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English A Lesson Plan


10
10 periods
September 9- 23, 201.
Paragraph Writing
Unity, Coherence, Completeness, Principles of Organization

General objective: Students will be able to write paragraphs which are unified, coherent and
complete.
Specific Objectives
At the end of these lessons students should be able to:
1. Define the term paragraph writing.
2. State the parts of the paragraph- topic sentence, supporting sentences, concluding sentence.
3. Discuss the functions of each part of the paragraph.
4. Analyze paragraphs for the following elements- unity, coherence, completeness
5. Use transition words between sentences.
6. Use the principles of organization when writing paragraphs.

Previous Knowledge
The students should have prior knowledge of sentence structure and function.
Methods
1. Class Discussions
2. Teacher Lead Explanations
3. Questioning
Introductory Activity
Chain Paragraph
Teacher will lead students in writing a chain paragraph. The teacher will write the name of an
individual, place or object, for example Usain Bolt. The teacher will then ask the students to give
information about the person, place, or object. After this, the teacher and students will discuss the
relevance and sequence of the information ( unity, coherence, completeness).

Content
What is a paragraph?
A paragraph is a collection of related sentences dealing with a single topic. Learning to write
good paragraphs will help you as a writer stay on track during your drafting and revision stages.
Good paragraphing also greatly assists your readers in following a piece of writing. You can have
Prepared by Mrs, Sheareaffer Reid-Wood
Subject-grade Coordinator for Grade Ten English Language

Elements of a Paragraph

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fantastic ideas, but if those ideas aren't presented in an organized fashion, you will lose your
readers (and fail to achieve your goals in writing).

To be as effective as possible, a paragraph should contain each of the following: Unity,


coherence, a topic sentence, and completeness. As you will see, all of these traits overlap. Using
and adapting them to your individual purposes will help you construct effective paragraphs.
Unity
The entire paragraph should concern itself with a single focus. If it begins with a one focus or
major point of discussion, it should not end with another or wander within different ideas.
Coherence
Coherence is the trait that makes the paragraph easily understandable to a reader. You can help
create coherence in your paragraphs by creating logical bridges and verbal bridges.
Logical bridges

The same idea of a topic is carried over


from sentence to sentence

Successive sentences can be constructed in


parallel form

Key words can be repeated in several


sentences

Synonymous words can be repeated in


several sentences

Pronouns can refer to nouns in previous


sentences

Transition words can be used to link ideas


from different sentences

Verbal bridges

Completeness
The topic (which is introduced by the topic sentence) should be discussed fully and adequately.
Again, this varies from paragraph to paragraph, depending on the author's purpose, but writers
Prepared by Mrs, Sheareaffer Reid-Wood
Subject-grade Coordinator for Grade Ten English Language

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should beware of paragraphs that only have two or three sentences. It's a pretty good bet that the
paragraph is not fully developed if it is that short.
Some methods to make sure your paragraph is well-developed:

Use examples and illustrations

Cite data (facts, statistics, evidence,


details, and others)

Examine testimony (what other people say


such as quotes and paraphrases)

Use an anecdote or story

Define terms in the paragraph

Compare and contrast

Evaluate causes and reasons

Examine effects and consequences

Analyze the topic

Describe the topic

Offer a chronology of an event (time


segments)

How do I know when to start a new paragraph?


You should start a new paragraph when:

When you begin a new idea or point.


New ideas should always start in new
paragraphs. If you have an extended idea
that spans multiple paragraphs, each new
point within that idea should have its own
paragraph.

To contrast information or ideas.


Separate paragraphs can serve to contrast
sides in a debate, different points in an
argument, or any other difference.

Prepared by Mrs, Sheareaffer Reid-Wood


Subject-grade Coordinator for Grade Ten English Language

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When your readers need a pause. Breaks


in paragraphs function as a short "break"
for your readersadding these in will help
your writing more readable. You would
create a break if the paragraph becomes
too long or the material is complex.
When you are ending your introduction
or starting your conclusion. Your
introductory and concluding material
should always be in a new paragraph.
Many introductions and conclusions have
multiple paragraphs depending on their
content, length, and the writer's purpose.

