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Dr. Azmahani Sadikin
Room : C16-101-09
Off no : 07- 4537750

Have many application in engineering system

(particularly in fluid and thermal system).

E.g : not only in water supply system also in human
body (blood vessel system), oil & gas industry, steam
power plant, air-conditioning system, hydraulic system,
in car etc
Pipes (circular x-section) = ducts (non-circular),
conduits, tubes (small circular pipes)
Q : Why study this topic?
To understand the flow characteristics in pipes viscous
flow - friction - directly related to pressure drop and
head loss in pipes - the pressure drop is then used to
determine the pumping power requirement.

General Characteristics of Pipe Flow


The pipe is completely filled with fluid (if the pipe is not
full, it is called open channel and not possible to maintain
pressure difference).

The conduit is round.

The fluid is incompressible.

Viscous fluid.

Classification of Fluid Flow in Pipes

The fluid flow in pipes can be classified as laminar or

This laminar or turbulent flow can be characterized by
using Reynolds number.
The laminar flow is characterized by smooth streamlines
and occur at low velocities or at Re < 2100.

While turbulent flow is characterized by velocity

fluctuations and highly disordered motion (called eddies)
and occur at high velocities or at Re > 4000.

The flow between 2100 < Re < 4000 is called

transitional flow

Reynolds Number, Re

The Reynolds number Re is a dimensionless number

that gives a measure of the ratio of inertia forces to
viscous forces.

The concept was introduced by George Gabriel Stokes in

1851, but the Reynolds number is named after Osborne
Reynolds (18421912), who popularized its use in 1883.

Reynolds number is used to characterize different flow

regimes whether it is laminar or turbulent flow.
The transition from laminar to turbulent flow depends on the

geometry, surface roughness, flow velocity, surface

temperature, and type of fluid, among other things.

Reynolds Experiment

Entrance Region and Fully Developed


The region near where the flow enters the pipe is called
the entrance region.
Here, the fluid typically enters the pipe with a nearly
uniform velocity profile at section (1).

As the fluid moves through the pipe, viscous effects cause it to

stick to the pipe wall (the no-slip condition).
This is true whether the fluid is relatively inviscid air or a very
viscous oil.
Thus, a boundary layer in which viscous effects are
important is produced along the pipe wall such that the initial
velocity profile changes with distance along the pipe, x,
until the fluid reaches the end of the entrance length,
section (2), beyond which the velocity profile does not vary
with x.
The boundary layer has grown in thickness to completely fill the
The shape of the velocity profile in the pipe depends on whether
the flow is laminar or turbulent, as does the length of the
entrance region,
. Typical entrance lengths are given by,

Once the fluid reaches the end of the entrance region, section
(2), the flow is simpler to describe because the velocity is
a function of only the distance from the pipe centerline, r,
and independent of x.
This is true until the character of the pipe changes in some
way, such as a change in diameter, or the fluid flows
through a bend, valve, or some other component at
section (3). The flow between (2) and (3) is termed fully
Beyond the interruption of the fully developed flow [at section
(4)], the flow gradually begins its return to its fully
developed character [section (5)] and continues with this
profile until the next pipe system component is reached
[section (6)].

Example : entrance length

Water flows through a 15 m pipe with 1.3 cm diameter
at 20 l/min. What fraction of this pipe can be
considered at entrance region?

Pressure and Shear Stress

Fully developed steady flow in a constant diameter pipe may
be driven by gravity and/or pressure

Fully Developed Laminar Flow

As is indicated in the previous section, the flow in long,
straight, constant diameter sections of a pipe becomes
fully developed. That is, the velocity profile is the same at
any cross section of the pipe. Although this is true
whether the flow is laminar or turbulent, the details of the
velocity profile (and other flow properties) are quite
different for these two types of flow.
The knowledge of the velocity profile can lead directly to other
useful information such as pressure drop, flowrate, head
loss, etc.
3 methods could be used for this purpose :
1. By applying F = ma to a fluid element
2. From Navier-stokes equation
3. From dimensional analysis

Fully Developed Laminar Flow

By applying F=ma to a fluid element :

refer to derivation

Shear stress distribution in Fully Developed Laminar Flow

Local velocity:

Velocity at centerline (Umax) :

Average velocity :

Pressure drop :


-> is called
Poiseuille law

For non-horizontal/inclined pipe :

The adjustment necessary to account

for non-horizontal/inclined pipes, can
be easily included by replacing the
pressure drop, p, by the combined
effect of pressure and gravity, p-l sin
, where is the angle between the
pipe and the horizontal.
Exercise : From F=ma derive V and Q
for inclined pipe.

