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Original Title: Mixed Convection Flow and Heat Transfer of Micropolar Fluid in a Vertical Channel with Symmetric and Asymmetric Wall Heating Conditions

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ISSN: 2248-9622, Vol. 6, Issue 1, (Part 3) January 2016, pp.07-18

RESEARCH ARTICLE

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OPEN ACCESS

Channel with Symmetric and Asymmetric Wall Heating Conditions

Patil Mallikarjun B1 , Chandrali Baishya2

Department of Studies and Research in Mathematics, Tumkur University, Tumkur-572 103, Karnataka, India

ABSTRACT

Analytical solutions for fully developed mixed convection flow of a micro polar fluid with heat generation or

heat absorption in a parallel plate vertical channel with symmetric and asymmetric wall temperature distribution

has been presented. The two boundaries of the channel are kept either at equal or at different temperatures as

isothermal-isothermal, isoflux-isothermal and isothermal-isoflux cases. Reverse flow conditions are observed

with increase in micro vortex viscosity. Micro polar fluids display reduction in heat transfer rate.

Key Words: Mixed convection, Viscous Dissipation and Micropolar fluid.

I. INTRODUCTION

The theory of micropolar and thermomicropolar fluids formulated by Eringen [1,2] has shown much

interest in recent years because of its considerable attention due to there application in a number of processes that

occur in industry. The applications include the extrusion of polymer fluids, solidification of liquid crystals,

cooling of a metallic plate in a bath, animal blood, exotic lubricants and in colloidal suspensions. A detailed

review of the published papers on these fluids can be found in the review article by Arimal et al. [3,4] and Eringen

[5].

The essence of the theory of micropolar fluid flow lies in the extension of the constitutive equations for

Newtonian fluids so that more complex fluids can be described by this theory. In this theory, the rigid particles

contained in as small fluid volume element are limited to rotation about the center of the volume elements

described by the micro rotation vector. Such fluids display the effects of local rotary inertia and couple stresses.

Further the desired model of the non-Newtonian flow of fluids containing microconstitutents motivated

the development of the theory. Subsequent studies have successfully applied the model to a wide range of

applications including blood flows, porous media, lubricants, turbulent shear flows, flow in capillaries and micro

channels etc.

The interest in heat transfer problems involving non-Newtonian fluids has grown persistently in the past

half century. Hinch [6] has given an excellent sequence of lectures on non-Newtonian fluids. Many practical

applications of mixed convection exists, including in the fuel element of a nuclear reactor, in the heaters and

coolers of mechanical or chemical devices, in the lubrication of machine parts etc. Chiu et.al [7] studied the

effect of microstructure on the free convection heat transfer in enclosures. Chamkha , Grosan and Pop [8]studied

both analytically and numerically the problem of fully developed free convection flow of a micropolar fluid

between a parallel plate vertical channel with asymmetric wall distribution. Again the same authors in [9] studied

the fully developed flow of a micropolar fluid in a mixed convection between a parallel-plate vertical channel

with asymmetric wall temperature distribution. They observed flow reversal due to buoyancy force and they also

derived criteria for the occurrence of the flow. Buoyancy and wall conduction effects on forced convection of

micropolar fluid flow along a vertical slender flow circular cylinder have been studied by Cheng et.al [10].

However, the effect of heat absorption or heat generation on the mixed convection flow and heat transfer of

a micropolar fluid in vertical channel geometry with symmetric and asymmetric wall conditions has not been

studied. The aim of the present study is to discuss such situation. It is also of our interest to investigate the effect

of material constant on the micropolar fluid on the flow and heat transfer through vertical channel with symmetric

and asymmetric wall heating conditions with heat generation or heat absorption coefficient for three thermal

boundary conditions.

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g

0

-L/2

L/2

FIG. 1

Physical configuration

Consider steady, laminar, micropolar fully developed flow with heat generation and heat absorption in a

parallel plate vertical channel, the physical configuration is shown in figure 1. The flow is assumed to be steady

and fully developed.

