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A test is a major and most commonly instrument for the assessment of cognitive

behaviors. Usually test is based on learned content of subject specific areas and is
directed to measure the learners level of attainment of pre-specified objectives. To
measure an attribute a standard instrument is needed. Therefore unlike physical
attributes, measurements are done by describing the characteristics associated with
such constructs in behavioral terms.
The expected behaviors such as ability to state, define, manipulate or perform
experiment for instance in integrated science and similar activities are put down in
form of test. The test score gives quantitative information about the existence of
the construct possessed by the testee. For this reason the test items as measuring
instrument must be valid, reliable and usable in order to give dependable result.
TYPES
1. Standardized test
2. Non standardized test
STANDARDIZED TEST
It is a test that is administered and scored in a consistent, or standard manner.
Standardized tests are designed in such a way that the questions, conditions for
administering, scoring procedures, and interpretations are consistent and are
administered and scored in pre determined, standard manner.
Assessment devices are instruments used to determine both how well a student has
learned covered materials, and or how well he will do in future endeavors.
Assessment can be accomplished through tests, home work, seatwork, etc.. most
formal assessments that are used to assign grades and/or for selection purposes or
predictions involve tests. A test is a systematic method for measuring students
behaviors and evaluating these behaviors and evaluating these behaviors against
standards and norms. Tests can be standardized or teacher made.
CHARACTERISTICS

Constructed by test experts or specialists


Covers broad or wide areas of objectives and content
Selection of items will be done very carefully and the validity, reliability,
usefulness of the rest is ascertained in a systematic way.
Procedure of administration is standardized.
Test has clear directions and it will be motivating the students
Scoring key is provided
Test manual provides norms for the test.
It should be fixed
It consist of standard content and procedure.
It should know how far the educational objectives have been achieved.

It has to measure the knowledge and overall personality development of the


individual learner.

RELIABILITY OF A TEST
It refers to stability of measurement over time. When a personss data entry skills
are measured on two occasions(with no special training in between), the two sets of
scores should be similar. Reliability is often measured with a reliability coefficient,
which is simply a correlation between sets of scores from people who have been
given the test on two occasions (X= first time score on the test, Y= second time
score on the test
MEATHODS OF MEASURING RELIABILITY
1.
2.
3.
4.

Test- retest
Split half method
Alternate form method
Kuder-Richardson method

TEST RETEST METHOD


The same test is given to the same people on two occasions. The scores are
correlated, and if the reliability coefficient is positive and high, the test is reliable.
SPLIT HALF METHOD
After being taken by a sample, the answers to the test are divided into two
halves( e.g; the odd numbered Vs even numbered items). Scores on each half are
correlated. If the test is reliable, the scores on the two halves should show a high
positive reliability coefficient(correlation)
ALTERNATE FORMS METHOD/ EQUIVALENT FORM
Two versions of test are constructed, and given to the same people on two
occasions. Scores on the two forms should show a high positive reliability
coefficient(correlation)
RELIABILITY
Test retest method

TYPES OF RELIABILITY
MEASURE
Measure of stability

Equivalent forms method

Measure of equivalence

PROCEDURE
Give the same test twice to
the same group with any
time interval between tests
Give two forms of the test
to the same group in close

Split- half method

Measure of internal
consistency

Kuder Richardson method

Measure of internal
consistency

Give test once. Score two


equivalent halves say odd
and even number items,
correct reliability
coefficient to fit whole test
by spearman brown
formula
Give test once. Score total
test and apply kuderRichardson formula.

VALIDITY OF A TEST
The test must be shown to measure what it is intended to measure. The internal
validity of a test is the extent to which it measures what it is supposed to measure.
The external validity of a test refers to how well it can be generalized to others in
the population for which it was developed.
TYPES OF VALIDITY
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Content validity
Predictive validity
Concurrent validity
Constructive validity
Face validity

CONTENT VALIDITY
All major aspects of the content area must be adequately covered by the test items
and in correct positions. A good judgment may ensure content validity.
PREDICTIVE VALIDITY
The extent to which a test can predict the future performance of the students. The
tests which are used for classification and selection purposes.
CONCURRENT VALIDITY
The relationship between scores on measuring tool and criteria available at the
same time in the present situation. To diagnose the existing status of the individual
rather than predicting about his future outcome.
CONSTRUCTIVE VALIDITY
It refers to the extent to which a test reflects and measure a hypothesized trait.
FACE VALIDITY
When one looks at the test he thinks of the extent to which the test seems logically
related to what is being tested. This explains the face validity.

USES OF STANDARDIZED TESTS


1. Selection and placement of students into various programmes
2. To diagnose specific strengths and weaknesses associated with learning,
performance in school, emotional problems etc
3. These tests are most commonly used in education, for evaluation purposes to
determine how students are progressing compared to others(in the school,
district, state, region and nationally)
4. To measure effectiveness of the instruction and curriculum of the school.