You are on page 1of 12


Instructional philosophy and goals

Pedagogical aims and learning model
Teaching strategy: PowerPoint instructional
Chapter overviews of PowerPoint presentations
Use of in-depth cases
About the authors

This book is based on a simple premise: All managers are global managers, regardless
of where they live and work. As such, they need to prepare themselves for a world that
may only be partially observable today, but will soon become much clearer on the near
horizon. In the words of Eric Hoffer, In a time of drastic change, it is the learners who
will inherit the future. The learned usually find themselves prepared for a world that no
longer exists. Such is the challenge of mangers today, and such is the challenge of
teaching a course or program on global management.


To help meet this objective, this book explores the interrelationships between culture,
organization, and management. It aims to present a comprehensive lookneither simple
nor difficultat how cultural differences can influence management thought and action,
as well as what managers can do to better prepare themselves for success in todays
highly competitive global economy.
In doing so, the book draws heavily on recent research in cultural anthropology,
psychology, economics, and management as they relate to how managers structure their
enterprises and pursue the day-to-day work necessary to make a venture succeed. It
emphasizes both differences and similarities across cultures, since we believe that this
mirrors reality. It attempts to explore the psychological underpinnings that help shape
managerial attitudes and behaviors, as well as their approaches to people from other
regions of the world. But, most of all, this book is about learning. It introduces a learning
model early in the text to guide in the intellectual and practical development of managers
seeking global experience. It further assumes a lifelong learning approach to global
encounters, managerial performance, and career success.
We wrote this book primarily to express our own views, ideas, and frustrations. As both
teachers and researchers in the field, we have grown increasing impatient with books in
this general area that seem to have aimed somewhat below the readers intelligence in
the presentation of materials. In our view, both managers and would-be managers are
intelligent consumers of behavioral information. To do their job better, they are seeking
useful information and dialogue about the uncertain environment in which they work.

They are not seeking unwarranted or simplistic conclusions or narrow rulebooks. In our
view, managers are looking for learning strategies, not prescriptions, and understand
that becoming a global manager is a long-term pursuita marathon, not a sprint.
We have likewise been dismayed seeing books that assume one worldview, whether it is
British, American, French, or whatever, in interpreting both global business challenges
and managerial behavior. Instead, we have tried to cast our net a bit wider and
incorporate divergent viewpoints when exploring various topics, such as communication,
negotiation, and leadership. For example, asking how Chinese or Indian management
practices differ from American or French practices assumes a largely Western bias as a
starting point. (How are they different from us?) Instead, why not ask a simpler and
more useful question like how do Chinese, Indian, American, and French management
styles in general differ. (How are we all different from each another?). Moreover, we
might add a further, also useful, question concerning managerial similarities across
cultures. (How are we all similar to each other?).
To achieve this, we have resisted a one-size-fits-all approach to management, locally
or globally, in the belief that such an approach limits both understanding and success in
the field. Instead, our goal here is to develop multicultural competence through the
development of learning strategies in which managers can draw on their own personal
experiences, combined with outside the information such as that provided in this book
and elsewhere, to develop cross-cultural understanding and theories-in-use that can
guide them in the pursuit of their managerial pursuits.
In this way, multicultural competencies can support, enrich, and help explain the more
traditionalyet still vitalmanagerial competencies (Exhibit 1). These two sets of skills
should work in tandem, not in opposition or competition, with one another.
Exhibit 1. Global management skills (p. 37)

Managerial competencies
Planning, coordination, and
control within a culture

Global management
Integration of
management and
multicultural skills

Understanding and working
effectively across cultures


Three pedagogical goals were established to guide in both the books conceptual
development and its approach to organization and writing:
1. Identify: Examine how management practices and processes can often differ
sometimes substantiallyacross national and regional boundaries, and the role
played by cultural differences in many of these differences.
2. Understand: Develop a learning model that can be used by managers to better
understand and adapt to ever-changing, ever-challenging, and culturally distinct
business environments.