The oberbeck Boussinesq approximation is assumed to hold good for the evaluation of the gravitational body

force. Hence, the density will depend on temperature according to the equation of state

For the fully developed flow, we have

U

0.

X

(1)

V

Since the velocity field U is solenoidal, one obtains

0. As a consequence, the velocity

Y

component V is constant in any channel section and is equal to zero at the channel walls, so that

vanishing at any position.

V must be

P

The Y-momentum balance equation can be expressed as

0 where

Y

P p 0 g X is the difference between the pressure and the hydrostatic pressure. Therefore P depends only

on X and the Y momentum balance equation is given by Chamkha et.al (2003) as

dP

d 2u

dN

0 g (T T0 )

( k ) 2 k

0

dX

dy

dY

d2N

dU

2k N k

0

2

dY

dY

(2)

We assume that the walls of the channel are isothermal, the boundaries temperatures are

(3)

T1 at Y L / 2 and

T2 at Y L / 2 with T2 T1 .

Here, N is the microrotation component of micropolar fluid normal to (x,y) plane.

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Comparing these boundary conditions with momentum equation (2) we see for the compatibility that

dP

A

dX

dP

dX

should be independent of

(4)

d 2T

Q(T T0 ) 0

dY 2

(5)

and

L

L

N 0

2

2

L

R

T

2

2

(6)

(7)

The above equations (2), (3), (5) and (6) can be written in dimensionless form by using the dimensionless

quantities

U

;

U0

Re

U0 D

U

Y

; j D 2 ; k K1 ; N 0 N

D

D

; Pr

QD 2

; ( k / 2) ;

;

g T D3

Gr

T T

T T0

Gr

;

; RT 2 1 ;

(8)

2

Re

T

T

The diameter of the channel is given by D 2L and U 0 ,T0 are the corresponding reference velocity

and reference temperature given by

AD2

T T

; T0 1 2 .

48

2

The temperature difference T is given by

U0

T T2 T1 if T1 T2 and T

The dimensionless parameter

(9)

2

C p D2

if T1 T2 .

(10)

RT is zero for symmetric heating (T1 T2 ) and RT is one for asymmetric heating

(T1 T2 )

Using equation (9) equations (2), (3), (5) and (6) reduces to

(1 K1 )

and

d 2u

dN

K1

48 0

2

dy

dy

(11)

2

du

K1 d N

1

2 2 K1 N K1

2 dy

dy

d 2

0

dy 2

1

1

u N 0

4

4

R

1

T

2

4

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(12)

(13)

(14)

(15)

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The solution of equation (13) by using the boundary condition (15) are given by

RT Sin( y )

2 Sin( / 4 )

(16)

RT Sinh( y )

2 Sinh( / 4 )

(17)

for the case of heat absorption. Integrating the equation (10) with respect to y than by using equations (15) and

(16) we get

K1

RT

du

48

B

N

Cos y

y

dy

(1 K1 )

(1 K1 )

(1 K1 )

2 (1 K1 ) Sin / 4

(18)

K1

RT

du

48

B

N

Cosh y

y

dy

(1 K1 )

(1 K1 )

(1 K1 )

2 (1 K1 ) Sinh / 4

(19)

Substituting equations (18) and (19) in equation (12) we get

K1RT

d 2N

48

B

N

Cos y

y

2

dy

(2 K1 )

(2 K1 )

(1 K1 )(2 K1 ) Sin / 4

(20)

K1RT

d 2N

48

B

N

Cosh y

y

2

dy

(2 K1 )

(2 K1 )

(1 K1 )(2 K1 ) Sinh / 4

(21)

By using the boundary condition (14), the solutions of above equation (20) and (21) are

(22)

(23)

Differentiating the above equations (22) and (23) with respect to y and than by using equations (16) and