Parts of the Paragraph


All paragraphs have a topic sentence and supporting sentences, and some paragraphs also have
a concluding sentence.
A topic sentence is a sentence that indicates in a general way what idea or thesis the paragraph is
going to deal with. Although not all paragraphs have clear-cut topic sentences, and despite the
fact that topic sentences can occur anywhere in the paragraph (as the first sentence, the last
sentence, or somewhere in the middle), an easy way to make sure your reader understands the
topic of the paragraph is to put your topic sentence near the beginning of the paragraph. (This is
a good general rule for less experienced writers, although it is not the only way to do it).
Regardless of whether you include an explicit topic sentence or not, you should be able to easily
summarize what the paragraph is about. The topic sentence not only names the topic of the
paragraph, but it also limits the topic to one specific area that can be discussed completely in the
space of a single paragraph. The part of the topic sentence that announces the specific area to be
discussed is called the controlling idea. Notice how the topic sentence of the model states both
the topic and the controlling idea:
Gold, a precious metal, is prized for two important characteristics.
Supporting sentences develop the topic sentence. That is, they explain or prove the topic
sentence by giving more information about it. Following are some of the supporting sentences
that explain the topic sentence about gold.

Gold has a lustrous beauty that is resistant to corrosion.

Prepared by Mrs, Sheareaffer Reid-Wood


Subject-grade Coordinator for Grade Ten English Language

A Macedonian coin remains as untarnished today as the day it was made 25


centuries ago.

Another characteristic of gold is its usefulness to industry and science.

The most recent use of gold is in astronauts' suits.

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The concluding sentence signals the end of the paragraph and leaves the reader with important
points to remember:
In conclusion, gold is treasured not only for its beauty but also for its utility.
Concluding sentences are customary for stand-alone paragraphs. However, paragraphs that are
parts of a longer piece of writing usually do not need concluding sentences.

Principles of Organization
Chronological Order (order of Time)
In chronological order or time order, items, events, or even ideas are arranged in the order in
which they occur. This pattern is marked by such transitions as next, then, the following morning,
a few hours later, still later, that Wednesday, by noon, when she was seventeen, before the sun
rose, that April, and so on.
Chronological order can suit different rhetorical modes or patterns of exposition. It naturally fits
in narration, because when we tell a story, we usually follow the order in which events occur.
Chronological order applies to process in the same way, because when we describe or explain
how something happens or works, we usually follow the order in which the events occur. But
chronological order may also apply to example, description, or parts of any other pattern of
exposition.
Spatial Order
Another principle of organization is spatial order. In this pattern, items are arranged according
to their physical position or relationships. In describing a shelf or desk, I might describe items on
the left first, then move gradually toward the right. Describing a room, I might start with what I
see as I enter the door, then what I see as I step to the middle of the room, and finally the far side.
In explaining some political or social problem, I might discuss first the concerns of the East
Coast, then those of the Midwest, then those of the West Coast. Describing a person, I might start
at the feet and move up to the head, or just the other way around. This pattern might use such
transitions as just to the right, a little further on, to the south of Memphis, a few feet behind, in
New Mexico, turning left on the pathway, and so on. Spatial order is pretty common in
description, but can also apply to examples, to some comparisons, some classifications [the
Prepared by Mrs, Sheareaffer Reid-Wood
Subject-grade Coordinator for Grade Ten English Language

Climatic Order (Order of Importance)

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southern species of this bird . . . ; rhinos in Southeast Asia . . .], some narrations [meanwhile, out
on the prairie], and other forms of exposition as well.

