Calculate the flows in pipes and find out types of flow in the pipe.

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Calculate the flows in pipes and find out types of flow in the pipe.

© All Rights Reserved

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IN PIPES

Dr. Azmahani Sadikin

Room : C16-101-09

Off no : 07- 4537750

azmah@uthm.edu.my

WHY PIPES?

Have many application in engineering system

E.g : not only in water supply system also in human

body (blood vessel system), oil & gas industry, steam

power plant, air-conditioning system, hydraulic system,

in car etc

Pipes (circular x-section) = ducts (non-circular),

conduits, tubes (small circular pipes)

Q : Why study this topic?

To understand the flow characteristics in pipes viscous

flow - friction - directly related to pressure drop and

head loss in pipes - the pressure drop is then used to

determine the pumping power requirement.

Assumptions:

The pipe is completely filled with fluid (if the pipe is not

full, it is called open channel and not possible to maintain

pressure difference).

Viscous fluid.

turbulent.

This laminar or turbulent flow can be characterized by

using Reynolds number.

The laminar flow is characterized by smooth streamlines

and occur at low velocities or at Re < 2100.

fluctuations and highly disordered motion (called eddies)

and occur at high velocities or at Re > 4000.

transitional flow

Reynolds Number, Re

that gives a measure of the ratio of inertia forces to

viscous forces.

1851, but the Reynolds number is named after Osborne

Reynolds (18421912), who popularized its use in 1883.

regimes whether it is laminar or turbulent flow.

The transition from laminar to turbulent flow depends on the

temperature, and type of fluid, among other things.

Reynolds Experiment

Region

The region near where the flow enters the pipe is called

the entrance region.

Here, the fluid typically enters the pipe with a nearly

uniform velocity profile at section (1).

stick to the pipe wall (the no-slip condition).

This is true whether the fluid is relatively inviscid air or a very

viscous oil.

Thus, a boundary layer in which viscous effects are

important is produced along the pipe wall such that the initial

velocity profile changes with distance along the pipe, x,

until the fluid reaches the end of the entrance length,

section (2), beyond which the velocity profile does not vary

with x.

The boundary layer has grown in thickness to completely fill the

pipe.

The shape of the velocity profile in the pipe depends on whether

the flow is laminar or turbulent, as does the length of the

entrance region,

. Typical entrance lengths are given by,

Once the fluid reaches the end of the entrance region, section

(2), the flow is simpler to describe because the velocity is

a function of only the distance from the pipe centerline, r,

and independent of x.

This is true until the character of the pipe changes in some

way, such as a change in diameter, or the fluid flows

through a bend, valve, or some other component at

section (3). The flow between (2) and (3) is termed fully

developed.

Beyond the interruption of the fully developed flow [at section

(4)], the flow gradually begins its return to its fully

developed character [section (5)] and continues with this

profile until the next pipe system component is reached

[section (6)].

Water flows through a 15 m pipe with 1.3 cm diameter

at 20 l/min. What fraction of this pipe can be

considered at entrance region?

Fully developed steady flow in a constant diameter pipe may

be driven by gravity and/or pressure

As is indicated in the previous section, the flow in long,

straight, constant diameter sections of a pipe becomes

fully developed. That is, the velocity profile is the same at

any cross section of the pipe. Although this is true

whether the flow is laminar or turbulent, the details of the

velocity profile (and other flow properties) are quite

different for these two types of flow.

The knowledge of the velocity profile can lead directly to other

useful information such as pressure drop, flowrate, head

loss, etc.

3 methods could be used for this purpose :

1. By applying F = ma to a fluid element

2. From Navier-stokes equation

3. From dimensional analysis

By applying F=ma to a fluid element :

refer to derivation

Local velocity:

Average velocity :

Pressure drop :

Flowrate:

-> is called

Poiseuille law

for non-horizontal/inclined pipes, can

be easily included by replacing the

pressure drop, p, by the combined

effect of pressure and gravity, p-l sin

, where is the angle between the

pipe and the horizontal.

Exercise : From F=ma derive V and Q

for inclined pipe.

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

Find velocity ratio u/Umax

For laminar flow in a round pipe of radius, R, at what

distance from the centerline is the actual velocity

equal to the average velocity.

In fully developed laminar flow in a circular pipe, the

velocity at R/2 (midway between the wall surface and

the centerline) is measured to be 6 m/s. Determine

the velocity at the center of the pipe.

The velocity profile in fully developed laminar flow in a

circular pipe of inner radius R = 2 cm, in m/s, is given

by u(r) = 4(1- r2/R2). Determine the average and

maximum velocities in the pipe and the volume flow

rate.

Consider a long section of pipe that

is initially filled with a fluid at rest.