(17) and integrating equation (11) two times with respect

to y we get

C K

l K

CK

RT

3 1 Sinh y 4 1 Cosh y 1 1

Sin y

1

2 Sin / 4

u

2

(1 K1 )

(48 l K ) y C y C

2 1

5

6

2

(24)

C K

l K

CK

RT

3 1 Sinh y 4 1 Cosh y 1 1

Sinh y

1

2 Sinh / 4

u

2

(1 K1 )

(48 l K ) y C y C

2 1

5

6

2

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(25)

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Again differentiating the equations (24) and (25) with respect to y and comparing with equations (18)

and (19) we get the value of constant B for both cases of heat generation and heat absorption is

C5 (2 K1 )

2(1 K1 )

(26)

The dimensional forms of thermal boundary condition for the channel walls are

q1 k

dT

dY

L

2

L

T T2

2

The dimensionless form of equation (27) can be obtained by using equation (8) with

d

dy

(27)

T q1D / k to give

1

4

Rqt

1;

(28)

Where Rqt (T2 T0 ) / T is the thermal ratio parameter for the isoflux-isothermal case.

The solutions of temperature, micro rotation velocity and velocity are obtained from eqs. (11) (13) by

using the boundary conditions (14) & (28).

C1Cos y C2Sin y

N C3Cosh y C4 Sinh y l1Sin y l2Cos y l3 y l4

C K

l K C

CK

3 1 Sinh y 4 1 Cosh y 1 1 1 Cos y

1

u

2

(1 K1 ) l K C

y

2 1

2

Sin y (48 l3 K1 ) 2 C5 y C6

(29)

C1Cosh y C2Sinh y

N C3Cosh y C4 Sinh y l1Sinh y l2Cosh y l3 y l4

C K

l K C

CK

3 1 Sinh y 4 1 Cosh y 1 1 1 Cosh y

1

u

2

(1 K1 ) l K C

y

2 1

2

Sinh y (48 l3 K1 ) 2 C5 y C6

(30)

isothermal-isoflux walls

(T1 q2 )

The results are same as we obtained in the case of isoflux-isothermal case with constant

replaced by

C1

C1 .

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III.

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For various parametric values, the velocity and microrataion is drawn in figures 2 to 19.

From figure 2, we notice that the velocity shows a decreasing tendency with increase in K1 with the

material parameter for

100, 5

100,

we

observe that the velocity profiles tend to be asymmetric i.e., the velocity profiles are towards the left of the centre

of the channel and for 100, they are towards the right of the channel.

The effect of material parameters K1 on micro rotation in drawn in Figure 3. We observed that with

increase in K1 micro rotation is reversed on the range -0.25 to 0 and it is increasing on the range 0 to 0.25. The

point of inflexion occurs at y 0.5 .

In Figure 4, the flow velocity shows a reversal tendency with increase in

and decreases at the right wall y 1 / 4 as K1 increases. Hence the effect of K1 is to decrease the flow velocity

in both cases.

In Figure 5, the magnitude of reversal in micro rotation is large in the region from y 0 to 0.16 with

increase in K1 and for

For

500

shows an increasing behavior with increase in K1 . Thus increases in K1 leads to the vertex viscosity being

dominant than the fluid viscosity and however, with increase in buoyancy force the micro rotation decrease.

Thus, buoyancy force results in decrease of micro rotation.

From Figure 6, we observe that with increase in and 500, the flow velocity is reversal near the

left wall and increases as we move towards right wall. However, with increase in K1 the flow velocity decreases

along with decreases in flow reversal. The same nature is observed for neighboring values of

parameters).

Figure 7 shows the behavior of micro rotation for various values of

(buoyancy

increase in , the micro rotation decreases when = 500 and it increaser when = -500. Thus, the buoyancy force

decreases the micro rotation ( = 500) and when it is weaker ( 500), it supports increases on micro rotation.

