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hydraulic machines

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10/31/2012

Dr M-Moawed

REACTION TURBINE

Reaction turbines are those kind of

turbines which the degree of reaction

does not equal zero, and the major of

pressure drop takes place in the rotating

wheel (in impulse turbine, the pressure

drop takes place in the nozzle).

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Dr M-Moawed

machine.

In a reaction turbine, the runner is enclosed in a

casing and therefore, the water is always at a

pressure other than atmosphere

As the water flows over the curved blades, the

pressure head is transformed into velocity head.

Thus, water leaving the blade has a large relative

velocity but small absolute velocity. Therefore, most

of the initial energy of water is given to the runner.

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Dr M-Moawed

at atmospheric pressure.

The pressure difference between entrance

and exit points of the runner is known as

reaction pressure.

In the reaction rotor, the water, under a high

station head, has its pressure energy converted

into kinetic energy in a nozzle.

Therefore, part of the work done by the fluid

on the rotor is due to reaction from the pressure

drop, and part is due to a change in kinetic

energy

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casing through penstocks ( The reaction turbines divided into

Francis turbine and Kaplan turbine)

Fig. 1 shows a cross-section through a Francis turbine and Fig.2

shows an energy distribution through a hydraulic reaction turbine.

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Francis turbine

It is named after James B. Francis (1815 1892) an English

born inventor who developed the turbine in the year 1849.

It is used when the head is between 80 to 500 metres. i.e. it is a

medium head turbine.

It is a mixed flow reaction turbine.

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Dr M-Moawed

Francis turbine

A Francis turbine rotates in a

closed casing.

Its wheel has many curved blades

called runner vanes as many as 24.

Its shaft is vertical. The wheel of a

Francis turbine operates under

water.

The guide vanes and stay vanes

control the amount of water

flowing into the runner vanes.

The runner is rotated mainly due to

the weight or pressure of the

flowing water.

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Dr M-Moawed

Figure 2 Reaction

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turbine installation.

Francis turbine :

runner

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Runner dimensions

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To enable the turbine to be set above the water

level, as shown from the following figure, a kind

of diffuser is provided and connected between

the water exit and the tail race level. This is

called a draft tube.

A partial vacuum is produced at the upper end of

the draft tube, which compensates for the height

at which the turbine runner is set within certain

limits. The turbine rotor could be set at different

elevations without altering the available head.

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velocity from the turbine in such a way that the

kinetic energy rejected in tail race could be

reduced.

turbine installation

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(the turbine exit and the draft tube exit);

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Many different designs of the draft tube have been developed.

Naturally, the most efficient type will be I and III in the following

figure. Both are straight which reduce losses. Type II has a

bell-mouthed outlet and an internal conical core. In some

cases, the control cone is extended up to meet the runner so

as to form a solid core.

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Net Head:

By definition the net head is the difference in

elevation between headwater and tail

water levels minus the pipe friction losses

and the velocity head in the tail race at the

point of discharge from the draft tube (the

rejected kinetic energy).

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Cavitation in Turbines:

The cavitation phenomenon occurs when, at

any point, the water pressure drops below

its corresponding vapour pressure. This will

create bubbles and the fluid will rush into

the cavities left by the bubbles causing a

species of water hammer.

The resulting cavitation that occurs in the

turbine not only impairs the turbine

performance but it may also damage the

machine itself.

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i. Milky appearance of the water at the exit

of draft tube.

ii. Vibrations and noise.

It is convenient to define a dimensionless

pressure coefficient that denotes the

cavitation tendency of the flow. This

expression could be written as the

following form;

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of flow at any point. The velocity and

pressure of the flow are not easily

measured and cannot be computed.

Another parameter could be easily used

which is K , similar to , and is defined as;

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the top of the draft tube or preferably to the

highest point in the runner where cavitation

might occur and where H is the net head on

the turbine as defined before.

The above expression is also not practical

because of difficulties of measuring the

pressure and velocity at the top of the draft

tube.

Applying energy equation between the section

(2) and the tail race,

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water tail race level.

These losses include the kinetic energy rejected

to the water and the hydraulic losses.

However, the draft tube is considered an integral

part of the turbine, hence the term head loss is

omitted and the resulting parameter then covers

the combination of runner and its draft tube.

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cavitation factor;

the critical value of Thoma cavitation factor c . This

value could be determined by experiments. This can

be done by varying Z2 and noting the value of at

which the power and efficiency are started to

change,

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determine the maximum elevation above the tail

water surface at which a turbine can be set

without resultant cavitation as following;

under increased head, the turbine must be

lowered, i.e. the greater the total head the less

the suction head must be.

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Moody for rated specific speeds;

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type of turbine and is a function of the specific

speed. For Francis turbine, it is given by:

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speed and head

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opening

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speed: Dimensional specific speed

Type

Typical

head

Rad

Rev

Metric

British

>300

<0.2

<0.03

<30

<10

Francis

500-30

0.25-1.3

0.04-0.2

50-250

10-60

Kaplan

50-4

2-6

0.3-1

3601200

100-300

Pelton

39

40

turbines:

Sl.No.

Impulse turbine

Reaction turbine

energy of water is converted into

kinetic energy as it passes through a

nozzle.

the runner, only a part of the available

energy of water is converted into

kinetic energy and a greater part

remains in the form of pressure energy.

impinges on the buckets which are

fixed on the outer periphery of the

wheel.

blades to flow over the runner vanes.

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Sl.No.

Kaplan turbine

Water enters the runner vanes axially Water enters the runner vanes radially

and leaves axially, hence it is called and leaves axially, hence it is called a

axial flow turbine.

mixed flow turbine.

The number of blades in the runner The number of blades in the runner is

is generally between 3 and 8.

generally between 16 and 24.

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Francis turbine

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Example 1

In a vertical shaft inward flow reaction turbine, the sum of the

pressure and kinetic heads at entrance to the spiral casing

is 120 m and the vertical distance between this section and

the tail race level is 3 m. The peripheral velocity of the

runner at entry is 30 m/s, the radial velocity of the water is

constant at 9 m/s and the discharge from the runner is

without whirl. The estimated hydraulic losses are:

(1) between turbine entrance and exit from the guide

vanes 4.8 m.

(2) in the runner 8.8 m.

(3) in the draft tube 790 mm.

(4) kinetic head rejected to the tail race 460 mm.

Calculate the guide vane angle, the runner blade angle at inlet

and the pressure head at entry to the runner.

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Solution

Given:

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*****************************

Thank You

******************************

10/31/2012

Dr M-Moawed

48

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