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# 00

## Define the general categories of transmission media

Define the guided and unguided transmission media
Define metallic transmission lines
Explain the difference between transverse and longitudinal
waves
Define and describe transverse electromagnetic waves
Describe the following characteristics of electromagnetic
waves:
wave velocity
frequency
wavelength

## Transmission media can be generally categorized

as either unguided or guided

Guided
some form of conductor that provide conduit in which
signals are contained
the conductor directs the signal
Examples: copper wire, optical fiber

Unguided
wireless systems without physical conductor
signals are radiated through air or vacuum
direction depends on which direction the signal is
emitted
Examples: air, free space

## Cable transmission media

guided transmission medium and can be any physical
facility used to propagate EM signals between two
locations
Example: metallic cables (open wire, twisted pair), optical
cables (plastic, glass core)

Transmission line
- Metallic conductor system used to transfer electrical
energy from one point to another using electrical current flow.
Uses
use to propagate dc or low- frequency ac

## A Wave can be defined as a DISTURBANCE (sound, light, radio waves) that

moves through a MEDIUM (air, water, vacuum).

## WAVE MOTION can be defined as a recurring disturbance advancing through

space with or without the use of a physical medium. Wave motion, therefore, is a
means of moving or transferring energy from one point to another point.

Propagation
- means "movement through a medium."

## There are two basic kinds of waves:

Longitudinal
Transverse

Longitudinal Waves
the displacement (amplitude) is in the direction of propagation.

Examples:
Surface wave of water

Sound Wave

Longitudinal Waves
Longitudinal waves are sometimes called COMPRESSION WAVES.

Transverse Waves
The direction of the displacement is perpendicular to the direction of
propagation.
Examples:
Radio waves, light waves, and heat waves

## Incident and Reflected wave

Incident wave
Wave that propagates from sources toward the load
Reflected wave
Wave that propagates from the load toward the sources

## The three primary characteristics of electromagnetic waves are:

Wave Velocity
Frequency
Wave length

Wave Velocity.
Velocity of propagation is the rate at which the disturbance travels
through the medium, or the velocity with which the crest of the wave
moves along.
Sound waves travel approximately 1100 ft/sec in normal atmosphere
In free space (a vacuum), TEM waves travel at the speed of light c=
186,283 statue ]mile/sec or 299,793,000 m/s, rounded off to 186
miles/sec or 3x10^3 m/s

Frequency
the rate at which the periodic wave repeats

Wavelength
the distance of one cycle occurring in space.

Wavelength
It is determined by:
Distance = velocity x time
If the time for one cycle is substituted to equation above, we get the length of one cycle
which is called the wavelength

= velocity x period
=vxT
Where: = wavelength
v= velocity
T= period