3. Implement: Suggest specific management strategies and tactics that can be used by
global managers as they work to survive and succeed in doing business across
around the world.
The pedagogy underlying the text is based on an application of Kolbs learning model
(Exhibit 2). This model is introduced and discussed in Chapter 2, and used throughout
the book as an organizing framework for linking conceptual, analytical, and experiential
materials to management development.
Exhibit 2. Kolbs experiential learning model (p. 40)

Our aim has been to apply this model to the challenge of developing global management
skills. For this, we identified a learning model that begins with developing awareness and
understanding through analysis and self-reflection and then proceeds to developing
multicultural competence and action plans for managers through conceptualization and
action planning (Exhibit 3). This model underlies much of what is introduced and
discussed in this book.
Exhibit 3. Developing global managers: A learning strategy (p. 42)

Developing awareness
and understanding

Developing multicultural
competence and
and action
action plans

Analysis and
and reflection:
reflection: Learning
Learning from
observations, descriptions,
descriptions, actions,
actions, experiences,
reflections, and
and analyses.
analyses. Understanding
Understanding cultural
differences and
and similarities
similarities and
and their

Conceptualization and
and action
action planning:
Adjusting behavioral
behavioral strategies
strategies or
or developing
developing new
strategies in response to what has been
been learned,
and then
then experimenting
experimenting with
with these
these strategies
strategies in
the field.

Management focus:
focus: What
What have
have we
we learned
about ourselves
ourselves as
as managers
managers and
and about
about the
global environment
environment in
in which
which we
we work?

Management focus:
focus: How
How can
can use
use what
what we
we have
learned to
to become
become better
better global
global managers
managers in
in the

While there are many ways to teach a course of this nature, our preference is to run it off
of a PPT teaching platform. To this end, an integrated package of 340 color-coded
Power Point slides is available for instructors (Exhibit 4). This package is designed so
instructors or session leaders can add or delete slides, or groups of slides, to suit their
instructional approach to the topic, as well as available class time and physical settings.
As evidenced by the organization of these slides, our preference is for highly interactive
class sessions with abundant opportunities for classroom discussions and debates,
although this is only one option. Page numbers from the text are included in these slides
where relevant.
Exhibit 4. Color-coded PPT instructional platform

The integrated PPT package consists of the following materials for each chapter:

Opening slides: Opening slides (using a blue font) are designed to warm-up the
class in preparation for the topic to be studied. Included here are: a) quotes from
philosophers and management experts designed to begin each class session on a
reflective note: b) an opening question to highlight the lecture or seminar theme; c) a
topical outline for the class session; and d) an opening example from the chapter on
which to base classroom lectures and discussions. These slides aim to set the stage
for what follows.

Informational slides: Information slides (using a blue font) summarize or highlight

the principal ideas and concepts presented throughout the chapter. They are
generally quantitative in nature (emphasizing what), and tend to present models,
facts, and figures. Included here are: a) summaries of the key theoretical points; b)
pictorial or graphic representations of various models and processes that are
discussed; and c) data slides from the chapter. All are designed to provide a
backdrop for lecture presentations or seminar discussions.

Discussion slides: Discussion slides (using a brown font) provide in-depth

examples from the chapter or raise questions and concerns for managers and policy
makers that follow from the conceptual or informational materials presented in the
chapter (in blue). These slides aim to accomplish two goals: a) tie materials under
discussion to specific case examples found throughout the chapter; and b) raise
questions pertaining to the application of the materials under study to the practice of
management. They are generally qualitative in nature (emphasizing why or
how), often begin with the word Consider, and tend to identify quandaries,
controversies, challenges, and unanswered questions facing global managers in the

Managers notebook slides: Managers notebook slides (with beige backgrounds)

summarize on-the-ground lessons, as well as action recommendations for
managers, which follow from the conceptual and discussion materials presented in
the lecture. They aim to provide advicetake-aways, if you willto managers
working across national and regional boundaries.

Application slides: Application slides (with yellow backgrounds) are designed for inclass group exercises or small discussions aimed at applying what has been learned
towards the development of managerial problem-solving skills. They can also be
assigned on an individual basis either in preparation for classes or as post-class
assignments. Apps are designed to be self-contained within the PPT slides; they
require no handouts or background materials.