Exercise : Laminar Flow





Using F=ma derive and proof that u = Vc [1 r2/R2]

Find velocity ratio u/Umax
For laminar flow in a round pipe of radius, R, at what
distance from the centerline is the actual velocity
equal to the average velocity.
In fully developed laminar flow in a circular pipe, the
velocity at R/2 (midway between the wall surface and
the centerline) is measured to be 6 m/s. Determine
the velocity at the center of the pipe.
The velocity profile in fully developed laminar flow in a
circular pipe of inner radius R = 2 cm, in m/s, is given
by u(r) = 4(1- r2/R2). Determine the average and
maximum velocities in the pipe and the volume flow

Example #1 : Laminar Flow

Example #2 : Laminar Flow

Transition form Laminar to Turbulent Flow

Consider a long section of pipe that
is initially filled with a fluid at rest.
As the valve is opened to start the
flow, the flow velocity and, hence,
the Reynolds number increase from
zero (no flow) to their maximum
steady-state flow values. Assume
this transient process is slow
enough so that unsteady effects are
For an initial time period the Reynolds number is small enough for
laminar flow to occur. At some time the Reynolds number reaches 2100,
and the flow begins its transition to turbulent conditions. Intermittent
spots or bursts of turbulence appear. As the Reynolds number is
increased the entire flow field becomes turbulent. The flow remains
turbulent as long as the Reynolds number exceeds approximately 4000.

Fully Developed Turbulent Flow

Turbulent characteristic : random, chaotic, fluctuations and eddies.
Most flows encountered in engineering practice are turbulent.
However, turbulent flow is a complex mechanism and the theory of
turbulent flow remains largely undeveloped.
Therefore, we must rely on experiments and the empirical or semiempirical correlations developed for various situations.

Turbulent Shear Stress

The experimental studies show that the shear stress in turbulent flow
is much larger due to the turbulent fluctuations and the shear stress is
not merely proportional to the gradient of the time-average velocity.

Therefore, it is convenient to think of the turbulent shear stress as

consisting of two parts: the laminar component and the turbulent
component, or the total shear stress in turbulent flow can be
expressed as

where is the eddy or turbulent viscosity

However, in practice it is not easy to use and this eddy viscosity changes
from one turbulent flow condition/point to another cannot be looked up
in handbooks. Several semiempirical theories have been proposed to
determine approximate values of . For example, the turbulent process
could be viewed as the random transport of bundles of fluid particles
over a certain distance, the mixing length,
from a region of one
velocity to another region of a different velocity. By the use of some ad
hoc assumptions and physical reasoning, it was concluded that the eddy
viscosity was given by,

Thus, the turbulent shear stress is

Viscous Sublayer

Outer Turbulence Sublayer

Viscous shear stress is dominant

Both viscous and turbulence

shear are important (although
turbulent shear is expected to be
significantly larger)

Random, fluctuating/eddying of
the flow is essentially absent

Considerably mixing and

randomness to the flow

is an important parameter

is not important

is not important

is important

Turbulent Velocity Profile

- much flatter than laminar profile.
- can be broken into three regions
i. the viscous sublayer
ii. the overlap region
iii. the outer turbulent layer
Unlike laminar flow, the expressions for the
velocity profile in a turbulent flow has been
obtained through the use of dimensional
analysis, experimentation, and
semiempirical theoretical efforts.
An often-used correlation is the empirical power-

law velocity profile


The value of n can be obtain from graph below. However the

typical value of n is between 6 to 10.

