.29 No. 1/2, pp. 26-40.

Ndubisi N. O. and Chew T M. (2005), “Customers behavioural responses to sales
promotion : the role of fear of losing face”, Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and
Logistics, Vol.17 No. 1, pp. 32-49.

Rowley, J. (1998), “Promotion and marketing communications in the information

marketplace”, Library Review, Vol. 47, No. 8, pp. 383-387.

Shi, Y.Z., Cheung K.M. & Prendergast, G. (2005), “Behavioural response to sales
promotion tools, A Hong Kong study”, International Journal of Advertising, Vol. 24, pp.

Kotler, P. (2000), Marketing Management, Prentice-Hall International, London, United

Malhotra, N.K., Hall, J., Shaw, M. and Oppenheim, P. (2004), Essentials of Marketing
Research: An Applied Orientation, Pearson/Prentice Hall, New South Wales, Australia.
Shimp, T.A. 2000, Advertising promotion, supplementary aspects of Integrated
Marketing Communications, 5th edition, The Dryden Press, United States.

9.0 Research budget

Estimated Budget for Research

Respondent Incentive 2
Printing/photocopying costs 0.10
Total RM 2.10
No. of respondents 150
Estimated amount RM 315

Diagram 4: Research Budget

By the time of distributing the questionnaires to the shoppers particularly at the

shopping mall or retail grocery outlet, we will need to provide incentive in the form of a
small gift or a bottle of mineral water to each respondent in order to encourage them to
fill up the questionnaires as well as possible. It is estimated that each respondent
incentive will cost roughly RM 2.

10.0 Questionnaire

Marketing Research Methods, MKW2420

We are conducting this survey as an aid for our market research on “Impact of promotional tools on
consumer’s attitudes toward the product/product trial”. This survey is carried out purely for academic
purposes as required in this course. The results will not be revealed to persons other than the researchers
and the examiner for purposes of examination only.

Section 1: Accessibility

1) How frequently do you grocery shop (times in a week)?

______ times in a week
If others, please specify (once a fortnight etc.) ____________________________

Section 2: Expenditure
2) How much do you spend on average, on each shopping trip to a retail grocery outlet (eg: Tesco,
Carrefour, Giant, TMC)?

3)What is your usual mode of payment?

[ ] Cash
[ ] Credit card

4) How many promotional tool sales items do you use or purchase, on average, on each grocery shopping
Personal Selling
[ ] Never
[ ] One or Two
[ ] Three or four
[ ] Five and above

[ ] Never
[ ] One or Two
[ ] Three or four
[ ] Five and above

Loyalty card
[ ] Never
[ ] Rarely
[ ] Sometimes
[ ] Always

Value pack
[ ] Never
[ ] Rarely
[ ] One or Two

[ ] Three or more

Buy 1 free 1
[ ] Never
[ ] Rarely
[ ] One or Two
[ ] Three or more

Section 3: Ranking of promotional tools

5) Please rank the following promotional tools by ranking number 1 as the most money-saving tool, to
number 5 – the least money-saving tool.
[ ] Personal selling
[ ] Coupon
[ ] Value pack
[ ] Buy 1 free 1
[ ] Loyalty card

6) Which promotional tool is more familiar to you, please rank them from 1(most familiar) to 5(least
[ ] Personal selling
[ ] Coupon
[ ] Value pack
[ ] Buy 1 free 1
[ ] Loyalty card

Section 4: Awareness of promotional tools (adapted from Shi, Y.Z. , Cheung, K.M. and Prendergast,
G. (2005)
1=strongly disagree, 7= strongly agree
7) Personal Selling
a. Personal selling has led me to buy another brand which I do not regularly buy.
1 2 3 4 5
b. Personal selling has led me to buy the product earlier than planned.
1 2 3 4 5
c. Personal selling has led me to buy more quantities of the same product.
1 2 3 4 5
d. Personal selling has led me to buy a product which I have never tried before.
1 2 3 4 5
e. Personal selling has led me to spend more in each visit to the hypermarket.
1 2 3 4 5

8) Coupon
a. Coupon has led me to buy another brand which I do not regularly buy.
1 2 3 4 5
b. Coupon has led me to buy the product earlier than planned.
1 2 3 4 5
c. Coupon has led me to buy more quantities of the same product.
1 2 3 4 5
d. Coupon has led me to buy a product which I have never tried before.
1 2 3 4 5
e. Coupon has led me to spend more in each visit to the hypermarket.
1 2 3 4 5

9) Loyalty card
a. Loyalty card has led me to buy another brand which I do not regularly buy.
1 2 3 4 5

b. Loyalty card has led me to buy the product earlier than planned.
1 2 3 4 5
c. Loyalty card has led me to buy more quantities of the same product.
1 2 3 4 5
d. Loyalty card has led me to buy a product which I have never tried before.
1 2 3 4 5
e. Loyalty card has led me to spend more in each visit to the hypermarket.
1 2 3 4 5

10) Value pack

a. Value pack has led me to buy another brand which I do not regularly buy.
1 2 3 4 5
b. Value pack has led me to buy the product earlier than planned.
1 2 3 4 5
c. Value pack has led me to buy more quantities of the same product.
1 2 3 4 5
d. Value pack has led me to buy a product which I have never tried before.
1 2 3 4 5
e. Value pack has led me to spend more in each visit to the hypermarket.
1 2 3 4 5

11) Buy 1 free 1

a. Buy 1 free 1 has led me to buy another brand which I do not regularly buy.
1 2 3 4 5
b. Buy 1 free 1 has led me to buy the product earlier than planned.
1 2 3 4 5
c. Buy 1 free 1 has led me to buy more quantities of the same product.
1 2 3 4 5
d. Buy 1 free 1 has led me to buy a product which I have never tried before.
1 2 3 4 5
e. Buy 1 free 1 has led me to spend more in each visit to the hypermarket.
1 2 3 4 5

Section 4: Demographic Profile

12) Gender
[ ] Male [ ] Female

13) Age range

[ ] 18—24yrs
[ ] 25—30yrs
[ ] 31—40yrs
[ ] 40 yrs and above

14) Average monthly income

[ ] Below RM 1000
[ ] RM 1000-RM 1999
[ ] RM 2000—RM 2999
[ ] RM 3000—RM 4999
[ ] RM 5000—RM 9999
[ ] RM10,000 and above

We appreciate your time, co-operation and effort participating in this survey. Thank you.
Prepared by,
Syarifah Anita Ibrahim, Lim Ying Ying and Sia Kok Liang