Think-about-it slides: Think about it slides (with blue backgrounds) allow

participants to leave class with their own internal homework assignments; that is,
they ask participants to consider how the materials under study apply to them directly
or personally as current or prospective global managers, thereby internalizing what
has been learned. These slides are intended for participant reflection, not classroom
discussion. As with the Apps, these slides are designed to be self-contained within
the PPT slides; they require no handouts or background materials.


Opening example: Excellent companies. This example focuses on how so-called
excellent companies can falter when they ignore global challenges and
opportunities. Also at issue here is how to define an excellent company in todays
global economy?

Principal topics (from instructional slides): The new global realities; globalization
pressures; challenges facing global managers.
In-text examples (from discussion slides): Characteristics of successful (and
unsuccessful) global firms.
Application (group exercise): Learning objectives. This exercise asks group members to
collectively consider their learning objectives for the course. The aim here is to secure
student involvement and investment in course from the outset.
Think about it (individual exercise): Becoming a global manager. This exercise asks
individual students to consider what skills they currently have to succeed as a global
manager, as well as what skills need to be developed?
Opening example: Management development at Google (USA). What is unique about
Googles approach to global management development? More generally, how should
global managers be developed?
Principal topics (from instructional slides): Traditional views of management; types of
global managers; rethinking managerial roles; rethinking managerial skills;
presentation of a learning strategy for global mangers.
In-text examples (from discussion slides): Changing managerial roles and
responsibilities; different types of global managers (e.g., expatriates, frequent flyers).
Managers notebook (principal lessons): Most peopleeven most managersfail to
recognize how difficult it can be to manage people from other cultures; while people
may agree on a definition of management, its implementation can be very different in
different regions of the world; there are several types of global managers and each
has its own unique challenges and job requirements; successful global managers are
always learning; use experiential learning cycle to understand how managers learn;
use learning strategy to help develop management skills suitable for the global arena;
in working across cultures, work to know what you dont know.
Application (group exercise): Building a skills development program. Identify three key
multicultural skills and then develop the outline of a training program aimed at
developing these skills.
Think about it (individual exercise): Developing your global management skills. For what
type of global managers job are you best suited, and how will you personally develop
the necessary skills to succeed there?
Opening example: Anna Hkansson (Sweden). How should a manager learn about a
culture he or she knows little about?
Principal topics (from instructional slides): Culture, socialization, and normative behavior;
comparing cultures; regional trends in cultural differences; understanding cultural
complexities; avoiding cultural stereotypes.
In-text examples (from discussion slides): Cultural differences between Sweden and
Bahrain; Islamic business practices.
Managers notebook (principal lessons): Comparisons between cultures require more
than just identifying several core dimensions; recognize individual differences within
single cultures; small differences between two cultures can be just as problematic as
large ones; work to see cultures in neutral terms; understand various ways to avoid
cultural stereotypes; learn these useful managerial skills for dealing with the

Application (group exercise): Multicultural teams. How can a manager organize and run
a team meeting aimed at exploring cultural differences among team members?
Think about it (individual exercise): Your views on cultural differences. Do you personally
have any cultural stereotypes, and what steps might you take to overcome them?
ACTION (34 slides)
Opening example: Executive leadership at Kia (South Korea). Compare different culturebased leadership styles and their relative effectiveness.
Principal topics (from instructional slides): Patterns of managerial thinking; geography of
thought; culture and the managerial role; variations in management patterns across
cultures; are management patterns converging?
In-text examples (from discussion slides): Management patterns in France, Malaysia,
and Nigeria.
Managers notebook (principal lessons): Culture can influence patterns of managerial
thinking; different managerial reasoning patterns can lead to different behaviors;
continually being on the lookout for different patterns of managerial and employee
behavior; seek understanding instead of judgment or control; be prepared to
accommodate differences where possible without jeopardizing operational goals or
organizational integrity; managers should remain flexible as they remain focused on
their goals and responsibilities.
Application (group exercise): Are management styles converging? Will management
styles begin to converge over time in response to globalization pressures or will
culture remain a dominant force in limiting such convergence?
Think about it (individual exercise): How do you solve problems? What is your approach
to problem solving, and is it culture-based in any way? How do you deal with people
who approach problems differently than yourself?
Opening example: Strategy and structure at Wipro and Intel (India, USA). How do two
highly successful technology companies differ in their approaches to strategy,
structure, and people management?
Principal topics (from instructional slides): Stakeholders and strategic choice; the
strategy-structure nexus; organizational decision-making; decision strategies across
In-text examples (from discussion slides): Institutional environments in Japan and the
US; comparison of decision-making and employee involvement in China, Germany,
Japan, and the US.
Managers notebook (principal lessons): Focus on relationships, not individual issues;
always consider cultural explanations when confronted with unanticipated behaviors;
culture can influence TQM implementation strategies; organizational decision-making
is often influence by a societys normative beliefs about power distribution and social
inclusion; there is no correct decision making strategy, only strategies that are (or
are not) congruent with prevailing norms; consider tailoring decision making practices
to local conditions to the extent practicable.
Application (group exercise): Employee involvement. Is employee involvement an
employee right or a management prerogative, and who, how, and when should
decisions be made concerning its use?