The plots of u and micro rotation N are plotted in fig.8 and 9 for the case of isofluxisothermal

temperature distribution. For both Newtonian and micro polar fluids, the effect of heat generation parameter is

to increase velocity for = 500. The micrortation decreases with increase in in the first half potion while it

increase for

= -500 in the same region. The reverse behavior is observed in the second half portion giving rise to a point of

inflexion at (0, 0) as can be seen from fig.9. It is interesting to see that for the case of isothermal-isolfux wall

condition, the above behavior is interchanged as seen from fig.10 and 11.

The effect of material parameter K1 on velocity and microrotation velocity is shown in figures 12 and

13, for symmetric heating. As K1 increases velocity decreases. The effect of K1 on microrotation velocity is to

increase the microrotation velocity in the range of y from 0 to 0.25 and decrease in the range from -0.25 to 0 for

500

The effect of heat absorption coefficient and K1 are shown in Figure 14 to 19 for isoflux-isothermal and

isothermal-isoflus wall conditions on velocity and microrotation velocity. Figure 14 shows that as increases

velocity decreases for Newtonial and micropolar fluid for = 500. Figure 15 shows that as increases

microrotation velocity decreases for =500 and increases for = -500.

The effect of is to decrease the velocity for Newtonian and micropolar fluid for =500 and increases the velocity

for = -500 for isoflux-isothermal wall conditions as seen in Figure 16. It is seen from Figure 17 that

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microrotation velocity N decreases as increaeses for = -500 and increases for = 500, for isoflux-isothermal

wall conditions. The effect of and K1 on velocity and microrotation velocity remains the same for isothermalisoflux wall conditions by interchanging are shown in figures 18 and 19.

Nomenclature

Cp

= 2L, hydraulic diameter

acceleration due to gravity

D

g

Gr

K

K1

L

N

p

P

Re

RT

T

T1 , T2

To

u

U

U0

Grashof number defined in equation (8)

thermal conductivity

non-dimensional material parameter

channel width

microrotation

pressure

temperature difference ratio defined in equation (8)

temperature

prescribed boundary temperatures

reference temperature

dimensionless velocity component in the X- direction

velocity component in the X-direction

reference velocity defined in equation (8)

X , Y space coordinates

y

dimensionless transverse coordinate

Greek symbols

k

, thermal diffusivity

0 C p

spin-gradient viscosity

vortex viscosity

reference temperature difference defined by equation (10)

dimensionless temperature defined in equation (8)

dynamic viscosity

, kinematic viscosity

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REFERENCES

[1]

A C Eringen, Int.J.Engg.Sci.,1964,2,205

[2]

A C Eringen, Int.J.Engg.Sci.,1969,7,115

[3]

T Arimen, M A Turk and M D Sylvester, Int.J.Engg.Sci.,1974,12,273

[4]

T Arimen, M A Turk and M D Sylvester/J/ Int.J.Engg.Sci., 1973, 11, 905

[5]

A C Eringen, Journal of Math Mech.1966, 16,1

[6]

J Hince, Non-Newtonian geophysical fluid dynamics. Woods hole Oceanographic Inst. Woods Hole,

MA02543, USA,2003.

[7]

C P Chiu, J Y Shin and W R Chen,Acta Mechanica, 132, 75 , 1999.

[8]

A J Chamka, Grosan and I Pop, Fully developed convection of a micropolar fluid in a vertical channel,

Int. Comm. Heat and Mass transfer 29(8), 1119, 2002.

[9]

A J Chamka, Gronan and I Pop, Fully developed convection of a micropolar fluid in a vertical channel,

Int.J.Fluid Mechanics Res,30(3), 2003.

[10] Cheng-Longchang, Buoyance and wall conduction effects on forced convection of Micropolar fluid flw

along a vertical slender hollow circular cylinder. Int.J.Heat and Mass trans. 49, 4932, 2006.

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