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Define the general categories of transmission media

Define the guided and unguided transmission media
Define metallic transmission lines
Explain the difference between transverse and longitudinal
Define and describe transverse electromagnetic waves
Describe the following characteristics of electromagnetic
wave velocity

Transmission media can be generally categorized

as either unguided or guided

some form of conductor that provide conduit in which
signals are contained
the conductor directs the signal
Examples: copper wire, optical fiber

wireless systems without physical conductor
signals are radiated through air or vacuum
direction depends on which direction the signal is
Examples: air, free space

Cable transmission media

guided transmission medium and can be any physical
facility used to propagate EM signals between two
Example: metallic cables (open wire, twisted pair), optical
cables (plastic, glass core)

Transmission line
- Metallic conductor system used to transfer electrical
energy from one point to another using electrical current flow.
use to propagate dc or low- frequency ac

to propagate very high frequencies

A Wave can be defined as a DISTURBANCE (sound, light, radio waves) that

moves through a MEDIUM (air, water, vacuum).

WAVE MOTION can be defined as a recurring disturbance advancing through

space with or without the use of a physical medium. Wave motion, therefore, is a
means of moving or transferring energy from one point to another point.

- means "movement through a medium."

There are two basic kinds of waves:


Longitudinal Waves
the displacement (amplitude) is in the direction of propagation.

Surface wave of water

Sound Wave

Longitudinal Waves
Longitudinal waves are sometimes called COMPRESSION WAVES.

Transverse Waves
The direction of the displacement is perpendicular to the direction of
Radio waves, light waves, and heat waves

Incident and Reflected wave

Incident wave
Wave that propagates from sources toward the load
Reflected wave
Wave that propagates from the load toward the sources

The three primary characteristics of electromagnetic waves are:

Wave Velocity
Wave length

Wave Velocity.
Velocity of propagation is the rate at which the disturbance travels
through the medium, or the velocity with which the crest of the wave
moves along.
Sound waves travel approximately 1100 ft/sec in normal atmosphere
In free space (a vacuum), TEM waves travel at the speed of light c=
186,283 statue ]mile/sec or 299,793,000 m/s, rounded off to 186
miles/sec or 3x10^3 m/s

the rate at which the periodic wave repeats

the distance of one cycle occurring in space.

It is determined by:
Distance = velocity x time
If the time for one cycle is substituted to equation above, we get the length of one cycle
which is called the wavelength

= velocity x period
Where: = wavelength
v= velocity
T= period
For free space propagation v=c; therefore
= c/f = (3 x 10 ^8 m/sec)/(f cycle/sec)= m/cycle
= (1.18 x 10 ^9 in/sec)/(f cycle/sec)= in /cycle
= (9.83 x 10 ^8 ft/sec)/(f cycle/sec)= ft /cycle

Tomasi, Wayne. Electronic Communications System.

Phoenix, Arizona: DeVry University.