Think about it (individual exercise): What is your decision-making style? What is your
basic decision-making style, and how flexible are you in its implementation?
Opening example: East Hope Group (China). Examine an example of a Chinese family
firm and how culture and family structure influence its organization and management.
Principal topics (from instructional slides): Culture and organization design; U.S.
corporations (with comparisons to British and Canadian organizations); Japanese
kaisha and keiretsu; Chinese gong-si; German konzern; Mexican grupo; comparative
In-text examples (from discussion slides): Comparison of organization design trends in
China, Japan, Germany, Mexico, and the US.
Managers notebook (principal lessons): Organization designs are often highly correlated
with culture; organization designs evolve over time in response to changing
environments and circumstances; attempts to identify the prevailing organization
design of a particular culture requires a recognition that there are typically wide
variations around the norm; key success factors for working with organizations from
other countries and cultures include a knowledge of ones own culture, the cultures of
others, and the managerial skills to bridge the two.
Application (group exercise): Employee involvement. Is employee involvement an
employee right or a management prerogative, and who, how, and when should
decisions be made concerning its use?
Think about it (individual exercise): Working for a foreign company. What are your
preferences for working for a foreign firm? What challenges might you face and what
would you do to overcome these challenges?
Opening example: Three brief examples of communication gaffes involving reading
signs, unintentional but offensive gestures, and language-in-use.
Principal topics (from instructional slides): Perception and communication; model of
cross-cultural communication; language, logic, and communication; message content
and context; communication protocols; strategies for improving cross-cultural
In-text examples (from discussion slides): Where is the fourth floor?; an 8:00
appointment; various short examples throughout slides.
Managers notebook (principal lessons): Summary look at communication process;
strategies for improving cross-cultural communication focusing on message clarity,
comprehension, and alertness for breakdowns in the process.
Application (group exercise): Communication protocols. Identify communication
protocols in your own culture and examine how these particular protocols might
cause friction when communicating across cultures.
Think about it (individual exercise): Communicating across cultures. Reflect on your own
experiences speaking with someone from a different cultures; how could this process
have run more smoothly?