However, this power law cannot be valid near

the wall (refer figure).
So, in the viscous sublayer the velocity profile
can be written in dimensionless form

For the overlap region, the following expression has been proposed :

..Formula from Cengel



Example #1 : Turbulent Flow

Darcy friction factor for turbulent flow

Friction factor f for turbulent can be obtain through
1. Colebrook equation (explicitly): **

2. Colebrook equation (implicitly):

3. Moody chart (also generated by Colebrook equation).

Example #2 : Turbulent Flow


Pressure Drop and Head Loss

Exercise : Pressure Drop and Head

Loss in Pipes
Water at 5 ( = 1000 kg/m3 and = 1.519 x 10-3
kg/m.s) is flowing steadily through a 0.3 cm diameter
9 m long horizontal pipe at an average velocity of 0.9
m/s. Determine :
a) the head loss
b) the pressure drop
c) the pumping power requirement to overcome the
pressure drop.


Always describe as pressure drop or head loss.

A quantity of interest in the analysis of pipe flow is the pressure
drop, P since it is directly related to the power requirements of
the pump to maintain flow.
Therefore, the analysis of losses in pipes is very useful in
estimating the pressure drop occurs.
Besides the pipe size and material also the velocity in pipe, the
pipe components such as pipe fittings, valves, diffusers etc also
affect the flow patterns/conditions and this also contributed to
the losses.
When a head loss is considered, the steady-flow energy
equation is expressed as

Pressure Drop and Head Loss

In practice, it is found convenient to express the pressure loss for
all types of fully developed internal flows (laminar or turbulent flows
The pressure loss and head loss for all types of internal flows
(laminar or turbulent, in circular or noncircular pipes, smooth
or rough surfaces) are expressed as

Where for

And f for turbulent can be obtain from Colebrook equation or Moody


There are 2 type of losses major losses and minor losses.

Major losses caused by fluid friction.

given by,

Minor losses - due to changes in the pipe cross section/ pipe


When all the loss coefficients are available, the total head loss in a
piping system is determined from

If the entire piping system has a constant diameter, the total

head loss reduces to


Major losses occur due to friction in pipe.

It depends on Reynolds no, surface roughness, length
and diameter of pipe, and also the velocity in pipe.
Friction factor, f is depends on Reynolds no and surface
It can be obtained from the eqns. such as the Karman &
Prandtl and Colebrook & White. But it is more easier from
Moody Chart.

Surface Roughness,

Surface roughness of pipe is depends on pipe material

and how it been manufactured.
Different pipe material gives different value of surface
Rough pipe wall surface gives high value of surface
roughness and it will contribute larger losses.
While smooth pipe (i.e have lower surface roughness or
= 0) contribute lower losses.

Surface roughness on rough and smooth wall

General steps in solving Major Losses


1. Determine Re where Re = VD/.

If Re<2100 (laminar flow)

If Re>4000 (turbulent flow)

2. Calculate friction factor f where f

for laminar,
f = 64/Re
3. Calculate the losses head due to
friction hf.

2. Determine surface roughness,

and then relative roughness /D.
3. Obtain the value of friction factor
f from Moody chart (base on Re
dan /D obtained before)
4. Calculate the losses head due to
friction hf.

Note : f value only influenced by Re.

no. and not by the value of
relative roughness because the
pipe surface is smooth (i.e

Moody Chart


Minor losses is due to changes in the pipe cross section.

It is depends on the velocity in pipe and the geometry of
pipe components and this can be describe by the value of
loss coefficient KL.
Different shape and geometry of pipe component gives
different value of KL.
Sometimes minor losses can be a major losses for
example in short pipes where there are a suction pipe of a
pump with strainer and foot valves.

KL for pipe entrance

KL for pipe entrance (graph)

KL for pipe exit

KL for sudden contraction

KL for sudden expansion

Other method to calculate KL for sudden

expansion (by using the equation obtained from
simple energy analysis)

KL for typical diffuser

KL for 90 bend

KL for pipe components


When a piping system involves a pump, the steady-flow energy

equation is expressed as

Common Types of Problems

In the design and analysis of piping systems that involve
the use of the Moody chart (or the Colebrook
equation), we usually encounter three types of
problems :
1. Determining the pressure drop (or head loss) when the
pipe length and diameter are given for a specified flow
rate (or velocity).
2. Determining the flow rate when the pipe length and
diameter are given for a specified pressure drop (or
head loss).
3. Determining the pipe diameter when the pipe length
and flow rate are given for a specified pressure drop (or
head loss).