A third common principle of organization is climatic order or order of importance. In this


pattern, items are arranged from least important to most important. Typical transitions would
include more important, most difficult, still harder, by far the most expensive, even more
damaging, worse yet, and so on. This is a flexible principle of organization, and may guide the
organization of all or part of example, comparison & contrast, cause & effect, and description.
Still other principles of organization based on emphasis include:
general-to-specific order,
specific-to general order,
most-familiar-to-least-familiar,
simplest-to-most-complex,
order of frequency,
order of familiarity, and so on.

Evaluation Exercises
1. Paragraph Structure
Find the topic sentence, supporting details, and conclusion in these paragraphs:
Circle the topic sentence. Number the supporting details. Underline the conclusion.
Winter is my favourite season because I like the clothes, the food and the activities. In the
winter, I can wear a big coat and my favourite sweater. When it's cold, I can eat hot foods and
soup. I like to drink hot chocolate, too. Best of all, I enjoy many winter activities. I can play in
the snow and make a snowman. I can go skiing, ice skating, or stay at home by the fireplace.
These things make winter my favourite season.
Prepared by Mrs, Sheareaffer Reid-Wood
Subject-grade Coordinator for Grade Ten English Language

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American food is fast, cheap, and tasty. Some countries have food that takes a long time
to make, but Americans like to eat fast food, for example: hot dogs, hamburgers, and sandwiches.
American food is not too expensive. Some people don't like American food, but I think it tastes
great. You can put ranch dressing on everything to make it taste delicious. If you are looking for
food that is fast, cheap, and tasty, you should try American food.
Do all the sentences in this paragraph stay focused on the topic?
I don't like tests. Every time I take a test, I feel nervous. When I study for a test, I don't
know if I will be able to get a good grade. Often I worry about taking a test and can't sleep.
Sometimes I daydream or draw pictures in class. After the test is over, I worry about my grade.
When my teacher gives the test back to me with a grade, I still can't relax because I know I will
have another test soon. Tests give me a lot of stress. That is why I don't like tests.
Write a topic sentence for this paragraph.
___________________________________________. You don't have to take a cat for a
walk every day like a dog. You do not have to wash cats because they know how to clean
themselves. If you want to go on vacation, you can leave some food and water for your cat and it
will be okay. A cat can sleep on your bed and keep you warm at night. I think these things make
cats good pets.
Write a concluding sentence for this paragraph.
Halloween is a traditional American holiday. Americans celebrate it every year on
October 31. Children dress in Halloween costumes and go trick-or-treating. Adults have parties
and decorate their homes. The stores sell a lot of candy and black and orange decorations. At
parties people eat cupcakes and drink apple cider. They also carve pumpkins to make jack-o-

Prepared by Mrs, Sheareaffer Reid-Wood


Subject-grade Coordinator for Grade Ten English Language

________________________________.

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lanterns._______________________________________________________________________

2. Write a paragraph about your favourite kind of sandwich. (10 points)


Using the illustration below, write a topic sentence in the top bun, at least 3 sentences of
supporting details on the lines in between and a conclusion sentence in the bottom bun.

Prepared by Mrs, Sheareaffer Reid-Wood


Subject-grade Coordinator for Grade Ten English Language

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3. Select one of the following topics and write an excellent paragraph on a
separate sheet of paper. (10 points)
Topics:
Describe your favourite thing to do after school.
Describe one of your relatives or your pet.
Describe a place you would like to visit.
Prepared by Mrs, Sheareaffer Reid-Wood
Subject-grade Coordinator for Grade Ten English Language

Student Reminders:

10

Describe your favourite music.

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Describe an occupation that interests you.

1. Make sure your paragraph has a topic sentence (top bun).


2. Make sure you provide at least 3 sentences that support your main idea (lettuce, cheese, meat,
etc.).
3. Make sure you have a closing sentence (bottom bun).
4. Check that all your sentences focus on the main idea.
Circle your topic sentence. Number your supporting details. Underline the conclusion.

Prepared by Mrs, Sheareaffer Reid-Wood


Subject-grade Coordinator for Grade Ten English Language