Opening example: Carlos Ghosn at Nissan (Japan). Examines how Ghosn transformed
Nissan in a global company. Did he succeed because he was a foreigner or in spite of
Principal topics (from instructional slides): Leadership, east and west; GLOBE leadership
study; culture and leadership; global teams; working with global teams.
In-text examples (from discussion slides): Richard Branson (UK); Konosuke Matushita
(Japan); Howard Stringer (UK).
Managers notebook (principal lessons): Relationship between leadership and logic;
leadership and individual differences; what is acceptable leadership; using
substitutes for leadership; leading global teams; leading virtual global teams.
Application (group exercise): Two leaders. Identify two leaders form difference cultures
and examine how they differand how they would do if they exchanged places. Are
there any universal leadership traits?
Think about it (individual exercise): Your leadership skills. How would you approach
leading a multicultural team?
Opening example: Performance incentives at Lincoln Electric (US, Germany, Mexico,
China). Examines how a highly successful American incentive system fares when the
company takes it global.
Principal topics (from instructional slides): World of work; work and leisure; culture, work,
and motivation; culture and the psychology of work; incentives and rewards across
In-text examples (from discussion slides): Why do people work?; Korean managers in
Mexican maquiladoras; vacation policies, CEO compensation, gender-based pay
discrepancies, and job satisfaction averages in select countries around the world.
Managers notebook (principal lessons): Motivating a global workforce; power
distribution and incentives; social relationships and incentives; environmental
relationships and incentives; time, work patterns, and incentives; uncertainty, social
control, and incentives;
Application (group exercise): Lincoln Electric, one more time. How could Lincoln
managers have been smarter about developing incentive systems in difference
Think about it (individual exercise): Personalizing work motivation. What motivates you,
and how will you seek to achieve your work goals?
Opening example: General Electric and Mitsubishi (US, Japan). Examines how even the
best preparation for an international negotiation can go wrong.
Principal topics (from instructional slides): Seeking common cause; culture and
negotiation; basic negotiation processes; negotiation process across cultures;
building global partnerships; managing global partnerships; trust in global
In-text examples (from discussion slides): Successful strategic alliances at Hyundai and
Samsung (South Korea); failed alliances at Secoinsa (Spain) and Pharmacia
(Sweden); negotiating in Brazil and Japan.
Managers notebook (principal lessons): Can people be trusted?; building mutual trust;
aligning corporate cultures; conflict resolution strategies; dealing with conflicts.

Application (group exercise): Jeff Depew. If you could start again, how could the GEMitsubishi negotiation have been done better?
Think about it (individual exercise): Negotiating skills. What are your strengths and
weaknesses as a negotiation, and what specific skills do you need to improve?
Opening example: Halliburton in Nigeria (US, Nigeria). What are the challenges facing
an international firm when confronted with conflicting ethical standards?
Principal topics (from instructional slides): Rules of the game; bases of cross-cultural
conflict; universal vs. particularistic beliefs and values; what is truth?; ethics, laws,
and social control; ethical conflicts and challenges; institutional conflicts and
challenges; OECD guidelines for ethical managerial behavior.
In-text examples (from discussion slides): Chinas consumer market; Samsung
Electronics; Tata Motors.
Managers notebook (principal lessons): Managing within ethical and moral constraints;
managing within legal and institutional constraints.
Application (group exercise): Ethical behavior at work. Identify an ethical or moral issue
in the workplace that you object to. What is the basis for your objection? How do you
know your position is the correct one? Can you work in an environment where you
disagree with the prevailing ethical practices?
Think about it (individual exercise): Shopping money. What is a bribe? What would you
Principal topics (from instructional slides): Learning from the past; looking to the future.
In-text examples (from discussion slides): Christopher Columbus; Mahatma Gandhi;
Chung Ju Yung
Managers notebook (principal lessons): Pursue your passion, but adjust your strategies
en route; you must be the change you want to see in others; remember who benefits
and who loses from the pursuit of short-term success; be prepared for future
opportunities, but also be on the look-out.
Think about it (individual exercise): All managers are global managers, and all managers
face a multicultural and multinational future. The question is how best to prepare.


Instructional approaches to a course on global management vary widely in level,
content, approach, and duration. Included here are lecture courses, seminars, case
courses, and executive management programs. This book is aimed at providing an
instructional platform that can accommodate these various approaches.
For instructors preferring a decidedly case-oriented course, our experience has been
that such teachers often have strong preferences concerning what typeand even
whichcases to use. In view of this, we made a conscious decision not to include indepth cases in the book. (We did, however, incorporate short case examples throughout
the booksee discussion slides above). In view of this, we have left the decision
concerning which cases to use up to instructors.