Example 1 :

Water flows from basement (point 1) to the second floor of

building through the copper pipe with diameter of 1.9 cm at flow
rate 0.000756 m3/s and flows out from the faucet with diameter
of 1.27 cm (point 2) as shown in Figure. With the viscosity of
water, = 1.12 x 10-3 Ns/m2, calculate the head losses of the
pipe system.

Exercise : Final Exam Semester I

Session 2011/2012

A 80 percent efficient pump delivers water at 20C ( = 998.2

kg/m3 and = 1.002 x 10-3 Ns/m2) from one reservoir to another
at 6 m higher. The piping system consists of 15 m of galvanizediron 5-cm diameter pipe ( = 0.15 mm), a reentrant entrance (KL
= 1.0), two screwed 90 long-radius elbows (KL = 0.41 each),
and a screwed-open gate valve (KL = 0.16). What is the input
power required in with a 6 well-designed conical expansion (KL =
0.3) added to the exit? The flow rate is 0.02 m3/s.
(15 marks)

Noncircular Conduits
Most of the pipes used for engineering purposes are circular.
However some of them are not circular in their cross section.
For noncircular pipes, the diameter in the previous relations can be
replaced by the hydraulic radius which defined as RH = A/P,
where A is the cross-sectional area of the pipe (m2) and P is its

wetted perimeter (m).

For circular pipe,

Replace hydraulic radius in Re, relative roughness and head loss given
Reynolds no

Relative roughness :
Head loss

Example : Non-circular pipes

Air with density, = 1.221 kg/m3 and = 1.46 x 10-5 m2/s
is forced through a 30.48 m long horizontal square
duct of 0.23 x 0.23 m at 0.708 m3/s. Find the pressure
drop if =0.0000914 m.


Exercise : Laminar Flow in Horizontal

and Inclined Pipes
Consider the fully developed flow of glycerin at 40C
through a 70 m long, 4 cm diameter, horizontal,
circular pipe. If the flow velocity at the centerline is
measured to be 6 m/s, determine the velocity profile
and the pressure difference across this 70 m long
section of the pipe, and the useful pumping power
required to maintain this flow. For the same useful
pumping power input, determine the percent increase
of the flow rate if the pipe is inclined 15 downward
and the percent decrease if it is inclined 15 upward.
The pump is located outside of this pipe section.

Test 1 Semester I Session 2011/12

(a) Using appropriate sketches, discuss the differences of velocity
profiles between laminar and turbulent flow in pipe. Provide
explainations of these patterns.
(6 marks)
(b) For fully developed laminar pipe flow in a circular pipe, the velocity
profile is given by ,
where R is the inner radius of the pipe.
The 4 cm diameter pipe carries oil, with = 890 kg/m3 and =
0.07 kg/ms. The measured pressure drop per unit length is 72
kPa/m; determine:
maximum velocity;
volume flowrate; and
shear stress at the point 1 cm from pipe wall.
(9 marks)

Test 1 Semester I Session 2011/12


A commercial steel pipe (equivalent roughness, = 0.045 mm) of

80 mm diameter and 1000 metre long (horizontal pipe) is carrying
water at the flowrate, Q = 0.008 m3/s. Calculate loss of head, hf
@ hL , if water flow in :
a rough pipe, or
a smooth pipe (assumption)

Determine the maximum diameter of pipe and loss of head if the

flow is considered fully developed turbulent flow.
Assume , = 1000 kg/m3 and = 0.00015 kg/ms.
(15 marks)

Final Exam Semester I Session 2011/2012




In a pipe flow, what are the differences between uniform

velocity and uniform velocity profile?
Using appropriate sketches show where each of them
Provide physical explanations on both phenomena above.
(10 marks)

A 80 percent efficient pump delivers water at 20C ( = 998.2

kg/m3 and = 1.002 x 10-3 Ns/m2) from one reservoir to another
at 6 m higher. The piping system consists of 15 m of galvanizediron 5-cm diameter pipe ( = 0.15 mm), a reentrant entrance (KL
= 1.0), two screwed 90 long-radius elbows (KL = 0.41 each),
and a screwed-open gate valve (KL = 0.16). What is the input
power required in with a 6 well-designed conical expansion (KL =
0.3) added to the exit? The flow rate is 0.02 m3/s.
(15 marks)