As the valve is opened to start the

flow, the flow velocity and, hence,

the Reynolds number increase from

zero (no flow) to their maximum

steady-state flow values. Assume

this transient process is slow

enough so that unsteady effects are

negligible.

For an initial time period the Reynolds number is small enough for

laminar flow to occur. At some time the Reynolds number reaches 2100,

and the flow begins its transition to turbulent conditions. Intermittent

spots or bursts of turbulence appear. As the Reynolds number is

increased the entire flow field becomes turbulent. The flow remains

turbulent as long as the Reynolds number exceeds approximately 4000.

Turbulent characteristic : random, chaotic, fluctuations and eddies.

Most flows encountered in engineering practice are turbulent.

However, turbulent flow is a complex mechanism and the theory of

turbulent flow remains largely undeveloped.

Therefore, we must rely on experiments and the empirical or semiempirical correlations developed for various situations.

The experimental studies show that the shear stress in turbulent flow

is much larger due to the turbulent fluctuations and the shear stress is

not merely proportional to the gradient of the time-average velocity.

consisting of two parts: the laminar component and the turbulent

component, or the total shear stress in turbulent flow can be

expressed as

where,

and

where is the eddy or turbulent viscosity

However, in practice it is not easy to use and this eddy viscosity changes

from one turbulent flow condition/point to another cannot be looked up

in handbooks. Several semiempirical theories have been proposed to

determine approximate values of . For example, the turbulent process

could be viewed as the random transport of bundles of fluid particles

over a certain distance, the mixing length,

from a region of one

velocity to another region of a different velocity. By the use of some ad

hoc assumptions and physical reasoning, it was concluded that the eddy

viscosity was given by,

Viscous Sublayer

shear are important (although

turbulent shear is expected to be

significantly larger)

Random, fluctuating/eddying of

the flow is essentially absent

randomness to the flow

is an important parameter

is not important

is not important

is important

- much flatter than laminar profile.

- can be broken into three regions

i. the viscous sublayer

ii. the overlap region

iii. the outer turbulent layer

Unlike laminar flow, the expressions for the

velocity profile in a turbulent flow has been

obtained through the use of dimensional

analysis, experimentation, and

semiempirical theoretical efforts.

An often-used correlation is the empirical power-

and

typical value of n is between 6 to 10.

the wall (refer figure).

So, in the viscous sublayer the velocity profile

can be written in dimensionless form

and

For the overlap region, the following expression has been proposed :

(i)

(ii)

Friction factor f for turbulent can be obtain through

1. Colebrook equation (explicitly): **

Exercise

Loss in Pipes

Water at 5 ( = 1000 kg/m3 and = 1.519 x 10-3

kg/m.s) is flowing steadily through a 0.3 cm diameter

9 m long horizontal pipe at an average velocity of 0.9

m/s. Determine :

a) the head loss

b) the pressure drop

c) the pumping power requirement to overcome the

pressure drop.

LOSSES IN PIPES

A quantity of interest in the analysis of pipe flow is the pressure

drop, P since it is directly related to the power requirements of

the pump to maintain flow.

Therefore, the analysis of losses in pipes is very useful in

estimating the pressure drop occurs.

Besides the pipe size and material also the velocity in pipe, the

pipe components such as pipe fittings, valves, diffusers etc also

affect the flow patterns/conditions and this also contributed to

the losses.

When a head loss is considered, the steady-flow energy

equation is expressed as

In practice, it is found convenient to express the pressure loss for

all types of fully developed internal flows (laminar or turbulent flows

etc).

The pressure loss and head loss for all types of internal flows

(laminar or turbulent, in circular or noncircular pipes, smooth

or rough surfaces) are expressed as

Where for

chart.

TYPE OF LOSSES

There are 2 type of losses major losses and minor losses.

given by,

components.

When all the loss coefficients are available, the total head loss in a

piping system is determined from

head loss reduces to

MAJOR LOSSES

It depends on Reynolds no, surface roughness, length

and diameter of pipe, and also the velocity in pipe.

Friction factor, f is depends on Reynolds no and surface

roughness.

It can be obtained from the eqns. such as the Karman &

Prandtl and Colebrook & White. But it is more easier from

Moody Chart.

Surface Roughness,

and how it been manufactured.

Different pipe material gives different value of surface

roughness.

Rough pipe wall surface gives high value of surface

roughness and it will contribute larger losses.

While smooth pipe (i.e have lower surface roughness or

= 0) contribute lower losses.

problems.

If Re<2100 (laminar flow)

for laminar,

f = 64/Re

3. Calculate the losses head due to

friction hf.

and then relative roughness /D.

3. Obtain the value of friction factor

f from Moody chart (base on Re

dan /D obtained before)

4. Calculate the losses head due to

friction hf.

no. and not by the value of

relative roughness because the

pipe surface is smooth (i.e

0)

Moody Chart

MINOR LOSSES

It is depends on the velocity in pipe and the geometry of

pipe components and this can be describe by the value of

loss coefficient KL.