In this endeavor, a number of case clearing houses are available. Most of these
organizations provide instructors with indexed abstracts of available cases from which to
choose, based on the topics, industries, and management philosophies instructors wish
to focus on in the classroom.
Recommended sources for cases on global management include:

Asian Business Case Center:

China Europe International Business School (CEIBS):

European Case Clearing House (ECCH):

Harvard Business Publishing:

IESE Publishing:


Ivey Publishing:

Stanford Graduate School of Business:

Thunderbird School of Global Business:


Throughout the process of researching and writing this book, we as authors were
fortunate in having an opportunity to create our own global team, consisting of
management researchers from Brazil, Spain, and the United States. This combination
opened up numerous opportunities for taking multiple, and not necessarily congruent,
perspectives on various topics. The lessons were many.
Richard M. Steers ( is a professor of organization and
management in the Lundquist College of Business and former vice provost for
international affairs at the University of Oregon, USA. He is a past-president and fellow
of the Academy of Management, as well as a fellow of both the American Psychological
Society and the Society of Industrial and Organizational Psychology. His principal
research interests include work motivation and cross-cultural influences on
management. He has served on various editorial boards, including Administrative
Science Quarterly, Academy of Management Journal, Academy of Management Review,
Asia-Pacific Journal of Management, Asia-Pacific Journal of Human Resources, Journal
of International Management, and the Journal of World Business. His most recent books
include Motivation and Work Behavior (Irwin/McGraw-Hill, 2003), Managing in the
Global Economy (Sharpe, 2006), and The Global Mindset (Elsevier, 2008). He is also
co-editor of the Cambridge Handbook of Culture, Organizations, and Work (Cambridge

University Press, 2009). Professor Steers has served as a visiting professor and lecturer
in Denmark, England, Germany, Japan, Korea, Netherlands, Norway, and South Africa.
Carlos J. Sanchez-Runde ( is a profesor of people
management at IESE Business School in Barcelona, Spain. He graduated in law from
the University of Barcelona, got an MBA from IESE Business School, and earned a
Ph.D. in Management from the University of Oregon. His research focuses on crosscultural and international management, and strategic human resource management. He
writes in English and Spanish, and is the author or co-author of three books and the coeditor of two other books, and has published more than twenty pieces in book chapters,
journal articles, and specialized press. Some of his latest work include the co-editiorship
of Multinationals, Institutions, and the Construction of Transnational Practices
(Hampshire, UK: Palgrave, 2006) and Innovative Forms of Organizing: International
Perspectives (London: Sage, 2003). He has presented his research in numerous
conferences worldwide and is currently writing on the following topics: managing across
cultures, comparative decision making in China and the West, and the functioning of
human resource management departments. As a teacher, he has developed about
twenty business cases and technical notes which are used regularly in his courses on
cross-cultural management, human resource management, and organizational behavior.
Professor Sanchez-Runde has held visiting appointments, both for research and
teaching purposes, at the following institutions: Austral University in Argentina; University
of Montevideo in Uruguay, Pan American University in Mexico, University of Piura in
Peru, Catholic University of Santiago in Chile and the University of Oregon. He has also
conducted consulting and research activities for organizations like Accenture, AGBAR,
Bayer, Bertelsmann, Philips, and Seat-Volkswagen. During 2001-2007, he served in
IESE Business School as associate director and associate dean for faculty, and as a
member of the executive board of the school.
Luciara Nardon ( is an assistant professor of
management at the Sprott School of Business, Carleton University, Canada. She has
taught graduate and undergraduate courses focusing on international management in
Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Denmark, and the United States. She received her bachelors
degree in accounting from Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, and a
graduate degree in accounting from Fundao Getlio Vargas, Brazil. In addition, she
holds two masters degrees in business from the Universidad de Ciencias Empresariales
y Sociales, Argentina, and the Peter F. Drucker Graduate School of Management,
Claremont Graduate University, U.S.A. She holds a Ph.D. in international management
and strategy from the University of Oregon. Professor Nardons recent research has
been published in the Journal of World Business, Organizational Dynamics, and
Advances in International Management. She is also a co-author with Richard M. Steers
of two chapters in the Cambridge Handbook of Culture, Organizations, and Work
(Cambridge University Press, 2009) and the book Managing in the Global Economy
(Sharpe, 2006). Prior to her academic career, Professor Nardon worked as a director of
control systems and strategic planning for companies in Brazil, Portugal, and the United