Different shape and geometry of pipe component gives

different value of KL.

Sometimes minor losses can be a major losses for

example in short pipes where there are a suction pipe of a

pump with strainer and foot valves.

expansion (by using the equation obtained from

simple energy analysis)

KL for 90 bend

equation is expressed as

In the design and analysis of piping systems that involve

the use of the Moody chart (or the Colebrook

equation), we usually encounter three types of

problems :

1. Determining the pressure drop (or head loss) when the

pipe length and diameter are given for a specified flow

rate (or velocity).

2. Determining the flow rate when the pipe length and

diameter are given for a specified pressure drop (or

head loss).

3. Determining the pipe diameter when the pipe length

and flow rate are given for a specified pressure drop (or

head loss).

Example 1 :

building through the copper pipe with diameter of 1.9 cm at flow

rate 0.000756 m3/s and flows out from the faucet with diameter

of 1.27 cm (point 2) as shown in Figure. With the viscosity of

water, = 1.12 x 10-3 Ns/m2, calculate the head losses of the

pipe system.

Session 2011/2012

b)

kg/m3 and = 1.002 x 10-3 Ns/m2) from one reservoir to another

at 6 m higher. The piping system consists of 15 m of galvanizediron 5-cm diameter pipe ( = 0.15 mm), a reentrant entrance (KL

= 1.0), two screwed 90 long-radius elbows (KL = 0.41 each),

and a screwed-open gate valve (KL = 0.16). What is the input

power required in with a 6 well-designed conical expansion (KL =

0.3) added to the exit? The flow rate is 0.02 m3/s.

(15 marks)

Noncircular Conduits

Most of the pipes used for engineering purposes are circular.

However some of them are not circular in their cross section.

For noncircular pipes, the diameter in the previous relations can be

replaced by the hydraulic radius which defined as RH = A/P,

where A is the cross-sectional area of the pipe (m2) and P is its

Replace hydraulic radius in Re, relative roughness and head loss given

Reynolds no

Relative roughness :

Head loss

Air with density, = 1.221 kg/m3 and = 1.46 x 10-5 m2/s

is forced through a 30.48 m long horizontal square

duct of 0.23 x 0.23 m at 0.708 m3/s. Find the pressure

drop if =0.0000914 m.

EXERCISES

and Inclined Pipes

Consider the fully developed flow of glycerin at 40C

through a 70 m long, 4 cm diameter, horizontal,

circular pipe. If the flow velocity at the centerline is

measured to be 6 m/s, determine the velocity profile

and the pressure difference across this 70 m long

section of the pipe, and the useful pumping power

required to maintain this flow. For the same useful

pumping power input, determine the percent increase

of the flow rate if the pipe is inclined 15 downward

and the percent decrease if it is inclined 15 upward.

The pump is located outside of this pipe section.

QUESTION 1

(a) Using appropriate sketches, discuss the differences of velocity

profiles between laminar and turbulent flow in pipe. Provide

explainations of these patterns.

(6 marks)

(b) For fully developed laminar pipe flow in a circular pipe, the velocity

profile is given by ,

where R is the inner radius of the pipe.

The 4 cm diameter pipe carries oil, with = 890 kg/m3 and =

0.07 kg/ms. The measured pressure drop per unit length is 72

kPa/m; determine:

i.

maximum velocity;

ii.

volume flowrate; and

iii.

shear stress at the point 1 cm from pipe wall.

(9 marks)

QUESTION 2

(a)

80 mm diameter and 1000 metre long (horizontal pipe) is carrying

water at the flowrate, Q = 0.008 m3/s. Calculate loss of head, hf

@ hL , if water flow in :

i.

a rough pipe, or

ii.

a smooth pipe (assumption)

(b)

flow is considered fully developed turbulent flow.

Assume , = 1000 kg/m3 and = 0.00015 kg/ms.

(15 marks)

a)

(i)

(ii)

(iii)

b)

velocity and uniform velocity profile?

Using appropriate sketches show where each of them

occur.

Provide physical explanations on both phenomena above.

(10 marks)

kg/m3 and = 1.002 x 10-3 Ns/m2) from one reservoir to another

at 6 m higher. The piping system consists of 15 m of galvanizediron 5-cm diameter pipe ( = 0.15 mm), a reentrant entrance (KL

= 1.0), two screwed 90 long-radius elbows (KL = 0.41 each),

and a screwed-open gate valve (KL = 0.16). What is the input

power required in with a 6 well-designed conical expansion (KL =

0.3) added to the exit? The flow rate is 0.02 m3/s.

(15 marks)

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